Future of Sustainable Garments and Denim Wash in Textiles

Sustainable Garment and Denim Washing in Textile Industry

Shahidul Islam
Dept. of Textile Engineering
BGMEA University of Fashion & Technology, Dhaka
Email: sulislam201@gmail.com


Sustainability is capable to maintain a certain process or stand indefinitely. Sustainability was expressed as meeting today’s requirements without compromise the ability of next future generations to meet their own needs. An “unsustainable situation” when natural capital occurs (i.e. the sum of natural resources) will be depleted faster than possible be supplemented. Sustainability requires that the law only use natural resources at the rate at which they will be replenished naturally. In terms of human consumption, sustainability science focuses on four interconnected and fundamental human resource needs for:

  • Energy (industry, transport, tools and appliances),
  • Water (agriculture, industry, domestic use),
  • Materials (production, construction and
  • Food (horticulture, agriculture and agribusiness).

Garments Washing or Garment Wash:
It’s seen that, with the change of your time, human choice and demands also changes. To satisfy the customer’s needs and wants, garments design and fashion also change very quickly. As a result, garment manufacturers are adopting new technology and processes to form the garments more fashionable. Garments washing or garment wash is one among that technology that manufacturers are applied at the current times to switch the outlook, appearance, comfort ability, and fashion of the clothes. Normally garments washing are done after stitching the clothes. Sorts of wash applied to garments are instructed by the customer.

Sustainable Garment and Denim Washing
Fig: Sustainable garment and denim washing

Objects of Garment Washing:

  1. To make the vintage effect and worn-out look
  2. To switch the outlook of garments.
  3. To introduce a singular appearance in the garments.
  4. To get rid of starch or sizing materials from the garments.
  5. To develop softness within the garments.
  6. To make a new fashion.
  7. To get rid of the dirty thing from the garments.
  8. To introduce the fading effect.
  9. To satisfy the customer.

Advantage of Garment Washing:
Various sorts of advantages of garment washing are given in the below:

  1. Softening feeling is often increased by using garment washing.
  2. Starch materials present in sewn garments are often removed by garment washing.
  3. Dirt and spots present within the garments can be removed by applying garment washing.
  4. No possibility of further shrinkage after applying garment washing.
  5. Wash garments are often worn after purchasing from the store.
  6. Different outlooks are often produced by applying garments washing.
  7. An identical outlook can be produced by applying different garments washing techniques.

Restrictions of Garment Washing:
Washing clothes has certain restrictions, e.g.

  1. Changing the size of clothes.
  2. The paint is partially removed.

Washing Clothes:
Washing could also be a new technology in the clothing industry. Normally, washing means cleaning something. But in the clothing industry, washing clothes is not just about cleaning clothes. Clothing washing can also be a technology that is used to change or modify the view, appearance, comfort and elegance of clothing. Washing clothes is applied to solid dyed clothes or solid fabric with print. Now I would like to discuss the different types and items of washing in textile industry.

Types of Garment Washing:
In the garment industry, there are mainly two types of garment washing process. These the processes are wet wash process and dry wash process. Here is also the process of wet washing divided into eight ways and thus the dry washing process is divided into five ways, according to the fabric quality and buyer requirements. But the most common and used washing in clothing is normal washing, which is also referred to as a detergent. Within the wet washing process, enzyme washing, stone washing and bleach washing is the hottest for the customer and manufacturer. On the other hand, Draslík pen magnetic spray and manual scrap are common for dry cleaning in the garment industry.

Types of Machines Used in Garment Washing:
Various types of machines used in clothes washers are mentioned here under:

  1. Sample pad,
  2. Side washing machine,
  3. Pre-filled pad,
  4. Hydro-extraction machine,
  5. Steam dryer,
  6. Gas dryer,
  7. Chemical Mixing Machine,
  8. Industrial fabric (gas),
  9. Industrial woven (electric),
  10. Boiler,
  11. Submersible pump,
  12. Grinder,
  13. Marking machine,
  14. Steam chamber for squeezing,
  15. Effluent treatment plant (E.T.P),
  16. Generator,
  17. Sand blasting gun,
  18. Sand blasting chamber,
  19. Spray gun,
  20. Spray dummy,
  21. Screw compressor,
  22. Laser drawing.

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All the above machines working in the garment washing machine are described in the following text:

1. Sample pad:
In a garment washing machine, the sample washer is an important device. All clothing samples are washed here. A pattern washer is a must for any outfit washing plant.

2. Side loading washing machine:
A side-loading washing machine is used for washing loose clothes.

3. Front loading washing machine:
A front loading washing machine is common in the latest clothes washing machines. It is used to wash bulky clothes. It is much more convenient than a side-loading machine.

4. Hydro-extractor machine:
This type of machine is used to extract excess water from clothes.

5. Steam dryer:
A steam dryer is quite a dryer that is operated using steam. If the shade of the clothes is needed during the blue tone, then a steam dryer is used.

6. Gas dryer:
In addition, a gas dryer is one type of dryer that is operated using gas. If the shade of the clothes be needed during a reddish tone, then a gas dryer is used.

7. Chemical mixing machine:
A chemical mixing machine is required to mix the chemical. It is vital equipment clothes washing equipment.

8. Industrial fabric (gas):
Industrial fabric is used for curing 3D garments. This kind of machine is operated with help gas.

9. Industrial woven (electric):
This type of woven machine is operated by electricity. This kind of machine is also used for curing 3D garments. To properly complete the 3D process, Industrial woven can be a must clothes washing equipment.

10. Boiler:
The boiler is a vital piece of equipment in clothes washing machines. The boiler is necessary for producing steam.

11. Submersible pump:
The submersible pump plays a key role in providing the necessary water in all wet processes clothes washing equipment. Water is essential for the operation of all clothes washing facilities.

12. Grinder:
A sander is used in the dry process of the clothes washer. It’s too importance in creating an abrasive effect on clothing.

13. Marking machine:
The marking machine is it is also used in the dry process in clothes washers. To create a brand effect in clothes, it is so important.

14. Steam chamber for squeezing:
This type of machine is needed for the pressing process in clothes washing machines.

15. Waste water treatment plant (E.T.P):
E.T.P plays a vital role in receiving the order from the buyer. E.T.P plan is required for 100% an export-oriented garment washing factory.

16. Generator:
To generate electricity, the generator is a vital device in clothes washing machines.

17. Sand blasting gun:
The sandblasting gun is used in the dry process in clothes washing machines. It is during sandblasting need.

18. Sand blasting chamber:
In addition, the blasting chamber is used in the dry process in clothes washing machines. It’s crying needed in the sandblasting process.

19. Spray gun:
The applicator is used in the dry process of the clothes washer. It is needed during P.P spray.

20. Spray Mannequin:
A spray dummy is needed in the dry process of the clothes washer. With P.P injection it is used.

21. Screw Compressor:
The screw compressor is a vital piece of equipment in clothes washing machines.

22. Laser Drawing:
Laser drawing is used in the dry process of washing clothes. It is needed for the production of a laser effect in clothes.

List of Chemicals Used in Garment Washing:

  1. Bleaching agent
  2. Wetting agent
  3. Silicone detergent
  4. Hygroscopic agent
  5. Fixative
  6. Plasticizer
  7. Defoamer
  8. Silicon
  9. Abrasion resistance improvers
  10. Sequestration agent
  11. Meta sulfite
  12. Load device
  13. Waterproofing agent
  14. Enzyme
  15. Acid enzyme
  16. Neutral enzyme
  17. Stiffener
  18. Bleaching agent
  19. Chlorine bleach
  20. Calcium hypochlorite
  21. Sodium hypochlorite
  22. Hydrogen peroxide
  23. Against stains
  24. Caustic substances
  25. Potash
  26. Soda
  27. Acetic acid
  28. Lacage
  29. Phosphoric acid
  30. Нуро
  31. An ant fungus remedy
  32. Biopolishing

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The functions of each chemical are described below:

1. Bleaching Agent: Chemicals which are used for greater bleaching of clothes are called bleaching agent. Basically, we use this laundry detergent for white clothes achieve greater whiteness as optical brightener, 4bk etc.

2. Wetting agent: An agent which is used to increase the wetting ability of garments is called wetting agent. We use this chemical in the washing bath to properly moisten the clothes that washing chemicals are easy to use and work properly. Example: lisapo

3. Detergent silicone: Detergents are chemicals that remove stains washing. There are many types of detergents such as acid detergents and clothes during alkaline detergent.

4. Hygroscopic agent: An agent which can easily absorb water from nature is called hygroscopic agent. When the environment is extremely difficult, we use these types of agents to prevent excess moisture from clothing. Example: salt, amylopectin, etc.

5. Fixing agent: The agent which is used to fix the dyes on the fabric is called fixing agent agent. It is in the case of dyeing clothes that we use this agent after the dyeing is finished.

6. Fabric softener: This type of chemical is used in washing clothes for softening garments that are widely used in the garment washing sector. Because the feel in the hand can be a great factor washing clothes. Different types of softening chemicals are used when washing clothes. Among them, cationic and nonionic plasticizers are usually used. Only in the case of colored clothes we use cationic fabric softener and we use non-ionic fabric softener for white laundry. Plasticizers work inside clothing cellulose.

7. Defoamer: An agent used in washing clothes to reduce sudsing clothing is called a defoamer. In case of excessive foam formation during dyeing or washing bath then we use this chemical.

8. Silicone: Used for finishing garments. Silicon provides excellent smoothness; nice durability and good hand feel on clothes. Silicon is one type of metal, but it has high lubricant properties.

9. Abrasion Resistance Enhancers: After using these types, the abrasion resistance will increase washing chemicals

10. Sequestering agent: Used in laundry to process calcium and magnesium ions that dissolve in water. These ions create obstacles in wet processing causing a pinhole effect

11. Meta bisulfite: It is a neutralizing agent used in laundry to oxidize clothes. After using potash and bleach on clothes, we used this to neutralize them. It helps to realize the reddish tone in clothes.

12. Weight increasing agent: A chemical that increases the load on a fabric is called weight giving agent. These types of agents attached to clothing that cannot be removed normally laundry or laundry.

13. Water Repellent: A chemical that is used when washing clothes for protection absorbing water is called a water absorbing agent. Example: PVC

14. Enzymes: Enzymes are used as cleaning agents such as detergents and fabric care products. Most enzymes break down dirt and stains

15. Acid Enzyme: Acid Enzyme works in an acidic environment, meaning when the water is acidic condition (PH range 5-5.5) and at a relatively low temperature (45-50°C). We must control this enzymatic activity by controlling the pH of the wash bath by adding acid or base. In clothes washing baths, we select an enzyme that supports the color of clothes. This enzyme is out there liquid form

16. Neutral Enzyme: A neutral enzyme works under neutral conditions, meaning when water at (pH 6.5-7) and at a relatively high temperature (55-60°C). We also have to check here enzymatic activity by controlling the pH of the washing bath by adding acid or base. These enzymes are available in powder form

17. Stiffening agent: This type of chemical is used in washing clothes for stiffness or hardness clothes. Example: resin, silicate and melamine

18. Bleach: Bleaching agent is used in washing clothes to reduce the color from clothes. it has various uses in other industries as well. Supported structure, whitener is 2 types, chlorine and non-chlorine beach.

19. Chlorine Bleach: Chlorine bleach contains chlorine in varying percentages. His activity depends on the percentage of chlorine. Chlorine bleach is also of two types i.e. hypochlorite and hypochlorite.

20. Calcium hypochlorite: Salt is a type of chlorine bleach. Basic the difference between hypochlorite and calcium hypochlorite is that sodium hypochlorite is liquid and calcium hypochlorite is a powder. It is a widely used washing chemical for water treatment. The chemical has greater availability and stability than hypochlorite.

21. Sodium hypochlorite: Its formula is NaOCI. It is formed by the reaction sodium oxide and chlorine gas.

22. Hydrogen peroxide: It is widely used in washing clothes. It is a good oxidizer and is used bleach and cleaning agent. It is sometimes used as a neutralizing agent. It is also high combustibility.

23. Anti-stain: Anti-stain helps protect against stains when washing clothes. Water as part of mass washing we have to use different chemicals and for the color effect of chemicals is washed out of the clothes. These colors can come back into clothing especially for pocket area. Anti back satin is used to protect these colors ajur young.

24. Caustic: It is a strongly alkaline substance, also a cleaning agent. We are in the laundry room you have to use it to remove paint and clean. After using this chemical value, the pH will be increase. It is also used as a clearing agent.

25. Potash: Potash can be a strong oxidizing agent. We mainly used this chemistry when washing clothes reduce the color from the seat and local area that was previously discarded. Its chemical name is potassium permanganate. Its color is reddish. We used this chemistry to wash clothes by mixing with water and forming a response. After preparing the solution, spray on clothes.

26. Soda: It is also an alkaline type substance used to remove paint. It is also taller. We he used this chemical for clearing, cleaning and degreasing. Both lye and soda are the same, but soda is used to achieve a reddish tone and lye is used for a blue tone

27. Acetic acid: It is one type of acid that has various uses in clothes washers. We used this chemical for pH regulation and cleaning purpose.

28. Lacage: It is one type of enzyme that is used in washing clothes to achieve a gray tinge color. it is in powder form. It is a special type of enzyme. When clothes show too much blue but needs a reddish or gray tone, at this point we used lakage enzyme.

29. Orthophosphoric acid: It is one kind of acid that is specially used for active oxidizing agent. It is it is used in potash mixture. If we add orthophosphoric acid to a solution of potash, potash will be more active.

30. Hypo: It is a strong neutralizing agent. After using any oxidizing agent, we used this chemical neutralize clothing. It is used to achieve the blue tone of clothes.

31. Antifungal: A chemical that protects clothing from mold and mildew called an anti-fungal agent. Example: Zinc chloride

Denim Washing:
Denim washing is an aesthetic treatment that is given to denim fabric to enhance its appeal and add strength. When washing denim, several washing effects are often created as- color fading with or without spotting, puckering of seams, pilling, wrinkles, hairiness, etc. But washing denim follows a process flow diagram, which is often all of the effects mentioned reach easily. Like its importance in washing clothes, the entire flow chart of denim washing was discussed in this article.

Ozone washing:
Ozone (O3) Linen is often a term generally used to describe the textile care philosophy it uses electricity and oxygen in a single way to replace many of the chemicals commonly used in a traditional washing process. Oxygen and electricity usually create ozone. Ozone is dissolved in water and applies to the wash wheel in place of the chemical. This fundamental change to one of the main aspects of textile care comes with a number of benefits that all serve to improve efficiency and reduction of laundry operating costs. Water powered ozone laundry significantly reduce the environment the impact of traditional laundry operations. Clothes are often bleached using this method. Bleaching of a denim garment is completed during a ozone dissolved in water. Denim garments can bleach or fad Ozone laundry uses cold water and oxygen. The basic foundation of ozone laundry begins with a paradigm shift in traditional laundry basics.

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The old method:

  1. Hot water
  2. Alkaline
  3. Detergent
  4. Acid
  5. Bleach

Current method:

  1. Cold water
  2. Ozone
  3. Detergent

Control parameters:

  1. Gaseous ozone concentration.
  2. Moisture content.
  3. Ozone exposure time.
  4. Pressure

Ozone washing method:

  1. The ozone machine converts oxygen gas into ozone gas.
  2. Throw the clothes to be washed into the ozone machine and run the machine.
  3. After some time, the garment is checked to see if it matches the desired effect or not.

List of Chemical Used in Denim Washing Plant:

  1. Whitening agent
  2. Wetting agent
  3. Detergent silicon
  4. Fixing agent
  5. Softening agent
  6. Defoaming agent
  7. Silicon Softener
  8. Rubbing fastness improvers
  9. Sequestering agent
  10. Meta by sulfite
  11. Weight giving agent
  12. Waterproofing agent
  13. Biopolish Enzyme
  14. Acid enzyme
  15. Neutral enzyme
  16. Stiffening agent
  17. Bleaching agent
  18. Chlorine bleach
  19. Sodium hypochlorite
  20. Hydrogen peroxide
  21. Anti-back-stain
  22. Caustic
  23. Potash
  24. Soda
  25. Acetic acid
  26. Laccase
  27. Phosphoric acid
  28. Hypo

Denim Washing Process:

#Wet Process

  1. Desizing
  2. Bio washing
  3. Tinting or dyeing
  4. Finishing

#Dry Process

  1. Whiskers
  2. Hand Rub
  3. PP spray
  4. Resin spray
  5. Crinkles
  6. Laser etc.

Machines used in wet process:

  1. Belly loading drum washers machines
  2. Front loading automatic machines
  3. Hydro extractor
  4. Special machines for stone washing
  5. Dryers
  6. 3D crinkle machine
  7. Grinding machines
  8. Tag
  9. Curing oven
  10. Laser machine
  11. Ozone generator

Machine used for dry process:

  1. E flow
  2. Dummy for hand sand process
  3. Dummy for PP spray process and PP

Sustainable Denim Wash:
Sustainable means use less time, less energy and less water, are more environmentally friendly and more Production. If this process is used in washing, it is called sustainable washing. Sustainable denim washing can be a modern laundry trend. This type of washing is environmentally friendly and saves you money, water, energy, time and chemicals. Over time, they become more valuable for textiles industry.

Sustainability is an approach that takes into account the interconnected environmental, social and economic  processes towards a harmonious and peaceful for Next Generation. Sustainability is no longer a show, but a practice to be cultivated. How can I use natural resources without impacting the ecological, economic and social balance? Our website tried maintain balance in various ways by minimizing the extraction of natural resources and reducing the impact on the environment, all while maintaining socio-economic sanctity. Sustainability is an initiative to showcase these efforts and spread awareness about the innovative ways in which organizations fight sustainability.

Goals or best vision of sustainable laundry:

  1. Saving time:
  2. Energy saving
  3. Saving water

Time savings:
The main goal is to save time in all or every manufacturing plant. Production depends on time and other materials, mainly time more valuable. The value is much higher in manufacturing industry. Every minute counts for production according to the amount of product can be produced in less time. this is often essentially the goal of company owners. That’s why they use different methods to stimulate more production in less time.

Save energy:
Energy or power is another valuable thing in a manufacturing plant. Higher energy consumption creates higher costs within the product. costs are high, income is less. So the energy savings can be great factor in the manufacturing plant. If you create a product with a high price and more quantity for less energy consumption, the factory will profit or extract more. Challenging market for you survive longer due to lower cost. currently labor and energy costs are high so every factory owners want to use less more productively energy or labor costs.

Saving water:
Water is important for every living thing. Water is constantly needed for agriculture, sustaining life, manufacturing factory. Water is collected mainly river. Whenever we use more water, the ecological balance will not be correct. There will be environment disasters, landslides, water shortages. The earth will now lose its beauty, the animals will they will lose their habitat. Water consumption must therefore be affordable. To the present end, the present slogan in the laundry factory is Sustainable Wash. New methods of dyeing, finishing and processing denim are now in place affordable and sustainable solutions are available beneficial to the manufacturer, the customer.

Wash denim regularly as below:
As supply chain changes must continue, brands and consumers alike are scrambling to find them more sustainable alternatives regardless of meaning and feeling that consumers prefer theirs favorite jeans. It is possible to achieve the smart design of denim saves water, energy, time and/or chemicals throughout the method.

For a stone effect:
Pumice stone is used to wash denim to give the material a faded, worn look. You need big pads, higher labor costs include pumice, you need more labor to remove residue, dust and sludge. Here the possibility of tearing the denim is high. Instead, the new Tonello technology bonded the stainless steel sanding drums together with Levi Strauss and Co. They are quickly removable and can be used for normal washing/dyeing processes. The No Stone process reduces water consumption, production costs, emissions, waste, time interval and manual work.

For washing effect:
In the traditional method, bleaching may be a step in the final treatment of the denim used to decolorize the indigo. The degree of staining depends on the amount of bleach used, the temperature and duration of the washing process. It can cause machine corrosion, weaken the material and high exposures are often harmful to workers.

For the beard effect:
Instead, ozone is used as a powerful bleaching agent that is produced using new technology oxygen. It works quickly and requires less rinsing, so the remaining ozone is converted back into oxygen and water. Enzymes (laccases) are often used as an alternative to the bleaching process. Which changed only the color and appearance of the material without changing the quality, strength of the fabric, and elasticity.

For the grinding effect:
In traditional methods, where sandpaper and a hand pattern are used to create the beard. This the operation is completed by manual operator in new technology, laser machines can create vintage effects, beards, patterns, patches and even intentional holes and tears throughout the garment. It uses laser technology less water, chemicals and energy to create a wide range of denim looks. In traditional methods, hand sanding is used to create faded areas by physically scraping the surface denim clothes with different tools. Sandblasting uses compressed gas to forcefully spray sand onto surface clothes. Sandblasting is extremely dangerous to workers, which has led many organizations to ban it technique. In the new technology, the laser can also be used to imitate manual grinding and sandblasting. Lasers are often pre-programmed patterns that will accurately mimic the desired look achieved by hand sanding and sandblasting with significantly less occupational and physical risks.

Five Principles of Sustainable Garment and Denim Washing:
World Vision’s WASH practitioners in the Middle East region are grappling with the key components of sustainable WASH. As a district with a high proportion of emergency and fragile contextual responses, it is important to consider how to move from humanitarian to sustainable WASH solutions. Below is a series of recorded discussions between World Vision WASH practitioners in the region around the five main principles of sustainable WASH.

A. Technical Sustainability:
Technological sustainability of WASH services is achieved when is maintained necessary for the services to continue to function; and does not exhaust the (natural) resources on which its functioning depends.

B. Institutional sustainability:
Institutional sustainability within the WASH sector means that WASH systems, institutions, policies and practices at the local level are functional and meet the requirements of WASH service users. Households and other users of WASH services, authorities and service providers at local and local levels national level are clear about their own roles, tasks and responsibilities that they are able to fulfill these roles effectively and are transparent to others. WASH stakeholders work together in The WASH chain through a multi-stakeholder approach.

C. Social sustainability:
technology or hardware our young institutional sustainability within the WASH sector means that WASH systems, institutions, policies and practices at the local level are functional and meet the requirements of WASH service users. Households and other users of WASH services, authorities and service providers at local and local levels national level are clear about their own roles, tasks and responsibilities that they are able to fulfill these roles effectively and are transparent to others. WASH stakeholders work together in The WASH chain through a multi-stakeholder approach. repaired and replaced by local people Social sustainability refers to ensuring appropriate social conditions and prerequisites implemented and maintained, therefore the current and future society is able to create healthy and livable commonwealth. Socially sustainable intervention is demand driven, inclusive (equity), gender equality, culturally sensitive and needs-based.

D. Environmental sustainability:
The element of environmental sustainability implies placing WASH interventions in a broader framework the context of the natural environment and the introduction of an integrated and sustainable approach management of water and waste (-water) flows and resources. WASH interventions connect with and affect the natural environment and thus the livelihood of people.

E. Financial sustainability:
Related to Financial sustainability means continuity in the supply of products water, sanitation and hygiene are ensured as activities are financed from local sources (e.g. local fees, local funding) and are not dependent on external (foreign) subsidies.

Nowadays, the washing of denim garments with various chemicals and other mechanical effects is the most demanding and popular finishing process in the whole world. It is also responsible for bringing many aesthetic and functional qualities to denim such as softness, comfort and more. From this point of view, this research work is carried out. As part of the final part: the overall findings can be mentioned in some points: Long washing is responsible for reducing the physical strength of both samples. GSM decreases with increasing wash time when washing with enzyme and pumice stone. Tear strength also decreases with time for both samples in both directions (warp and weft).

Future Developments:
We would like to thank the management of Doreen Laundry, Kasimpur, Gazipur for providing raw denim samples and Mutual Apparals Ltd, Ashulia for giving us a chance to complete our work in their industry. The entire tests were conducted at the Department of Textile Engineering, BGMEA University of Fashion and Technology, Nishatnagor, Turag, Dhaka, Bangladesh. We are grateful to the management of BGMEA University for providing technical support to complete this research work.

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