Sewing Operation in Apparel Industry

Sewing Operation in Garment Industry

Tareq Salman
Dept. of Textile Engineering
Mawlana Bhashani Science and Technology University
Tangail, Bangladesh


Sewing Operation:
Sewing is the most important operation in the process of garments making or other similar product. Sewing means joining of different parts of garments with the use of needle and thread. Without needle and thread, we can also make garments by using alternative methods of joining like adhesive, welding etc. Generally there are two things involved in sewing process, i. e. stitches and seams. Sewing is the most important among all the processes of garments joining. The main purpose of sewing is to produce seam.

sewing operation in apparel industry
Fig: Sewing operation in apparel industry

The joining process “sewing” can be characterized on the basis of information about the sewing thread, the textile fabric, and the construction of the connection (thread/laying of textile fabric). A connection by sewing occurs by the linking or chaining of one or more sewing threads with the textile fabric. The manner, position, and number of linking or interlacing points in the textile fabric describe the joint produced.

Sewing can be defined as the craft of fastening or attaching objects using stitches made with a needle and thread. It is a term used to describe the process used in factories to mass-produce a wide range of garments and other goods that are created by joining different components together along the course of a structured process. Sewing is done by putting parts together and joining into a whole garment. The basic sewing parameters include:

  • Stitches,
  • Seams,
  • A method of sewing.

Flow Chart of Sewing Operation in Garment Industry:

At first PPM (Pre-Production Meeting) complete by all concerned persons

Input schedule collect from planning department (through E-mail)

Sample collects from Quality department

Layout sheet collect from IE department

Layout sheet provide to Mechanic, Technical and Supervisor

Input collect from Supermarket through Kanban box

Thread and other accessories collect from store

M/C arrange, setting or adjust by Mechanic and Supervisor

Sewing start and layout completed

First output initial check

Process wise quality ensure by line quality inspector through Traffic Light System

End line quality inspection done by Table quality inspector

QC Pass / QC Fail

If QC Pass then goods receive by Receive man OR If QC Fail then again Sewing start and layout completed

Goods send to snap button section (if needed)

Goods send to Finishing section

Sewing Machine Types:

1. Plain machine: Top stitch, Label attaching
2. Over lock machine: Sleeve joining, Side seam joining, Shoulder joining
3. Flat lock machine:

  • Cylinder bed: All types of top stitch
  • Flat-bed: Folding and Piping
  • Compressor: Bottom hem and Sleeve hem
  • Feed of the arm: Back tap and Arm tap

4. Kansai machine: Placket, Waist band
5. Button hole machine: Button holing and stitching it
6. Button attaching machine: Button attaching
7. Snap button machine: Snap button attaching
8. Chain stitch machine: Waist band

Seam is a line where two pieces of fabric are sewn together in a garment or other articles. A seam is basically a line of stitching. Seams are stitched on the seam line. The seam allowance is the distance between the seam line and the cut edge. The standard seam allowance is (1.5 cm) wide.

Properties of seam:

  • Seam strength
  • Elasticity
  • Durability
  • Security
  • Comfort
  • Special properties:
    • Water proof
    • Fire proof

Types of seam:
There are eight types of seam. They are-

  • Class-1: Superimposed seam
  • Class-2: Lapped seam
  • Class-3: Bound seam
  • Class-4: Flat seam
  • Class-5: Decorative seam
  • Class-6: Edge neatening
  • Class-7
  • Class-8

You may also like: Types of Seam Classes Used in Garment Industries

Loop or loops of one or more threads when bounds with each other, either by interlacing, interloping, interloping or combination of those when sewing fabric, each unit of such configuration is called stitch.

Types of stitch:
There are available of 70 types of stitches. But from 18 to 20 types of stitch are used in textile industry.

All stitches are included in six classes:

  • Stitch class-100
  • Stitch class-200
  • Stitch class-300
  • Stitch class-400
  • Stitch class-500
  • Stitch class-600

You may also like: Different Types of Stitches and Their Uses in Garments

Thread Consumption Formulae for Different Stitch Types:

1. Stitch Type-101 (Single thread chain stitch)
C = ( 3N + 2T ) × S

2.  Stitch Type-301 (Single thread lock stitch)
C = ( 2N + 2T ) × S

3. Stitch Type-401 (Single needle chain stitch)
C = ( 4N + 2T ) × S

4. Stitch Type-504 (Three thread over edge stitch)
C = ( 3N + 4W + 4T ) × S


C = Thread Consumption
N = Stitch Length
T = Thickness
S = Stitch per Inch (SPI)

Sewing Faults, Causes and Remedy:

Table: Sewing Faults, Causes and Remedy

SNSewing FaultsCausesRemedy
01Needle thread breakageMisaligned off winding from thread package; excessive tension, poor quality threadEnsure that the overhead guide is above cop stand pin; use a stronger thread
02Bobbin or looper thread breakageBadly wound thread on the bobbinAdjust bobbin winder alignment
03Tread fusing when machine stopPoorly finished or incorrect threadUse better quality thread
04Skipped stitchesHook, looper or needle failing to enter thread loops at the correct timeChanges machine clearance and timings
05Imbalance stitchingIn correct sewing tensionCheck for snarling, adjust thread tensions
06Variable stitch densityPoor fabric feed controlIncrease the pressure feet pressure
07Seam puckerVariable different fabric feedImprove the fabric feed mechanism

You may also like:

  1. Improvement of Sewing Line Productivity by Using Work Study Method
  2. Operation of Sewing Section | Process Breakdown of Basic Shirt
  3. Sewing Thread Consumption Formula with Example for Garments
  4. Yarn Count Numbering System and Conversions
  5. Parameters of Sewing Thread and Embroidery Thread
  6. Consumption Calculation of Fabric, Garment Trimmings and Accessories
  7. Latest Technology in Garments Sewing Field

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