Operation of Sewing Section | Process Breakdown of Basic Shirt
Mohammad Sajjadul Karim Bhuiyan
BGMEA University of Fashion and Technology
The sewing process is the attachment of different parts of the cut pieces. In this work place there are many operators who perform single operation. All this factor decides what parts of garment can be sewn at that station. Sewing section is the most importat department in apparel industry.
Machine used in the sewing section:
- Single Needle Lock Stitch machine
- Double needle Lock stitch machine
- Vertical Lock stitch machine
- Single needle Chain Stitch machine
- Pointer (collar, cuff)
- Halamark m/c
- Overclock Machine (5Thread)
- Feed off the Arm machine
- Flat bet fusing machine
- Continuous fusing Machine
- Kansai machine etc.
Process flow of sewing section:
Working way of sewing floor:
Product Analysis and set up target for Line: Here usually find the critical operation of the product by analyzing the product and decide where need help, which operator works on which operation. After analyzing the product line target is set for per hour production. Line supervisor monitoring target production achieving or not.
Set up machine layout on the basis of Target: On the basis of operation layout and target of per line, machine layout is setup to ensuring target per hour production.
Line balancing: Line balancing is a tool used for production line to capacitate the flow line of production. If line is not balanced properly, required target result will not be achieved properly. Some work have higher work load, some have lower load which caused bottleneck in the line.
Bundle Input to Line: After ensuring line balancing, bundle wise cut panel input to line as per pre-determined manner to workers.
Sewing: Workers sew different parts as per pre-determined manner according to machine layout for ensuring right operation is made by right machine and right operator.
Online Quality check: In this stage, front and back part sewing quality checked by on-line quality inspector. If found any defect, send the garment to that operator who sew the defective for repair the sewing faults.
End line Quality check: Here Full garments of both inside and outside checked properly to ensure the garments is defect free. If found any defect, repair that defect by who are responsible for that defect. Here also count the body to comparing if target is achieved or not.
Body sends to finishing section: After end line quality inspector, garments are sending to finishing section for finished the body for shipment as per buyer’s requirements.
Process Breakdown of Basic Shirt (Full Sleeve):
Table – Basic Shirt Manufacturing Process:
Machine & Attachment
Collar top part Fusing
Continues Fusing m/c
Collar finish pattern mark on Collar
Pencil and pattern
Overclock m/c (without thread and needle )
Collar run stitch (top and in part)
Pointer + Collar stay
Collar outline (1/4 top stitch)
Collar band fusing
Continuous fusing m/c
Collar band hem
Finish pattern mark on collar pattern
Collar and collar band attach
Collar band turn
Collar band (1/4 top stitch)
Collar Band point
Continuous Fusing machine
Cuff Run stitch
Vertical Lock stitch machine
Cuff turn in pair
Cuff outline (1/4 top stitch)
Front Pair tuck + care label joint
Front BTN placket make
Kansai machine + folder
Front Placket Fusing
Flatbed fusing machine
Box placket make
SNLS + Folder
PKT iron + scissoring
Iron + scissor
PKT Attach to front + placket close
Main and size label joint
Label attach to Bk part
Yoke attach to BK part
Yoke top stitch
Gamble attach to body
SLV placket fold and iron
Iron + folder
SLV Placket attach
Shoulder top stitch
SLV Joint to body
Armhole Top stitch
SNLS + Folder
Collar joint to body
Collar to Stitch
Feed off the arm machine
Cuff attach to SLV
SNLS + Folder
BTN Holing Machine
BTN Attaching machine
Elements of sewing section:
- Sewing thread
- Sewing Machine
- Needle damage
- Skip stitches
- Thread breakages
- Broken stitches
- Seam puckering
- Pleated seam
- Wrong stitch density
- Uneven stitch density
- Staggered stitch
- Improperly formed stitches.
For making a basic shirt, we need 7 types of sewing machines. They are given below:
- Plain Machine or Lock Stitch Machine
- Over lock or over edge Stitch Machine
- Button Holing Machine
- Button Attaching Machine
- Feed of the Arm
- Kansai or Multi needle chain stitch machine
- Single Needle & Double Needle Chain Stitch Machine (with or without edge cutter & thread cutting mechanism)
Important sewing machine descriptions are given below:
Plain Machine or Lock Stitch Machine:
- No. of needle: Generally 1 needle or 2 needles
- SPM (Stitches per Minute): 1500-5500
- Stitch Length: 5mm in Juki
- Automatic Thread Cutting
- Automatic Bobbin Winging
- Edge Cutting System
- Most commonly used for sewing of woven garments.
Over lock or Over edge Stitch machine:
- No. of needle: one or 2 needle
- No. of thread: 2-5 threads
- SPM: 6500-8000
- Stitch length: maximum 4mm and stitch length can be changed by push button.
Button Holing Machine:
- Stitch group: lock or chain stitch
- Arrangement of button hole size being small or larger
- Arrangement of stitch density being increased or reduced.
- Button hole can be made to cut the hole before or after sewing a button hole.
Button Attaching Machine:
- Productions lock stitch, chain stitch or hand stitch.
- Various types button clamps needs for attaching various sizes and types of button.
- The bottom may be 2 or 4 holes. 4 whole button may be sewed by cross or parallel.
- If chain stitch is used, the sewing looks nice, but the security of stitch is comparatively less.
- In case of lock stitch used no possibility of sewing opening. But not looks nice. In fully automatic machines, button feeding and positioning inside the button clamp is performed by a hopper and pipe.
- It can attach predetermined number of buttons at a predetermined distance in acyclic order.
Feed of the Arm:
- Number of needle: 2
- SPM: 3000 -3200
- Number of thread: 4 threads
- Twist per inch: 15 – 20
- Stitch group: chain stitch
- Mainly sewing shirts, Jeans, Gridding goods & double stitching pants
Kansai or Multi needle chain stitch machine:
- Number of needle: 6-17
- Number of thread: 12 – 34
- SPM: 4000 – 4500
- Stitch group: Chain Stitch
Chain Stitch Machine:
- No. of needle: one or more needle
- No. of thread: one or more thread (Single thread or multi thread)
- SPM: 1800-6000
- Stitch length : 1.4 to 4.5 mm
- Automatic thread trimmer
- Various types of feed mechanism is adjusted to the machine.
- Used in knitted wear and jeans.
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Founder & Editor of Textile Learner. He is a Textile Consultant, Blogger & Entrepreneur. He is working as a textile consultant in several local and international companies. He is also a contributor of Wikipedia.