Operation of Sewing Section | Process Breakdown of Basic Shirt

Last Updated on 15/12/2020

Operation of Sewing Section | Process Breakdown of Basic Shirt

Mohammad Sajjadul Karim Bhuiyan
BGMEA University of Fashion and Technology
Email: sajjadulkarim7@gmail.com

 

Sewing section:
The sewing process is the attachment of different parts of the cut pieces. In this work place there are many operators who perform single operation. All this factor decides what parts of garment can be sewn at that station. Sewing section is the most importat department in apparel industry.

Sewing section
Fig: Sewing section

Machine used in the sewing section:

  1. Single Needle Lock Stitch machine
  2. Double needle Lock stitch machine
  3. Vertical Lock stitch machine
  4. Single needle Chain Stitch machine
  5. Pointer (collar, cuff)
  6. Halamark m/c
  7. Overclock Machine (5Thread)
  8. Feed off the Arm machine
  9. Flat bet fusing machine
  10. Continuous fusing Machine
  11. Kansai machine etc.

Process flow of sewing section:

Diagram in how sewing section perform
Fig: Diagram in how sewing section perform

Working way of sewing floor:

Product Analysis and set up target for Line: Here usually find the critical operation of the product by analyzing the product and decide where need help, which operator works on which operation. After analyzing the product line target is set for per hour production. Line supervisor monitoring target production achieving or not.

Set up machine layout on the basis of Target: On the basis of operation layout and target of per line, machine layout is setup to ensuring target per hour production.

Line balancing: Line balancing is a tool used for production line to capacitate the flow line of production. If line is not balanced properly, required target result will not be achieved properly. Some work have higher work load, some have lower load which caused bottleneck in the line.

Bundle Input to Line: After ensuring line balancing, bundle wise cut panel input to line as per pre-determined manner to workers.

Sewing: Workers sew different parts as per pre-determined manner according to machine layout for ensuring right operation is made by right machine and right operator.

Online Quality check: In this stage, front and back part sewing quality checked by on-line quality inspector. If found any defect, send the garment to that operator who sew the defective for repair the sewing faults.

End line Quality check: Here Full garments of both inside and outside checked properly to ensure the garments is defect free. If found any defect, repair that defect by who are responsible for that defect. Here also count the body to comparing if target is achieved or not.

Body sends to finishing section: After end line quality inspector, garments are sending to finishing section for finished the body for shipment as per buyer’s requirements.

Process Breakdown of Basic Shirt (Full Sleeve):

Table – Basic Shirt Manufacturing Process:

SL No.#
Process name
Machine & Attachment
Collar
1
Collar top part Fusing
Continues Fusing m/c
2
Collar finish pattern mark on Collar
Pencil and pattern
3
Collar trim
Overclock m/c (without thread and needle )
4
Collar run stitch (top and in part)
SNLS
5
Collar Turn
Hand work
6
Collar point
Pointer + Collar stay
7
Collar outline (1/4 top stitch)
SNLS
8
Collar band fusing
Continuous fusing m/c
9
Collar band hem
SNLS
10
Finish pattern mark on collar pattern
Pattern .pencil
11
Collar and collar band attach
SNLS
12
Collar band turn
Hand work
13
Collar band (1/4 top stitch)
SNLS
14
Collar Band point
Pointer
Cuff
15
Cuff fusing
Continuous Fusing machine
16
Cuff hem
SNLS
17
Cuff Run stitch
Vertical Lock stitch machine
18
Cuff turn in pair
Hand word
19
Cuff outline (1/4 top stitch)
SNLS
Front part
20
Front Pair tuck + care label joint
SNLS
21
Front BTN placket make
Kansai machine + folder
22
Front Placket Fusing
Flatbed fusing machine
23
Box placket make
SNLS + Folder
24
Pocket positioning
Pattern
25
PKT Rolling
SNLS
26
PKT iron  + scissoring
Iron + scissor
27
PKT Attach to front + placket close
SNLS
Back part
28
Main and size label joint
SNLS
29
Label attach to Bk part
SNLS
30
Yoke attach to BK part
SNLS
31
Yoke top stitch
SNLS
Sleeve part
32
Gamble attach to body
SNLS
33
SLV placket fold and iron
Iron + folder
34
SLV Placket attach
SNLS
Assembly
35
Shoulder Joint
SNLS
36
Shoulder top stitch
SNLS
37
SLV Joint to body
Overlock m/c
38
Armhole Top stitch
SNLS + Folder
39
Collar joint to body
SNLS
40
Collar Closed
SNLS
41
Collar to Stitch
SNLS
42
Side seam
Feed off the arm machine
43
Cuff attach to SLV
SNLS
44
Bottom hem
SNLS + Folder
44
BTN Hole
BTN Holing Machine
45
BTN Attach
BTN Attaching machine

Elements of sewing section:

  1. Sewing thread
  2. Needle
  3. Sewing Machine

Sewing defects:

  1. Needle damage
  2. Skip stitches
  3. Thread breakages
  4. Broken stitches
  5. Seam puckering
  6. Pleated seam
  7. Wrong stitch density
  8. Uneven stitch density
  9. Staggered stitch
  10. Improperly formed stitches.

For making a basic shirt, we need 7 types of sewing machines. They are given below:

  1. Plain Machine or Lock Stitch Machine
  2. Over lock or over edge Stitch Machine
  3. Button Holing Machine
  4. Button Attaching Machine
  5. Feed of the Arm
  6. Kansai or Multi needle chain stitch machine
  7. Single Needle & Double Needle Chain Stitch Machine (with or without edge cutter & thread cutting mechanism)

Important sewing machine descriptions are given below:

Plain Machine or Lock Stitch Machine:

  • No. of needle: Generally 1 needle or 2 needles
  • SPM (Stitches per Minute): 1500-5500
  • Stitch Length: 5mm in Juki
  • Automatic Thread Cutting
  • Automatic Bobbin Winging
  • Edge Cutting System
  • Most commonly used for sewing of woven garments.

Over lock or Over edge Stitch machine:

  • No. of needle: one or 2 needle
  • No. of thread: 2-5 threads
  • SPM: 6500-8000
  • Stitch length: maximum 4mm and stitch length can be changed by push button.

Button Holing Machine:

  • Stitch group: lock or chain stitch
  • Arrangement of button hole size being small or larger
  • Arrangement of stitch density being increased or reduced.
  • Button hole can be made to cut the hole before or after sewing a button hole.

Button Attaching Machine:

  • Productions lock stitch, chain stitch or hand stitch.
  • Various types button clamps needs for attaching various sizes and types of button.
  • The bottom may be 2 or 4 holes. 4 whole button may be sewed by cross or parallel.
  • If chain stitch is used, the sewing looks nice, but the security of stitch is comparatively less.
  • In case of lock stitch used no possibility of sewing opening. But not looks nice. In fully automatic machines, button feeding and positioning inside the button clamp is performed by a hopper and pipe.
  • It can attach predetermined number of buttons at a predetermined distance in acyclic order.

Feed of the Arm:

  • Number of needle: 2
  • SPM: 3000 -3200
  • Number of thread: 4 threads
  • Twist per inch: 15 – 20
  • Stitch group: chain stitch
  • Mainly sewing shirts, Jeans, Gridding goods & double stitching pants

Kansai or Multi needle chain stitch machine:

  • Number of needle: 6-17
  • Number of thread: 12 – 34
  • SPM: 4000 – 4500
  • Stitch group: Chain Stitch

Chain Stitch Machine:

  • No. of needle: one or more needle
  • No. of thread: one or more thread (Single thread or multi thread)
  • SPM: 1800-6000
  • Stitch length : 1.4 to 4.5 mm
  • Automatic thread trimmer
  • Various types of feed mechanism is adjusted to the machine.
  • Used in knitted wear and jeans.

More articles of this author:

  1. Basic Concept of Garment Merchandiser Duties and Responsibilities
  2. Activities of Store Room Management in Apparel Industry

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