Garments Manufacturing Process:
The clothing creation running actions and methods included in the developing outfits for the huge of creation in company time frame for company reasons is known as outfits developing technologies. On industrial basis there are certain areas or sequence through which garments are manufactured. In this article I will discuss every process sequence of garment manufacturing.
Step wise garment manufacturing process sequence on industrial basis is given below:
Design / Sketch
Sequence of Garment Manufacturing are given below in details:
1. Design/ Sketch:
In the garment manufacturing the first step is designing the sketch for the dresses that have to be prepared. For this purpose, the designer first draws several rough sketches in the sketch book. The designer does not go for details at this moment but he rather let his creativity flow on the paper and he draws many sketches. Later these sketches are analyzed by a panel of designers. They finally select few out of them. These few sketches are rendered in detail separately or in the form of a single collection. The designer also draws working drawings along with the sketch. Working drawings are flat drawing of the sketch and it help pattern maker in understanding the patterns involved in the construction.
2. Pattern Design:
Hard paper copy of each component of the garment of exact dimension of each component is called pattern. The patterns also include seam allowance, trimming allowance, dirt’s, and pleats, ease allowance, any special design etc. affairs. Pattern design could also be done manually or with the help of computer.
3. Sample Making:
The first patterns are sent to the sewing unit for assembling them into garment. This is usually stitched on calico or muslin which is an inferior quality of fabric and it reduces cost. This sample is constructed to analyze the pattern fit and design too. After the sample garment is stitched it is reviewed by a panel of designers, pattern makers and sewing specialists. If any changes have to be made, they are made at this time.
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4. Production Pattern:
The pattern design is now taken for creating the production patterns. The production pattern is one which will be used for huge production of garments. The pattern maker makes the patterns on standard pattern making paper. These papers are made-up of various grades. The most important component, the tissue paper pattern, is made from the lightest and thinnest paper commercially available (it is not made at the pattern companies). It is called 7.5 lb (3.4 kg) basis paper, meaning that a ream of it (500 sheets) only weighs 7.5 lb (3.4 kg).
Garment patterns can be constructed by two means: manual method, CAD/CAM method. Today many companies have developed CAD/CAM because of the ease of designing patterns, fluency and precision involved which cannot be guaranteed with the manual method. Investing once into the CAD/CAM unit is worth in itself. Many buyers around the world prefer manufacturers who are using CAD/CAM methods. The production patterns created in CAD/CAM can be stored easily and they can be modified at any point of time.
A garment sewing pattern or garment fabric & patterns draft is developed by calculating, taking account of the following measurements:
- Direct Sample.
- Specification Sheet/ Measurement Chart.
- Actual body size measurements.
- Ease Allowances.
- Sewing Allowance.
These allowances are different for different type of fabrics and patterns.
The purpose of grading is to create patterns in different standard sizes. Grading a pattern is really scaling a pattern up or down in order to adjust it for multiple sizes. Pattern sizes can be large, medium and small or else there are standard patterns of size 10, 12, 14, 16 and so on for different figure and statures sizes. This is generally how we get S M L XL XXL sizing. Pattern grading by manual method is a cumbersome task because the grader has to alter the pattern on each and every point from armhole, to neckline, sleeve cap and wrist etc. by using CAD it is much easier and faster.
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6. Marker Making:
All the pattern pieces for all the required sizes are arranged and the paper in such a way so that maximum number of garments could be produced with minimum fabric wastage. Markers are made for 6, 12, 18, 24 etc. pieces. Marker is also useful to estimate fabric consumption calculations.
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It is the process of arranging fabrics on the spreading table as per length and width of the marker in stack form. Normally height of the lay/fabric is limited up-to maximum six inches high. But 4 inches to 5-inch height of the lay is safe.
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8. Fabric Cutting:
On the fabric lay/spread the marker paper is placed carefully and accurately, and pinned with the fabric to avoid unwanted movement or displacement of the marker paper. Normally straight knife cutting machine is used to cut out the garment component as per exact dimension of each patterns in stack form, care must be taken to avoid cutting defects.
9. Sorting/ Bundling:
After cutting the entire fabric lay, all the garments components in stack form is shorted out as per size and color. To avoid mistake in sorting, it is better to use code number on each pattern.
10. Sewing or Assembling:
It is the most important department/section of a garment manufacturing industry. Sewing machines of different types are arranged as a vertical line to assemble the garments. Sequence of types of sewing machine arrangement depends on sequence of assembling operations. Number of sewing machines per line varies from 20 nos to 60 nos depending on the style of the garmnet to be produce. Production per line per hour also varies from 100 to 150 pieces depending on specific circumstances. Number of sewing machine arrangement per line may be up-to 60 depending on design and output quantity of garment.
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Each and every garment after sewing passes through the inspection table/ point, where the garments are thoroughly and carefully checked to detect/find any defect if present in the garment. The defects may be for example variation of measurement, sewing defect, fabric defects, spots etc. if the defect is possible to overcome, then the garment is sent to the respective person for correction. If the defect is not correction-able, then the garment is separated as wastage.
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12. Pressing/ Finishing:
After passing through the inspection table, each garment is normally ironed/ pressed to remove unwanted crease and to improve the smoothness, so that the garments looks nice to the customer. Folding of the garment is also done here for poly packing of the garments as per required dimension.
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13. Final Inspection:
It is the last stage of inspection f the manufactured garments on behalf of the garment manufacturing organization, to detect any defective garments before packing.
After final inspection, the garments are poly-packed, dozen-wise, color wise, size ratio wise, bundled and packed in the cartoon. The cartoon is marked with important information in printed form which is seen from outside the cartoon easily.
The cartoons of the manufactured garments are delivered or placed in the dispatch department or finished product godown, from where the garments lot is delivered for shipment.
Founder & Editor of Textile Learner. He is a Textile Consultant, Blogger & Entrepreneur. He is working as a textile consultant in several local and international companies. He is also a contributor of Wikipedia.