How to Make Operation Bulletin (OB) of T-Shirt and Calculate the SAM

How to Make OB of T-Shirt and Calculate the SAM

Niharika Ninawe
IE officer at PratibhaSyntex Ltd.
Pithampur, Indore


An Operation Bulletin (OB) in the garment industry is provides detailed information about the production process for a specific style or design of a garment. It is a comprehensive guide that outlines all the steps, methods, materials, and machinery required to produce a garment successfully. As per the construction of the garment sequence wise operation written and calculate the SAM (standard allotted minute)

Here are the key components typically included in an Operation Bulletin:

a) Style Information:
In the teckpack or sample given by buyer mention style number, description, and any specific features or embellishments of the garment.

b) Bill of Materials (BOM):
A list of all the materials required for production, including fabrics, trims, buttons, zippers, labels, and any other components.

c) Operation Sequence:
A step-by-step description of the manufacturing process, listing each operation or task in the order it needs to be performed. This includes cutting, stitching, pressing, quality checks, and finishing processes.

Operation Sequence is Crucial for Several Reasons in the Garment Industry:

1. Optimizing Production Flow:
A well-planned operation sequence ensures a smooth flow of production. It helps in avoiding bottlenecks and ensures that one operation naturally leads to the next without unnecessary delays. This optimization is vital for meeting production deadlines and maintaining efficiency.

2. Quality Control:
Certain operations in garment production can affect the quality of the final product significantly. Placing these operations in the correct sequence ensures that quality control measures can be implemented effectively. For example, inspections and tests can be strategically placed after critical operations to identify defects early in the process, reducing rework and ensuring higher overall product quality.

3. Worker Efficiency:
Workers become specialized in specific operations over time. By organizing tasks logically, workers can become highly skilled in their particular operation, leading to increased efficiency and reduced production time. When workers are well-trained and specialized, it contributes to the overall productivity of the production line.

4. Resource Utilization:
Proper sequencing helps in optimizing the use of resources such as machines, materials, and manpower. It ensures that machines are used to their full capacity and that materials are available when needed. Efficient utilization of resources reduces waste and production costs.

5. Workforce Management:
Effective operation sequencing allows for better management of the workforce. It ensures that the right number of skilled workers are allocated to specific tasks at the right time, preventing overstaffing or understaffing issues. Proper workforce management contributes to higher productivity and reduced labour costs.

6. Lead Time Reduction:
By optimizing the operation sequence, unnecessary delays and waiting times can be minimized. This reduction in lead time is vital, especially in the fast-paced fashion industry where trends change rapidly. Shorter lead times enable garment manufacturers to respond quickly to market demands and produce goods in a timely manner.

7. Cost Efficiency:
Proper sequencing contributes to cost efficiency in various ways. It reduces production time, minimizes errors and rework, optimizes resource utilization, and enhances overall productivity. All these factors combined lead to reduced production costs and increased profitability for garment manufacturers.

In this fig construction wise operation sequence is arrange, its helps in production line to reduce the handling time and due to this increase in productivity.

Operation bulletin of T-shirt
Fig: Operation bulletin of T-shirt

Machine and Equipment Details:
Information about the specific machines and tools needed for each operation, including specifications and settings.

1. Standard Allowed Minutes (SAM):
The time required to perform each operation, measured in Standard Allowed Minutes. SAM values are crucial for estimating labour requirements and production time.

2. Workstation Layout:
Diagrams or descriptions of how workstations should be set up, including the arrangement of machines, materials, and workers to optimize workflow.

3. Quality Standards:
Criteria for quality control and details about acceptable tolerances for measurements, stitching quality, and overall garment appearance.

4. Safety Instructions:
Guidelines for ensuring the safety of workers during various operations, including the proper use of machinery, handling of materials, and adherence to safety protocols.

5. Production Targets: The desired output for each operation, often expressed in terms of pieces per hour or day.

Production targets helps to improve:

  • Efficient Resource Utilization
  • Cost control
  • Customer satisfaction
  • Supply chain management
  • Data-driven decision making
  • Financial planning
  • Market competitiveness
  • Employee morale

How to Calculate the SAM:
Standard Allowed Minutes (SAM) is a measure of the time required to perform a specific task in the garment manufacturing process. SAM is used to estimate the labour required for a particular order. To calculate SAM, you need to perform a time study for each task involved in the production process. Time study involves observing and timing a worker performing a task under normal working conditions and averaging the results over several cycles.

Once you have the time values for each task in minutes, you sum them up to get the total SAM for the garment. The formula is:

SAM = (Basic minute + Bundle allowances + machine and personal allowances)

Calculate the SAM is a fundamental aspect of the operation bulletin. SAM represents the standard time required to complete a specific task or operation, considering various factors such as machine efficiency, worker skill level, and workplace conditions. Accurate SAM calculations are vital for production planning, resource allocation, and setting realistic production targets.

Calculation of SAM operation wise
Fig: Calculation of SAM operation wise

In conclusion, a well-structured operation bulletin coupled with precise SAM calculations forms the backbone of efficient production management in the garment industry. Embracing these practices empowers organizations to meet market demands, improve product quality, and maintain a competitive edge in the ever-evolving global garment industry.


  1. “Garment Manufacturing Technology” by RajkishoreNayak and Rajiv Padhye:
  2.  Industrial Engineering in Apparel Production by Prabir Jana:
  3. When researching these topics, it’s essential to look for the most recent publications and resources, as industry standards and best practices can evolve over time. Additionally, consulting with professionals and experts in the field of industrial engineering and garment manufacturing can provide valuable practical insights into creating operation bulletins and calculating SAM effectively.

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  2. Sourcing of Fabrics and Trims in Apparel Industry
  3. Time and Action Plan for Garment Merchandising
  4. Role of Merchandiser in Garment Industry
  5. What is Tech Pack & Why It Is Important in Garment Industry

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