Garment Finishing Process: Purposes, Method of Application & Finishing Agents

Last Updated on 20/03/2021

Garment Finishing Process

Noor Ahmed Raaz
Faculty Member, Dept. of Textile Engineering,
Atish Dipankar University of Science & Technology


Garment Finishing:
Garment finishing through garment wet processing add value to the garments and the additional effects become the clear differentiator. Garment finishing can be used for various applications, be it shirts, trousers or t-shirts, but majority of the effects are most popular for casual wear and denim segment. Garment finishing department takes care of the following functions:

  • Trimming
  • Stain removing
  • Repairing
  • Pressing

After stitching, there will be some hanging sewing threads on the finished product. Trimming is the operation of removing these extra hanging threads. Sometimes, finished products get stained during the production process. Finishing department is responsible to remove those stains by using different wetting agents. Some of the sewn products may also have some open seams or other stitching faults. The finishing department repairs such products before packing. The last objective of finishing department is pressing. The sewn products are pressed to remove the wrinkles and to enhance the look of the garment.

garment finishing process

Purposes of Garment Finishing
Finishing is the heart of textile processing. Unless any product is characterized by value addition it is now impossible to survive in this highly competitive world market. Processing is important to make a usable but finishing gives value addition to it.

Value addition = {(Technology) + (Innovation)} x Quality.

The need for competitive strategy that utilizes;

  1. It makes garments attractive, comfortable and finishing can incorporate desirable properties.
  2. Chemical compatibility to provide one-shot multifunctional finishes.
  3. Cost reduction through process integration and minimizing the consumption of all utilities.
  4. More environmentally friendly and application method.
  5. Cost reduction through minimization of effluent treatment cost.
  6. Improve process control, monitoring and automation.
  7. Greater innovation in chemical finishes.
  8. Quick response through right-first-time, right-on end time, right-every-time finishing.
  9. Finishing of textile fabric is carried out to increase attractiveness and/or serviceability of the fabric.
  10. Different finishing treatments are available to get various effects, which add value to the basic textile material.
  11. The domestic ready-made garment sector is booming, and garment processing has emerged as one of the important production routes towards meeting quick changing demands of the fashion market

Method of Application:
There are two methods of garment finishing.

  1. Dip process
  2. Tumbling process

a. Dip process: 

  • Dip the garment inside out in finishing chemical keeping MLR 1:5. Washing machine may be used.
  • Rotate the garment for 20 min.
  • Hydro extract the garment to 70 to 80% pick up.
  • Tumble dry at 70°C to moisture content 10—12 %.
  • Turn the garment right side out.
  • Iron/steam presses the garment to set the creases at desired places.
  • Cure at 150—160°C

b. Tumble method:

  • In this process the garment are placed (inside out) into a machine with sealed (not perforated) cylinder and application of recipe by either pumping or spraying.
  • The drum is turned for 20 min there should not be excessive dripping of chemicals from the garment. If so more tumbling time is allowed.
  • This method is being used more and more due to the fact that there is no wastage of chemicals.
  • After saturation the garments are hydro extracted tumble dry at 70°C to 10—20 % pick up moisture content.
  • The iron and steam press the garments to remove/set creases. Cure at 150—160°C for 8 -10 min.

Important features:

  1. MLR should not be less than 1: 0.85 for the garment weighing 600 gm and 1:1 for those weighing more than 600 gm.
  2. Minimum time of tumbling should be 20 min.
  3. Tumble rotation speed 20-30 rpm.
  4. Tumble drying temp. Should not be more than 70°C.
  5. Moisture retention after drying should be 10-12%.

Wash Down Effects

  • It can be achieved by a variety of garment processing techniques which are mainly dependent on physical and on chemical abrasion of the surface dye there by producing different wash down or break-in looks.
  • In garment washing the seams, waistband, pockets, cuffs, etc develop a contour, which can be obtained by washing in garment from only.
  • Washing down of garments is the latest development in fashion technology. Washing brings out special effects changing the feel and look of garments.

Five good reasons can be attributed for washing the garments:

  1. To influence physical properties such as softness, handle, drape or fall, absorbency, creasing etc.
  2. To influence appearance by altering the nature of yarn of fabric or lusture.
  3. To create shrinkage and effects of shrinkage like puckering of garments.
  4. To create abrasion and related effects.
  5. To create a trend in fashion with consistent quality and brand image with range of finishes.

Garment Finishing Agents:

  1. Dispersing agents
  2. Lubricating agents
  3. pH regulator
  4. Anti back staining
  5. Anti cross staining
  6. Cationic dye fixing
  7. Stripping agent
  8. Optical brighteners
  9. Cationic and nonionic softeners
  10. Silicone softeners
  11. Additives
  12. Garment stage resin finish

You may also like:

  1. Steps of Finishing Process in Garment Industry
  2. Pressing: Important Finishing Process in Garment Industry
  3. Quality Control in Fusing | Factors Affecting the Quality in Fabric Fusing

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