Production of different types of stitches.
Seam and stitch are related to each other. Because stitch cannot be made without seam and vice versa. Seam is the join between two or more plies of pieces of material. Seams are usually formed by sewing. Sewing is done by joining one or more threads or loops of threads with intralooping, interlooping or interlacing. Stitch is the unit of this sewing.
Every unit of a seam line formed by interlooping, intralooping or interlacing of one or more threads is called stitch.
When one loop of a thread is passed through another loop of same thread it is called intralooping.
When one loop of a thread passes through another loop of another thread it is called interlooping.
When one loop of a thread passes over another loop of another thread it is called interlacing.
- To identify different types of stitches.
- To observe the formation and structure of stitches.
- To know about the uses of various types of stitches.
About 70 types of stitches are found using and from these types 18 to 20 types of stitches are mostly used in garments industries. All types of stitches are classified into 6 classes. They are
- Stitch class-100 : Chain stitch
- Stitch class-200 : Hand stitch
- Stitch class-300 : Lock stitch
- Stitch class-400 : Multi thread chain stitch
- Stitch class-500 : Over edge/Edge neatening chain stitch
- Stitch class-600 : Covering chain stitch
Now they are described below:
1. Stitch class-100: Chain stitch:
Chain stitches are produced by one or more needle threads and are characterized by intralooping. One needle thread is passed through the fabric, form needle loop and is secured by the next loop formed by the same thread. Thus stitches are produced. This type of stitches is much unsecured. In case of the break of any stitch, it unravels very easily. The most common type of stitch is stitch calss-100 is stitch type-101. As it is very unsecured it is used for biasting operations which are temporary stitching operation for the positioning of collar, cuff and flaps etc.
2. Stitch class-200: Hand stitch:
This type is originated from hand stitches. It is produced from a single thread. This thread is passed through the fabric from one side to another and the stitch is secured by the single line of thread passing in and out of the garment. Hand stitching is a time consuming and costly operation which needs high skill for good appearance. Stitch type- 209 is used at the edges of jackets. For producing this stitch a special type of needle having at the middle and sewing machine is used. Normally this type of stitch is used in costly dresses.
3. Stitch class-300: Lock stitch:
This type of stitches is produced with two or more groups of threads. Here the two threads are joined by interlacing. Loops of one group are passed through the material and are secured by the thread of second group. One group is referred as needle thread and other as bobbin thread. This stitch has enough strength and same appearance on both sides. Lock stitches are also very secured and don’t unravels in case of yarn breakage. The disadvantage is bobbin contains less thread and so runs out during sewing. As a result the bobbin is again threaded after sometimes which time consuming and disgusting. Lock stitch is extensively used for joining fabrics collar, cuff, pocket, facing etc. Top stitching is used for button holing, attaching, blind stitching etc.
4. Stitch class-400: Multi thread chain stitch:
This class is formed with two or more groups of threads. Loops of one group of thread are passed through the material and are secured by interlacing and interloping with loops of another group. Here on group is called needle thread and another group looper thread. The most common is stitch type-401 which is produced by one needle thread and one looper thread. It has an appearance of lock stitch on the top but has a double chain effect formed by a looper thread on the underside. Sometimes stitches in this class are called ‘double lock stitch’ because the needle thread is interconnected with two loops of the under thread. Here the possibility of seam pucker is very less. Again all threads are supplied from cone packages so there is no possibility of running out thread. This type of stitches is used foe sewing lace, braid and elastic. Stitch type-401 is used in jeans and trouser.
5. Stitch class-500: Over edge/Edge neatening chain stitch:
The stitch type in this class is formed with one or more groups of threads. Here at least one group of thread passes around the edge of material. So no thread from the fabric can come out. The most frequently used stitch of this type have one or two needle threads and one or two looper threads and thus forms a narrow band of stitching along the edge of the fabric. A trimming knife of the machine ensures a neat edge prior to sewing. Stitch type-504 is formed of a needle thread and two looper threads. This class of stitch is used for edge neatening and for producing seam in knitted fabric. The extensibility of this stitch is very good. The width of this stitch is 3-5 mm. This stitch type can be used to make a decorative neated edge.
6. Stitch class-600: Covering chain stitch:
This type of stitches is generally produced with 3 groups of threads. Threads of two groups can be seen from either side. The first group of thread is called needle thread, second is called top cover thread and the third is called bottom cover thread. The stitches of this class are very complex and up to 9 threads can be used in producing these stitches. For producing stitch type-606, 4 needle threads and 5 other threads are required and it is called flat lock. Flat lock stitches are used in knitted fabrics especially in under wears. It is also used in decorating leisure wears. Stitch type-602 is used for attaching laces, braids and elastics in garments. Moreover it is used in decorative stitches and top stitching.
The experiment gives us an idea about different types of sewing stitches and their functions and uses in garments industry. I would like to give special thanks to our teacher. I am also grateful to our instructors. I think this experiment will be very helpful in my future life.
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Founder & Editor of Textile Learner. He is a Textile Consultant, Blogger & Entrepreneur. He is working as a textile consultant in several local and international companies. He is also a contributor of Wikipedia.