Operation Breakdown in Garment Industry
A.K.M. Ratul Hasan
B.Sc. in Textile Engineering
A garment generally consists of different parts and a group of process/operations. All parts and process maintain a sequence for making a complete garment. Operation breakdown means the method of preparing operation’s list in a sequence. A standard operation breakdown sequence in garment industry like process name, SMV, M/C type, Target etc.
- Industrial engineer initially analysis the product with production stuff.
- Industrial engineer arrange a risk analysis (pre-engineering) meeting with quality production and maintenance team.
- Industrial engineer eliminate non-value added task with discussion.
- Give proposal for process simplify or improvement.
- Fixing up estimated SMV.
- Allocation of machine and guide folder attachment.
- Fix up required manpower and production target.
- Check and approved for product costing.
Operation Breakdown in Garment Industry:
- Buyer name: H&M
- Style name: Skinny Bargain
|1||Seam ol||0.15||4Tol||400||Thread guide|
|2||Yoke top stc||0.3||Foa||200||1/4 Guide|
Necessary of Operation Breakdown:
- Get a clear concepts about sample/product.
- Get a clear concepts about critical process and develop it.
- Get a idea about production difficulty and operations sequence.
- Get a idea about quality requirements.
- Get clear idea about trims and accessories like sewing thread, needle, guide, folder.
- Machine budget.
- Manpower selection.
- To determine costing of the product.
- Require for performance evaluation of the manpower.
- Require for find out factory capacity.
- Require for line balancing.
Essential for Production and Operations Management
- Product Inventory control
- Customer demand
- Customer feedback
- Variation of product
- Personal service
Scope of the Operations Management:
Strategic (long-term) decision-How, where, how much, when etc. Tactical (Intermediate) decision-
- How many workers needs.
- How many Shift require
- When delivery
- Warehouse capacity require
- Operational planning and control
- Day, week, monthly, yearly based plan
- Micro plan, master plan
- Priority of work selection
Operations Competitive Dimensions:
- Coping with changes in demand
- Flexibility and new product introduction speed
- Other products specific criteria
Terms and Definitions of Operation Breakdown:
Value analysis/value engineering:
Analysis with the purpose of simplifying products and processes by achieving equivalent or better performance at a lower cost.
Process is a set of activities performed by an organization that takes inputs and transforms them into outputs ideally of greater value to the organization than the original inputs.
The average time between completions of successive units in a process. The term is sometimes used to mean the elapsed time between starting and completing a job.
Utilization is the ratio of the time that a resource is actually activated relative to the time that it is available for use.
Process flow charting:
The activities associated with a process affect one another so that it is important to consider the simultaneous performance of a number of activities, all operating at the same time.
Buffering is a storage area between stages where the output of a stage is placed prior to being used in a downstream stage. Buffering allows the stage to operate independently.
Blocking is the activities in the stage must stop because there is no place to deposit the item just completed.
Starving is the activities in a stage must stop because there is no work.
Bottleneck is a resource that limits the capacity or maximum output of the process.
Make–to-order is a process that is activated only in response to an actual order.
Make–to-stock is a process that produces standard products that are stored in finished goods inventory. The product is delivered quickly to the customer from the finished goods inventory.
Hybrid is combines the features of both make-to-order and make to stock. Typically, a generic product is made and stocked at some point in the process. These generic units are customized in a final process to meet actual orders.
Productivity is the ratio of output to input. Taking the dollar value of the output and dividing by the dollar value of the input usually measure total factor productivity.
Run time is the time required to produce a batch of parts.
Setup time is the time required to prepare a machine to make a particular item.
Operation time is the sum of the setup time and run time for a batch of parts that are run on a machine.
Throughput time is the average time that it takes a unit to move through an entire process. Usually the term lead time is used to the total time that it takes a customer to receive an order.
Process flow structures:
A process flow structure refers to how a factory organizes material flow using one or more of the process technologies just listed.
Hayes and wheelwright have identified four major process flow structures –
A process structure suited for low-volume production of a great variety of nonstandard products.
A process structure that produces a variety of standard products at relatively low volumes. The products are produced periodically in batches to educe the impact of setup time on equipment.
A process structure designed to make discrete parts. Parts are moved through a set of specially designed workstations at a controlled rate.
An often automated process structure that converts raw materials into finished product in one continuous process.
Layout decisions entail determining the placement of departments, work groups within the departments, workstations, machines, and stock-holding points within a production facility. In general, the inputs to the layout decision are depends on-
- Space requirement
- Distance traveled by material
- Demand of product
- Available space
- Throughput time
Basic production layout format
The formats by which departments are arranged in a facility are defined by the general pattern of work flow.
Product layout also called a flow-shop layout. Equipment or work processes are arranged according to the progressive steps by which the product is made.
The principles of management are the same for every clothing factory and the only difference is that of scale. While the basic purpose of factories may vary, all of them rely on the effectiveness of management in all the attainment of their objectives.
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Founder & Editor of Textile Learner. He is a Textile Consultant, Blogger & Entrepreneur. He is working as a textile consultant in several local and international companies. He is also a contributor of Wikipedia.