Operation Breakdown in Garment Industry

Operation Breakdown in Garment Industry

A.K.M. Ratul Hasan
B.Sc. in Textile Engineering
Primeasia University
Email: akmratulhasan@gmail.com


Operation Breakdown:
A garment generally consists of different parts and a group of process/operations. All parts and process maintain a sequence for making a complete garment. Operation breakdown means the method of preparing operation’s list in a sequence. A standard operation breakdown sequence in garment industry like process name, SMV, M/C type, Target etc.

operation breakdown in garment industry
Fig: Garment industry


  1. Industrial engineer initially analysis the product with production stuff.
  2. Industrial engineer arrange a risk analysis (pre-engineering) meeting with quality production and maintenance team.
  3. Industrial engineer eliminate non-value added task with discussion.
  4. Give proposal for process simplify or improvement.
  5. Fixing up estimated SMV.
  6. Allocation of machine and guide folder attachment.
  7. Fix up required manpower and production target.
  8. Check and approved for product costing.
different parts of a pant
Fig: Different parts of a pant

Operation Breakdown in Garment Industry:

  • Buyer name: H&M
  • Style name: Skinny Bargain
SLProcessSMVM/C typeTargetAttachment
1Seam ol0.154Tol400Thread guide
2Seam Join0.25Snl240R/s
Back part
1Yoke join0.283Tol214
2Yoke top stc0.3Foa2001/4 Guide
1Seam Join0.65Tol100
2Inseam join0.55Tol120

Necessary of Operation Breakdown:

  1. Get a clear concepts about sample/product.
  2. Get a clear concepts about critical process and  develop it.
  3. Get a idea about production difficulty and operations sequence.
  4. Get a idea about quality requirements.
  5. Get clear idea about trims and accessories like sewing thread, needle, guide, folder.
  6. Machine budget.
  7. Manpower selection.
  8. To determine costing of the product.
  9. Require for performance evaluation of the manpower.
  10. Require for find out factory capacity.
  11. Require for line balancing.

Essential for Production and Operations Management

  1. Product  Inventory control
  2. Customer demand
  3. Customer feedback
  4. Variation of  product
  5. Personal service

Scope of the Operations Management:
Strategic (long-term) decision-How, where, how much, when etc. Tactical (Intermediate) decision-

  • How many workers needs.
  • How many Shift require
  • When delivery
  • Warehouse capacity require
  • Operational planning and control
  • Day, week, monthly, yearly based plan
  • Micro plan, master plan
  • Priority of work selection

Operations Competitive Dimensions:

  1. Cost
  2. Quality
  3. Speed
  4. Reliability
  5. Coping with changes in demand
  6. Flexibility and new product introduction speed
  7. Other products specific criteria

Terms and Definitions of Operation Breakdown:

Value analysis/value engineering:
Analysis with the purpose of simplifying products and processes by achieving equivalent or better performance at a lower cost.

Process analysis:
Process is a set of activities performed by an organization that takes inputs and transforms them into outputs ideally of greater value to the organization than the original inputs.

Cycle time:
The average time between completions of successive units in a process. The term is sometimes used to mean the elapsed time between starting and completing a job.

Utilization is the ratio of the time that a resource is actually activated relative to the time that it is available for use.

Process flow charting:
The activities associated with a process affect one another so that it is important to consider the simultaneous performance of a number of activities, all operating at the same time.

Buffering is a storage area between stages where the output of a stage is placed prior to being used in a downstream stage. Buffering allows the stage to operate independently.

Blocking is the activities in the stage must stop because there is no place to deposit the item just completed.

Starving is the activities in a stage must stop because there is no work.

Bottleneck is a resource that limits the capacity or maximum output of the process.

Make–to-order is a process that is activated only in response to an actual order.

Make–to-stock is a process that produces standard products that are stored in finished goods inventory. The product is delivered quickly to the customer from the finished goods inventory.

Hybrid is combines the features of both make-to-order and make to stock. Typically, a generic product is made and stocked at some point in the process. These generic units are customized in a final process to meet actual orders.

Productivity is the ratio of output to input. Taking the dollar value of the output and dividing by the dollar value of the input usually measure total factor productivity.

Run time:
Run time is the time required to produce a batch of parts.

Setup time:
Setup time is the time required to prepare a machine to make a particular item.

Operation time:
Operation time is the sum of the setup time and run time for a batch of parts that are run on a machine.

Throughput time:
Throughput time is the average time that it takes a unit to move through an entire process. Usually the term lead time is used to the total time that it takes a customer to receive an order.

Process flow structures:
A process flow structure refers to how a factory organizes material flow using one or more of the process technologies just listed.

Hayes and wheelwright have identified four major process flow structures –

Job Shop
A process structure suited for low-volume production of a great variety of nonstandard products.

Batch Shop
A process structure that produces a variety of standard products at relatively low volumes. The products are produced periodically in batches to educe the impact of setup time on equipment.

Assembly line
A process structure designed to make discrete parts. Parts are moved through a set of specially designed workstations at a controlled rate.

Continuous Flow
An often automated process structure that converts raw materials into finished product in one continuous process.

Facility Layout
Layout decisions entail determining the placement of departments, work groups within the departments, workstations, machines, and stock-holding points within a production facility. In general, the inputs to the layout decision are depends on-

  1. Space requirement
  2. Distance traveled by material
  3. Demand of product
  4. Available space
  5. Bottleneck
  6. Throughput time

Basic production layout format
The formats by which departments are arranged in a facility are defined by the general pattern of work flow.

Product Layout:
Product layout also called a flow-shop layout. Equipment or work processes are arranged according to the progressive steps by which the product is made.

The principles of management are the same for every clothing factory and the only difference is that of scale. While the basic purpose of factories may vary, all of them rely on the effectiveness of management in all the attainment of their objectives.

You may also like:

  1. Process Sequence of Garment (Sweater) Operation Breakdown
  2. Process Breakdown of Basic Shirt
  3. Improving Productivity of Garment Industry with Line Balancing
  4. Line Balancing and Bottleneck in Garment Production Line
  5. Line Balancing in Apparel Production: Objectives, Importance & Limitations
  6. Improvement of Sewing Line Productivity by Using Work Study Method
  7. Module & Responsibility of Industrial Engineering Department for Apparel Production
  8. Method of Planning, Monitoring and Increasing Productivity in Cutting Room
  9. How to Improve Productivity and Saving Cost in Sewing Department

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2 thoughts on “Operation Breakdown in Garment Industry”

  1. i am from Ethiopia.working in ethiopia as production/operation manager with Indian textile manufacturer called DLM PLC.


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