Loom Motions: Primary, Secondary and Stop Motions of Loom

Last Updated on 12/01/2021

Description of the Different Motions of the Loom

Muhaiminul Islam Ovi
Bangladesh University of Textiles
Email: ovi0907@gmail.com


What is loom?
Loom is a very necessary part for weaving. Loom is a machine or device which is used for producing woven fabric. Loom are driven by two ways. These are manual system and automatic system.

Different Motions of Loom
Fig: Different Motions of Loom (Image courtesy: Mdpi.com)

Types of Loom Motions:
The conversion of warp sheet into fabric by interlacing with weft yarn requires the basic operations to be carried out on loom in a specific order. It involves the primary motions, secondary motions and the stop motions.

Loom has three types of motion:

  1. Primary motion
  2. Secondary motion
  3. Tertiary motion or Stop motion

A. Primary motions of loom
The primary loom motions include the following three operations:

1. Shedding:- The process of making shed is called shedding. It is the process of separating the warp yarn into two layers to form a tunnel which is called shed, is known as shedding.

2. Picking:- The method of passing the weft threads traversely through warp yarn is called picking.

3. Beat up:- The process in which yarns are sent to the fell of the cloth is called beat up.

These operations occur in a given sequence and their precise timing in relation to one another is of extreme importance.

B. Secondary motions of loom
The secondary motions facilitate the weaving of fabric in a continuous way. These include:

1. Let off: This motion provides warp sheet to the weaving area at the required rate and under constant tension by unwinding it from weaver’s beam

2. Take-up: This motion draws fabric from the weaving area at a uniform rate to produce the required pick spacing and wind it onto a roller.

C. Tertiary motion or Stop motions of loom:
Tertiary motion is not necessary for fabric production. But these motions are used in the interest of quality and productivity; stopping the
loom immediately in case of some problem. The tertiary motions are:

  1. Warp stop motion.
  2. Weft stop motion.
  3. Reed stop motion.

The warp stop motion will stop the loom in case any warp yarn breaks, avoiding excessive damage to the warp threads. Similarly weft stop motion will come into action in the absence of weft yarn, and stop the loom.

Loom motion controls the fabric production. By using these motion weavers can produce different types of fabrics.

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