# Textile Calculation | Different Formula of Textile Calculation

Last Updated on 10/05/2021

### Different Formula of Textile Calculation

Ramandeep Singh
B.Tech, Dept. of Textile Engineering
Giani Zail Singh Punjab Technical University Campus,
Bathinda, Punjab, India
Email: rmnsandhu3335@gmail.com

Textile calculation is the compulsory part for textile engineering students and professionals. Without textile calculation textile engineering is incomplete. Every textile engineer has to know clear concept on different textile calculation formulas. In this article I have discussed different production calculation formulas such as yarn count, spinning (blowroom, carding, combing, ringframe etc), weaving (winding, warping, sizing etc) and dyeing.

Fiber Fineness, Yarn Counts and Conversions

Micronaire Value (Cotton): The unit is micrograms per inch. The average weight of one-inch length of fiber, expressed in micrograms (0.000001 gram).

Denier (Man-Made Fibers): Weight in grams per 9000 meters of fiber.

Micron (Wool): Fineness is expressed as fiber diameter in microns(0.001mm)

Conversions:

Denier = 0.354 x Micronaire value

Micronaire value = 2.824 x Denier

Yarn Counts
It is broadly classified into;

1. Indirect System
2. Direct System

1. Indirect System

• English count (Ne)
• French count (Nf)
• Metric count (Nm)
• Worsted count

Metric system: Metric count (Nm) indicates the number of 1-kilometer (1000 meter) lengths per Kg.

• Nm = length in Km / weight in kg (or)
• Nm = length meter / weight in grams

2. Direct System

• Tex count
• Denier

Conversion table for yarn counts:

 Tex Den Nm Grains/yd Tex den/9 1000/Nm gr.yd   x 70.86 Ne 590.54/tex 5314.9/den Nm x .5905 8.33 / gr/yd Den tex x 9 9000/Nm gr/yd x 637.7 Nm 1000/tex 9000/den 14.1 / gr/yd Grains/yd tex / 70.86 den / 637.7 14.1/Nm

Where, Nm – metric count, Nec – cotton count

Conversion table for weight

 Ounce Grains Grams Kilograms Pounds Ounce 437.5 grains 28.350 grams Grains 0.03527 ounces 0.0648 grams Grams 0.03527 grains 15.432 grains 0.001 kgs Kilograms 35.274 ounces 15432 grains 1000 grams 2.2046 pounds Pounds 16.0 ounces 7000 grains 453.59 grams 0.4536 kgs

Conversion table for linear measures

 Yard Feet Inches Centimeter Meter Yard 3 feet 36 inches 91.44 cms 0.9144 meter Feet 0.3333 yards 12 inches 30.48 cms 0.3048 meter Inches 0.0278 yards 0.0833 feet 2.54 cms 0.254 meter Centimeter 0.0109 yards 0.0328 feet 0.3937 inches 0.01meter Meter 1.0936 yards 3.281 feet 39.37 inches 100 cms

Calculations

• Grams per meter = 0.5905 / Ne
• Grams per yard = 0.54 / Ne
• Tex = den x .11 = 1000/Nm = Mic/25.4
• Ne = Nm/1.693
• DRAFT = (feed weight in g/m) / (delivery weight in g/m)
• DRAFT = Tex (feed) / Tex(delivery)
• DRAFT = delivery roll surface speed / feed roll surface speed
• No of hanks delivered by m/c = (Length delivered in m/min) / 1.605

Spinning Production Calculation Formula:

Blow Room:

1. Cleaning Efficiency % in Blowroom = (Waste% in Input – Waste% in Output) / (Waste% in Input)

2. Blow Room Production per Hour = π x D x G x Efficiency x Waste%

3. Production per Shift = (π x D x G x Efficiency x Waste% x No of Scutcher machine x 60 x shift) / (36 x 840 x Hank)

Carding:

………………………………………..Total Working Mins – Total Stoppage Mins
1. Carding Machine Effi.(%) = ———————————————————————x 100
………………………………………………………..Total Working Mins

………………………………………….…π x Doffer Dia x Doffer Speed x Efficiency x 60 x 24
2. Production per Day in Carding = —————————————————————————
………………………………………………………………36 x Sliver Hank x 840

………………………..Surface Speed of Doffer (inch/min) x 60 x 24 x Tension Draft
3. Production/Day = ——————————————————————————————–
…………………………….……………………….36 x Sliver Hank x 840

………………………………………….Wastage Weight
4. Carding Wastage% = ———————————————— x 100
……………………………………Wastage wt. + Sliver wt.

Comber:

……………………Nips/Min x Feed/Nip x No of Head x Lap Wt. x Effi. x Noil% x 60
1. Production/hr = ———————————————————————————————
……………………………………………………1000 x 1000

2. Production per Shift = Feed/Min x Lap Wt x Efficiency x noil% x No of Head x 60 x Shift x Bett Tension

Draw Frame:

………………………………Delivery Speed (m/min) x 1.0936 x Effi. x Wastage x 60
1. Production (kg/hr) = —————————————————————————————
……………………………………………………840 x Sliver Hank x 2.205

2.Production (lb/day) = Delivery Speed x Delivery Wt. x Effi(%) x No of Delivery/frame x No of Total Draw Frame

Simplex:

……………………………………………..Spindle Speed x No of Spindle x Efficiency x 60
1. Production (in lb) per Hour = —————————————————————————-
……………………………………………………….TPI x 36 x 840 x Roving Hank (Ne)

………………………..………..Total Shift Time – Total Stoppage Time
2. Machine Efficiency = ——————————————————————- x 100
…………………………………………….….Total Shift Time

Ring Frame:

…………………………..………..Spindle Speed x No of Spindle x Effi. x 60 x 8
1. Production per Shift = —————————————————————————-
……………………………………..…….TPI x Yarn Count x 36 x 840

…………………………..Production (lbs/day) x TPI x Yarn Count x 36 x 840
2. No of Spindle = —————————————————————————————
………………………………..…Spindle Speed x 60 x 24 x Efficiency

Winding

1. Slub catcher settings:

a. Fixed Blade = Carded – (2.0 to 2.5) x diameter
…………………….. Combed – (1.5 to 2.0) x diameter

b. Electronic yarn clearer = 3 cm x 3 diameter

c. Diameter in inch for Blended yarn  = 1/ (28 x √count)
…………………………………………………. = 10 to 15% more settings

…………………………………Number of objectionable thick faults removed by slub catcher
2. Yarn clearer effi.=………………………………………………………………………………..  x 100
…………………………………Total objectionable thick faults present in yarn before winding

…………………………….Total breaks during winding (at faults)
3. Knot factor =…………………………………………………………………….
…………………………No. of breaks due to objectionable yarn faults

……………………………………………….Strength of spliced joint x 100
4. Retained splice strength = …………………………………………………..
……………………………………………………Strength of parent yarn

5. Winding Tension = 0.1 x Single yarn strength in grams

……………………………………………………4500 x Y
6. Expected efficiency E = ………………………………………
……………………………………………… S x N (12 + 98)

7. Winder’s workload (0.17 min/operation on conventional winding m/c) = 2300 operations per shift of 8 hours

Where,

• 1 creeling or 1 piecing = 1 operation
• 1 doffing = 2 operations

8. Winder’s workload on autoconer (0.08 min per operation) = 4800 operations/shift of 8 hours

Where,

• 1 bobbing feeding = 1 operation
• 1 doffing (manual) = 4.5 operation

Y = Length/Bobbin (meters)
B = Breaks per bobbin
S = Winding speed (meters/min)
C = English count

9. Production in Kgs / 8 Hrs = (0.2836 x L x Effy x Nd) / (Ne)

• L – delivery speed in m/min
• effy – efficiency
• Ne – english count
• Nd – No of delvieries

10. P = (L x 1.0936 x 60 x Effy) / (Hank (Ne) x 36 x 840 x 2.2045)

• P – production in kgs / hr
• L – delivery speed in m/min
• effy- efficiency
• Ne – English count (number of 840 yards in one pound)
• 840 – constant
• 2.2045- to convert from lbs to kilograms

Warping

……………………………………………R x 100
1. Machine Efficiency E =………………………..
…………………………………………….R + S

R = Uninterrupted running time for 1,000 meters (in sec)

…………….1000 x 60
= ………………………………………………….
Machine speed in mtr/min.

S = Total of time in seconds for which the machine is stopped for a production of 1,000 meters

………….B X N X T1     T2          T3
= R + —————— + —— + ———– + T4
………………400             L          L x C

• B = Ends breaks/400 ends/1,000 meters
• N = Number of ends
• L = Set length in 1,000 meters
• C = Beams per creel

Timing of activities in seconds are:

• T1 = To mend a break
• T2 = To change a beam
• T3 = To change a creel
• T4 = Miscellaneous Time loss/1,000 mtrs.

2. Production in meters per 8 hrs. (K) = 480 x mtrs/min x E/100 kgs.

3. Production in Kgs. per 8 hrs. = (K x N)/ (1693 x English Count)

4. Warping Tension = 0.03 to 0.05 x Single thread strength

Sizing

………………………………………Length in meter x 1.094 x Total ends
1. Warp weight (in kg.) = ………………………………………………………x 100
……………………………………………….840 x 2.204 x Warp count

………………………………Sized warp weight – Unsized warp weight
2. Size pick-up % =……………………………………………………….………… x 100
……………………………………………Un-sized warp weight

3. Weight of size = Warp Weight x Size pick up %

……………………Sized warp length – Unsized warp length
4. Stretch % = ………………………………………..…………….………x 100
………………….. …………Un-sized warp length

…………………………………..Total-ends x Warp length in yards
5. Sized yarn count = ………………………………………………………
……………………………………..Sized warp weight (lbs) x 840

………………………………………..Wt. of sized yarn – Wt. of oven dried yarn
6. % of Moisture content= …………………………………………………………… x 100
………………………………………………………….Wt. of sized yarn

………………………….Deliver counter reading – Feed counter reading
7. % of Stretch =……………………………………..……………………………..… x 100
………………………………………. Feed counter reading

……………………………………………840,000 x D x C
8. % Droppings on loom = …………………………. x 100
………………………………………………454 Y x N x P

• D = Dropping in gms.
• C = English Count
• Y = Length woven (yds.)
• N = Number of Ends
• P = % size add on

9. Invisible Loss%

..Amount of size material issued – Amount of size added on yarn
= ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….x 100
………………………….Amount of size issued

Steam, Consumption (Sizing M/c) = 2.0 kg/kg of sized yarn
(Cooker) = 0.3 kg/kg of liquor
(Sow box) = 0.2 kg/kg of yarn

……………………………………………….No. of Cylinder x 1,000 x English count
10. Max. Speed of machine = ……………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………….(meters/min) Number of ends

………………………………………………….Number of ends x 0.6
11. Wt. of warp in gms/mtr = …………………………………….……
………………………………………………………English count

Weaving

1. Reed Count: It is calculated in stock port system.
……………………………….EPI
Reed width = ………………………………
…………………..1 + Weft crimp %age

No. of dents in 2 inches is called Reed Count

2. Reed Width:
………………………………………..100 + Weft crimp %age
Reed width = Cloth width x ………………………….…………
…………………………………………………….100

3. Crimp %:
……………………………….Warp length – Cloth length
Warp Crimp %age =…………………………………………. x 100
…………………………………………. Cloth length

…………………………….Weft length – Cloth length
Weft Crimp %age = ………………………………..………… x 100
……………………………………..Cloth length

……………………………………………EPI
4. Warp cover factor = ………………………………
………………………………………√Warp Count

…………………………………………PPI
5. Weft cover factor =…………………….
………………………………….√Weft count

…………………………………………………………………..Wp.C.F. x Wt. C.F.
6. Cloth cover factor = Wp.C.F. + Wt.C.F. – ……………………………….
……………………………………………………………………………….28

7. Maximum EPI for particular count:

a. For plain fabrics = 14 x √Count

b. For drill fabrics = √Count x 28 x 4/6

c. For satin fabric = √Count x 28 x 5/7

……………………………….Ends/repeat x 1 / yarn diameter
d. Other design = ………………………………………………………………………….
……………………….No. of intersections / repeat + ends/repeat

………………………………………1
8. Yarn diameter = ……………..…………..…
………………………………28 x √Count

Weave Density

1. Warp density = Ends/cm x √Tex x K
……………………= < 250

2. Filling density = Picks/cm x √Tex x K
…………………….= < 350

……………………………………………..(Warp density – 100) x F.D.- 100
3. Weave Density = 50 + ………………………………………………..………………
…………………………………………… (Weft density – 100) x F.D.- 100

4. Effective weave density = W.D. x K of loom width x K of Design = < 72

To change the count and number of thread/inches, keeping the same denseness of the fabric:

1. To change the EPI without altering the denseness:

…………………………….EPI in given cloth x √ Warp count in expected cloth
EPI in Exp.Cloth =…………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………….√ Warp count in given cloth

2. To change the count without altering the denseness
…………………………….EPI in exp. cloth2
EPI in exp. cloth = …………………………………x Count in given cloth
…………………………….EPI in given cloth

Warp requirement to weave a cloth:

…………………………………………………Total ends x 1.0936 x 453.59 x crimp%
1. Warp weight in gms/mtrs. =………………………………………………………..x Wasteage%
……………………………………………………………………840 x Count

2. Weft weight in gms/mtrs.

R.S. in inches x 453.59 x PPI
=………………………….……………..……x Crimp % x Waste %
…………840 x Count

3. Cloth length in mtrs.with the given weft weight

Weft wt. in kgs. x Weft count x 1848 x 0.9144
=……………………………………………………………..…………….
…………….PPI x R.S. in inches

For Silk and Polyester:

1. Warp weight in gms/mtrs.

..Total ends x Count (Denier)
= …………………………………………………x Crimp% x Waste %age
…………….9000

2. Weft weight in gms/mtrs.

RS in inches x PPI x Count (Denier)
= …………………………………………..……….. x Crimp% x Wasteage%
………………..9000

Allowance for count in Bleached and Dyed Fabric:

• Count becomes 4%
• Finer Dyed counts become max. 6% Coarser

Fabric production

…………………………………………………..Motor pulley diameter
1. Loom speed = Motor RPM x ………………………….…………………….
………………………………………………… Loom pulley diameter

………………………………………Actual production
2. Loom Efficiency % = ———————————- x 100
…………………………………..Calculated production

………………………………………Yarn weight – Dryed yarn weight
3. Moisture Regain % = —————————————————- x 100
……………………………………………..Dryed yarn weight

………………………………………..Yarn weight – dried yarn weight
4. Moisture Content % = ————————————————— x 100
……………………………………………………….Yarn weight

…………………………………..Total ends x Tape length in meter
5. Warp weight in Kg. = ————————————————-
……………………………………….1693.6 x Warp count

…………………………………..RS in centimeters x Cloth length in meters x PPI
6. Weft weight in Kg. = ——————————————————————–
………………………………………………….4301.14 x Weft count

…………………………………………….. EPI ………………PPI
7. Cloth weight in GSM = ——————– + ————————— x 25.6
……………………………………….Warp count  …….Weft count

………………………………………………GSM (Grams per sq. meter)
8. Oz (Ounce) per sq. yard = ———————————————–
……………………………………………………………..34

Material measurement:
For calculating of length of any rolled fabrics:

0.0655 (D – d) (D + d)
L = ————————————-
…………………t

Where,

• L = Length of material (feet)
• t = Thickness of fabrics (inches)
• D = Outside diameter (inches)
• d = Inside diameter (inches)

Weight of yarn in a cloth:
The weight of cloth manufactured on loom depends upon the weight of yarns in the warp and weft : ends/inch, picks/inch and the weight of size on the warp.

Therefore, Cloth weight = Weight of warp + Weight of weft + Weight of size (All in lbs.)

…………………………………………………Total No. of Ends x Tape length in yds.
Whereas Weight of warp in lbs. = —————————————————————
………………………………………………………….    .840 x Warp yarn count

Also, Weight of weft in lbs.

Length of cloth (yds) x Picks/inch in cloth x Reed width (inch)
= ———————————————————————————————–
……………………….840 x Weft yarn count

Dyeing Production Calculation Formula:

Dyeing calculation in lab dip

1. Required wetting agent = [{ Total liquor (lit) X Recipe amount in gm/l} / Stock solution%]

2. Required sequestering agent = [{ Total liquor (lit) X Recipe amount in gm/l} / Stock solution%]

3. Required amount of soda ash = [{ Total liquor (lit) X Recipe amount in gm/l} / Stock solution%]

4. Required Dye solution = [{Material weight X recipe amount % (or shade %)} / Stock solution%]

Production calculation of yarn dyeing machine

…………………………No. of Needle x No. of Feeder x Stitch length (mm) x RPM x Shift x Effi.
Production/Shift = …………………………………………………………………..…..…………………………
…………………………………………………10 x 2.54 x 36 x 30 x 840 x 2.206

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