Interview Questions and Answers for Apparel Jobs
Mazedul Hasan Shishir
Production Officer at Intramax Group
Recently apparel jobs have become the most wanted job in Bangladesh for textile and industrial engineers. Because apparel is also smart job compare to other jobs in textile arena. Novice textile engineers try to enter into apparel industry or a buying house because of job scarcity in another sector of textile. This article is written for whom, who try to get job in merchandising, industrial engineering, apparel marketing, trimmings and accessories marketing overall in apparel industry jobs. I think it will be more effective for candidate’s viva preparation.
1. What is clothing?
Ans. Clothing is one of the three basic needs of human being. Clothing is used for covering human body or other bodies to fulfill or satisfy the requirements of those bodies with the object of protection, decoration and identification.
2. What is Garment?
Ans: A garment is a piece of clothing.
3. What is apparel?
Ans: Clothes of a particular type when they are being sold in a shop. Apparel can also include things like name tags, jewelry or other stuff you wear.
4. Why woolen garments used in cooler climate?
Ans. The general configuration of wool fibre is helical and this configuration works as a wall for passing of cold or warm.
5. What is design or sketch?
Ans. In clothing industry design means determining the shape and cutting patterns of garments according to it.
6. What id basic block or block pattern?
Ans. Block patterns are the main or basic patterns which are constructed with definite and standard body measurement, but they do not possess any style or extra attractiveness or any type of allowances.
7. What is a pattern?
Ans. Pattern is the model of all components of garments on a hard paper board.
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8. Why pattern is produced?
- To make a set of templates of different components of garments.
- To make a large amount of production at a time.
- To minimize wastage and cost of garments.
9. What is working pattern or production pattern?
Ans. These are made on the basic of block pattern or basic block. Each block pattern is drawn or sketched on the hard paper board with the help of pencil. Then the following allowances and positions are added-
- Sewing allowance
- Trimming allowance
- Button attaching position
- Button holing position
- Plate etc.
10. What is invoice?
Ans. It is one kind of documents which contains the information’s about selling items. Normally there are two types of invoice-
- Proforma invoice- preliminary,
- Commercial invoice-finally.
11. Seam line/attaching point is marked by U or V notch? (yes/no)
12. How grain line is indicated/mentioned in patterns?
Ans. By arrow mark.
13. What is grain line?
Ans. It is the line, which is marked on the patterns of a garment and the line indicates the warp yarn, as a result, when the pattern is placed in the marking paper then the Grain line follow the warp yarn of fabric.
14. Grain line of pattern must be parallel of the fabric? (yes/no)
15. Define category?
Ans. In garments export and import business a definite type of garments is specified by a definite number which is called category.
16. What is approved sample?
Ans. The sample which is approved by the buyer is called approved sample.
17. What is counter sample?
Ans. The manufacturers produce several numbers of samples following the approved sample which is known as counter samples. They facility the bulk production or hung on production floor.
18. What do you mean by allowance?
Ans. In case of garments making some additional measurements are added with standard body measurement which is termed as allowances. This allowances is 1cm or 1inch.there are two types of allowance-(I) Trimming allowance. (II) Sewing allowances.
19. What is interlining?
Ans. A layer of fabric which is used between two layer of fabric to give the particular area desired shape and to enhance the strength of that particular position which is called interlining. e.g. collar, cuff.
20.What are the types of interlining?
- Sewable interlining,
- Fusible interlining.
21. What do you mean by lining?
Ans. A layer of fabric which is used in the inner side of garments to increase the comfort-ability of the garments which is called lining. e.g. suits, coats, ladies and babies wear.
22. What do you mean by FDI?
Ans. FDI= Foreign direct investment. These types of investment directly come from foreign country.
23. What is overlocking or neatening?
Ans. The sewing process of cutting edge of the fabric. So that the slack yarn cannot be opened.
24. What is seaming?
Ans. The attaching procedure of different components of garments.
25. What is stitch?
Ans. The unit of sewing or seam.
26. What is seam?
Ans. The line of sewing of one or more than one layers of fabric/the line of joining of fabric.
27. What do you mean by trimmings?
Ans. Beside fabric the components which are needed to make a complete garments termed as trimmings. e.g. Button, sewing thread, lining, interning etc.
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28. What is ticket number?
Ans. It indicates the coarseness or fineness of a sewing thread.
29. What is L/C?
Ans. L/C means letter of credit. It is one kind of agreement between buyer and seller. Very frequently asked question in garments job interview.
30. What is pattern grading?
Ans. Grading means the stepwise increase or decrease of a master pattern piece to create large or small size. Grading alters the overall size of a design but not its general shape and appearance. If buyer requires different sizes, we would have to grade the dimension. It may be S.L, X.L and XXL.
31. What are the method of grading?
Ans. Grading can be apply two method – (I) manual method, (II) computerized method.
32. Marker as a guideline for cutting? (yes/no)
33. What is back taking?
Ans. During sewing we need to start or end it prior to 1cm or after 1cm respectively to secure the sewing end. This is termed as back tacking.
34. What is bar tacking?
Ans. We continue sewing for several times within a vary short distance to increase the load or strength of that particular portion which is termed as bar taking.e.g- edge of pocket, belt loop, Fly piece etc.
35. What is blind stitch?
Ans. A particular type of stitch which is not visible from the face side of the garments.
36. What do you mean by C.B.L and C.F.L?
Ans. C.B.L= center back line, C.F.L= center front line
37. What are disposable garments?
Ans. The garments which are used for one time only called disposable garments. e.g. Medical garments.
38. What do you mean by Flap?
Ans. It’s the part of pocket which covers the pocket opening.
39. What is marker?
Ans. Marker is a thin paper which contain all necessary pattern pieces for all sized for a particular style of garments. it’s a representation or drawing of the arrangement of the identified materials. It is a basic question for apparel jobs interview.
40. Fabric width and length must be higher than the marker width and length? (yes/no)
41. Grain line should be parallel to the warp direction in a woven fabric or the Wales in a knitted fabric? (true/false)
42. What is formula of marker efficiency?
Ans. Marker efficiency= total area of pattern pieces in a marker/total area of marker × 100%
43. The less the fabric wastage, the higher the marker efficiency?(true/false)
44. The more the marker length, the higher the marker efficiency? (True/false)
45. What do you mean by garments size?
Ans. The size of garments can be expressed by two methods-
- Alphabetical expression e.g. S, M, L, XL, XXL
- Numerical expression e.g. 38, 39, 40, 41, 42 (in cm or in inch)
46. Write down the feature of T-shirt?
- Casual tops,
- Narrow neck line,
- Usually short sleeve,
- No collar
47. Write down the feature of polo shirt?
Ans. (I) Tops, (II) short/long sleeve, (III) collar, (IV) short button placket or neck opening.
48. How can you divide all garments?
Ans. All types of garments can be divided mainly two groups – (I) Tops part, (II) Bottom part.
49. Write down the feature of pull oven / sweater?
Ans. (I) Warm shirt, (II) Long sleeve, (III) Waist band, (IV) Pull on over head.
50. Write down the feature of Tank-loop?
Ans. (I) Sleeve less pullover, (II) Used over a shirt (III) Warm shirt (IV) Waist band, (V) Pull on over head.
51. Write down the feature of cardigan?
Ans. (I) Open front, (II) Fastened with a zip or button, (III) Waist band.
52. What do you mean by CAD?
Ans. CAD means computer aided design: In apparel industry CAD systems are mainly used for garments design, pattern preparation, pattern grading and marker marking.
53. What do you mean by CAM?
Ans. CAM means computer aided manufacturing. It includes computerized sewing machines, fabric spreading machines, cutting systems.
54. Write some important meaning?
- CM= Cost of making
- CMT= Cost of making with trimmings
- FOB= Freight on boat
- C & F= Cost and freight
- CIF= cost, insurance and freight
- L/C= letter of credit
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55. What is cloth spreading/laying?
Ans. To spread cloth as determined by needed quantity as per marking/ the smooth laying out of fabric in superimposed layer of specified length.
56. What do you mean by fabric cutting?
Ans. To cut the cloth according to marker of patterns for sewing.
57. What are the methods of fabric cutting?
(A) Manual method
- Round knife
- Band knife
- Straight knife
- Die cutting
- Notcher & -Drill
(B) Computerized method
- Straight knife cutting
- Water jet cutting
- Leaser beam cutting
- Plasma torch cutting
58. What do you know about fusible interlining?
Ans. The interlining which is attaching to the garments component by the application of temperature and pressure is called fusible interlining
59. How fusible interlining is manufactured?
Ans. By using a resin coating of thermoplastic materials on a piece of fabric.
60. For symmetrical fabric marker efficiency is high and less efficiency for asymmetrical fabric? (True/false)
61. The more large patterns and less small patterns reduce marker efficiency? (True/false)
62. For more small patterns, marker efficiency will be increased? (True/false)
63. What do you know about symmetrical fabric?
Ans. Fabric which can retain the same appearance in case of turning in 180° angle called symmetrical fabric. e.g. solid dyed fabric.
64. What do you know about the asymmetrical fabric?
Ans. Asymmetrical fabric is those which can not retain the same appearance while turning in 180° angle. E.g. pile fabric, brushed fabric etc.
65. What are the methods of marker making?
66. What are the wastage of marker?
(I) Inside wastage
(II) Outside wastage
- Ends of ply losses (2-4) inch
- Loss of fabric ends
- Selvedge losses
- Purchase losses
67. What is sample?
Ans. The garment which is needed for bulk production is called sample garment.
68. What is sewing?
Ans. The process of joining of fabric by the use of needle and sewing thread is called sewing.
69. What are the basic components of sewing?
- Throat plate
- Pressure foot
- Feed dogs
- Sewing thread and fabric.
70. Write some name of sewing defects?
- Seam pucker
- Broken or open stitch
- Staggered stitch
- Slipped or skipped stitch
- Vertical stitch density.
71. What do you mean by seam puckering?
Ans. Stitching with unwanted gathering.
72. What do you mean by pressing and Finishing?
Ans. The process by which the unwanted crease and winkles are removed from the garments and the outlook of the garments is improved as well.
73. Which iron is used for industrial purposes?
Ans. Steam irons.
74. What do you know about lings?
Ans. Lings is the measuring unit of button diameter. To measure the outer diameter of button we use lings number. 1 ling = 1/40 inch = 0.025 inch = 0.636 mm
75. How many types of label?
Ans. There are mainly three types of label
- Main label,
- Size label,
- Care label.
The all other of label are called sub label.
76. What do you know about motif?
Ans. The special component which is attached outside of the garment for decorative purpose called motif. e.g. company name, trade mark or other symbols can be written on the motif.
77. What do you know about dart and pleat ?
- Dart = part of cloth is folded and stitched to slenderize it
- A pleat is a type of fold formed by doubling fabric back upon itself and securing it in place or the pleat shows the form being folded and stitched.
78. How many types of woven fabric?
Ans. Three types – (I) yarn dyed (II) solid dyed(s/d) (III) Denim
79. Desizing is mandatory or obvious before washing (True/False)
80. Why hot ash is necessary?
Ans. To clean the desize chemicals (introduction to cold water re-solidify the fat and wax)
81. Why M:L is important?
Ans. Without m:l we can not determine the required amount of dyes, chemicals and water during dyeing, washing and other wet processing. That’s why m:l is important.
82. What is the mechanism of producing fading effect in garments manufacturing?
Ans. Three process of fading mechanism –
- Chemical action.
- Mechanical action
- Biological action.
83. How many types of mechanical abrasion in garments washing?
Ans. Three types –
- Garment to garment.
- Garment to m/c
- Garment to solid material (e.g. stone)
84. How many types of chemical action in garment washing?
Ans. Three types-
- Regular(Bleach wash)
- Irregular(Acid wash)
- Local(p.p.spray, p.p.sponge)
85. What is the factor depends on action of washing?
- Mechanical abrasion
- Chemical action
86. What do you mean by costing and pricing/?
- Costing = Total consumption of garments without profit
- Pricing = costing with profit.
87. What do you know about back to back L/C opening?
Ans. For purchasing fabric and accessories against main L/C.
88. What is lead time in garments?
Ans. Time start from L/C opening or order receive to garments delivery is called lead time.
- Lead time — local market = 45 days
- Foreign market = 90-120 days
89. What is stock lot?
Ans. When goods are made for buyer but not possible to shipping as a result goods are stain at store. This goods are called stock lot .
90. How many parts of jacket?
Ans. Three parts-
- Upper part is called shell
- Inner part is called lining
- Middle part is called interlining.
91. Write down the other commercial name of interlining?
Ans. Padding / wedding/ Bedding / polyfil.
92. What types of garments are made from feather?
Ans. Overcoats, jackets, pillow, blanket etc.
93. What types of feather are used for making garments?
Ans. Duck chest feathers.
94. What do you mean by quality?
Ans. Quality is the difference between the products or It is the goodness or badness in a product or the feather of a product which satisfy customers or end users.
95. What do you mean by label?
Ans. Label is an attached component of garment on which important information regarding the garment are written or printed.
96. What do you mean by WWSC and RSWD?
- WWSC = wash with similar color
- RSWD = Re shape whilst damp.
97. Which inspection system widely used in garment industry?
Ans. 4-points system.
98. What do you mean by TAP and AQL?
- TAP = Total acceptable product in a lot
- AQL = Acceptable quality limit.
99. What do you mean by core spun thread/yarn?
Ans. This thread /yarn has continuous filament polyester wrapped in cotton fibres.
100. What do you mean by OE & CE zipper?
- OE zipper = open end zipper – use in jacket
- CE zipper = closed end zipper – use in baggage.
101. If 40 or more than 40 defects are present in 100 square yards then the fabric is considered as rejected in four-point system (True/false)?
102. What is the name of first garments industry in Bangladesh?
Ans. REAZ garments.
103. What do you mean by garments final inspection?
Ans. Garments final inspection is to take decision whether the lot will be passed for shipment or it will be rejected.
104. What are the different types of sampling inspection of garments?
- Without inspection,
- 100% inspection,
- Spot inspection,
- Arbitary inspection,
- Acceptance inspection.
105. Write down the section of shirt making?
- Collar section,
- Cuff section,
- Body section.
106. What do you mean by PD, WR, WP, and TC?
Ans. PD= Plain dyed, WR= Water repellent, WP= Water proof, TC= Tetron & cotton, SD= solid dyed, YD= Yarn dyed.
107. What is pattern?
Ans. The pieces of thick paper are required in the form necessary to make or style of garments is called pattern.
108. What do you mean by marking?
Ans. Drawing as patterns on the as per style.
109. What is consumption?
Ans. Needed quantity of cloth as per dz according to marker.
110. What do you mean by assortment?
Ans. To determine the quantity of garments according to size and colour.
111. What types of style of collar?
- One-piece (Banded) collar,
- Two-piece (banded) collar,
- Sport open (no bended) collar.
112. How many types of cuff according to style?
Ans. Four types —
- Squared, Rounded,
113. How many types of cuff according to construction?
Ans. Two types—
- One-piece cuff (The cuff which includes both front & back in one piece of cloth),
- Two-piece cuff (two piece of cloth).
114. Write down the types of front of a shirt?
Ans. (I) Plain, (II) Top center, (III) French front.
115. How many types of sleeve?
Ans. (I) Long genbol, (II) Sleeve placket, (III) Hemmed sleeve.
116. How many types of yoke?
- One-piece plain yoke (yoke and back are one piece of cloth),
- Two-piece single yoke (yoke is separated from the back but yoke is one piece)
- Two-piece double yoke (yoke is separated from the back but yoke is two piece of yokes)
117. How many types of pocket style?
Ans. (I) plain, (II) Hexagon, (III) Rounded, (IV) squared, (V) Hemmed.
118. How many types of bottom style of a shirt?
Ans. (I) Straight bottom, (II) Tailed bottom.
119. What are the styles or types of packing and folding of shirt?
- Stand up (collar is folded to remain at 90° angle from the floor level)
- Semi stand up (collar is folded to remain at 45° angle from the floor level)
- Flat pack (collar is laid to the floor level at 0° angle)
- Hanger pack (collar is folded for a hanger).
120. What are the styles of shirt?
Ans. (I) Basic/regular, (II) Casual/Irregular, (III) Sport shirt, (IV) Blouse
121. What do you mean by numbering in garments?
Ans. This process is to put a number on each part of a garment after cutting. So that the same numbers of each part might be combined at the time of sewing.
122. What is sorting?
Ans. This process is to sort by size and color after cutting.
123. Write down the attention point when marking
- Jumping & bias should not occur
- Position marking
- Must fit the end of the net (one side) line
- Must check the quantity whether all the parts are marked as directed.
124. When dies cutting is used?
Ans. For interlining cutting
125. What is inlay/sewing allowance?
Ans. The fabric which is kept excess of the seam line at the time of sewing is called inlay/sewing allowance.
126. Inlay is sewing allowance but sewing allowance is not inlay? (Yes/No)
127. What do you mean by Gusset (Front facing)?
Ans. The part which is folded into the inside of the front. This is two types—
- Upper front gusset,
- Lower front gusset.
128. What do you know about inlay (sewing allowance)?
Ans. The part which is folded into the inside during sewing.
129. What is back stitching?
Ans. It is stitching to back after finishing the stitch length; it is normally 3-5 stitches.
130. What is error part?
Ans. When left and right are attached being interchanged with each other or both right or left are attached in case of cuffs and sleeves is called error part.
131. Stitching and sewing, which is visible and invisible?
132. What is double stitching?
Ans. The stitching which has two lines keeping constant distance is called double stitching.
133. What do you know about slip out?
Ans. When the interlocking stitching stitches do not lock with each other along the sewing line then it is called slip out.
134. What do you mean by floating?
Ans. Few stitches, which are not passed through the cloth of proper interval during sewing is known as floating.
135. Write down the classification of assortment/packing?
- Solid size, solid color,
- Solid size, assort color, Assort size, solid color,
- Assort size, assort color.
136. What do you mean by Y-shirt?
Ans. Basic shirt/regular shirt/Dress shirt.
137. What do you mean by casual/irregular shirt?
Ans. Various types of style.
138. What do you mean by sport shirt?
Ans. The shirt which is sporty and needs no neck tie.
139. What are the function of clothing?
Ans. 1. Protection 2. Decoration 3. Identification
140. What is the requirement of clothing?
Ans. 1. Suitability, 2. Appearance, 3. Comfort, 4. Aftercare, 5. stability
141. How can we difference between a ladies shirt and a Gents shirt?
Ans. Buttons are on the opposite side to that of gent’s shirt,
- Ladies shirt: Upper front part is right side.
- Gents shirt: Upper front part is left side.
- Ladies pant: Fly piece is right side.
- Gents pant: fly piece is left side.
142. What is E-Textiles?
Ans. E-textile also known as electronic textiles are fabrics that enable computing, digital components and electronics to be embedded in them. The emphasis of e-textile will be on creating a women textile with embedded copper which will provide the usual wear comfort and at the same time it will have a circuit with a few chips sunning at few megahertz.
Example: In the field of medical prevention and rehabilitation it becomes highly necessary to continuously monitor the patient’s health condition by keeping sensing devices close to the body and e-textile can successfully accomplish senior functionality.
143. What is the reason for clothing?
- Protection against adverse climate conditions
- Aristocratic reason
144. Size of Human?
- Men-(i). Short- 5’ 3” to 5’ 7” (ii). Regular- 5’8” to 6’ (iii). Tall- above 6’
- Women-(i). Short 4’11” to 5’3” (ii). 5’4” to 5’7” (iii). Tall above 5’7”
145. What is Production pattern/Garments pattern?
Ans. When necessary allowances are added to the working patterns, then they are called production pattern.
146. What is Working pattern?
Ans. The patterns which are made with net dimension of a particular style called working patterns.
147. What methods are used to make Block patterns?
Ans. i. Flat method ii. Modeling method
148. What are the methods of pattern grading?
Ans. (i). Manual grading, (ii). Computer aided grading.
149. What is half part grading?
Ans. If the increasing or decreasing is done in every sides of a pattern, then it is called half part grading.
149. What is ¼th part grading?
Ans. If the increasing or decreasing is done in either lengthwise or width wise or in any two sides of a pattern then it is called ¼th part grading.
150. What is C.B.L (Center back line)?
Ans. Middle point of back neck up to the bottom end in the back part of a shirt.
151. What is C.F.L (Center front line)?
Ans. Line from the top button to the bottom end in the face side of a shirt.
152. What is collar stand or collar band?
Ans. It’s the part of a collar in which collar stands in upward direction. Collar stands in upward direction.
153. What is cuff?
Ans. It is the end point of sleeve of a shirt laying around the wrist.
154. What is Ticket number?
Ans. It indicates the coarseness or fineness of a sewing thread. e.g. 3/60, 2/80 etc.
155. What is Hemming?
Ans. The process of sewing of an edge or border on a piece of cloth, especially a finished edge, as for a garment or curtain, made by folding an edge under and stitching it down. e.g. Bottom edge of a shirt.
156. What is lead-time?
Ans. The time interval between the initiation and the completion of a production process.
157. How design can be developed?
- Sketching (Two-dimension method): Usually developed on paper
- Modeling (Three-dimension method): Usually developed dummy or live model
- Computer aided design (CAD): Usually developed using design related software.
158. T-shirt Feature.
- Refers as casual
- Garments with narrow neckline,
- Garments with short or long sleeves,
- No collar/Cuff, and
- Usually made of cotton.
159. Polo-shirt feature.
- Used to cover the upper body part (Tops),
- Garments with short/long sleeves,
- Garments with collar and cuffs,
- Short button placket or short chest opening, and
- Made of either 100% cotton or CVC or PC.
160. Tank Top feature.
- It is a sleeveless pull over,
- It is used over a shirt,
- Used as warm shirt,
- Garments with waist band, and
- It is put on overhead.
161. Pull over/Sweater feature.
- Used as warm shirts,
- Garments with long sleeves,
- Garments with waist band, and
- Put on overhead.
162. Cardigan feature.
- Open front and fastened with a zipper or button,
- Garments with waist band,
- Used as warm shirts, and
- Usually made of wool/acrylic.
163. Shirt feature.
- Upper-body garment with a collar, cuffs and pocket,
- A full vertical opening and fastened with buttons,
- With short or long sleeves, and
- Men’s shirt having lower front part at right hand side and for women it is exactly opposite.
164. Sportswear feature.
- Auto motorcycle racing wear
- Bike wear
- Golf apparel
- Ski wear (winter garments)
- Sports jersey and track tops
- Sports shorts and trousers
- Swim wear and beach wear
- Training and jogging wear
165. What is the function of CAD in apparel industries?
- Garments design.
- Pattern design & pattern preparation.
- Pattern grading
- Marker making
166. What is the function of CAM in apparel industries?
- Fabric spreading.
- Cutting systems.
- Mover systems.
- Sewing systems.
167. What is grading?
Ans. Grading means the step wise increase or decrease of a master pattern piece to create large or small size. Grading alters the overall size of a design but not it̕s general shape & appearance.
168. What is the main objective of marker?
- To minimize the fabric wastage
- To improve the quality of garments.
169. What are the main product are produced in garments Industry in Bangladesh?
Ans. Woven shirt, T-shirt, trouser, jacket, jogging shuts, sweaters, jersey etc.
170. How much currency earn from garments sector in Bangladesh every year?
Ans. Above 75%.
171. What is quota?
Ans. Kind of agreement between the exporter country where importer country mentions a specific number of garments.
172. When established garments industry in Bangladesh?
Ans. In 1960,” REAZ” garments.
173. What is the basic difference between sewing and stitching?
- Sewing is Invisible
- Stitching is Visible
174. What is the difference between the yarn and thread?
- Yarn = (i) Yarn is used for producing fabrics (Knit & Woven). (ii) Normally it is single ply.
- Thread = (i) Thread is used for garments sewing. (ii) It is normally two or three or four plies.
175. What measurement unit used in America and Europe.
Ans. America use=Inch, Europe use=Centimeter (cm).
176. What are the sections of sewing used for making a shirt?
Ans. There are three sections-
- Collar section
- Cuff section
- Body section
177. What type of woven fabric?
Ans. 1. Yarn dyed, 2. Solid dyed, 3. Denim.
178. What is Line Balancing?
Ans. Line Balancing is the allocation of sewing machines according to style and design of garment. It depends on, what type of garments we have to produce. This question is frequently asked in apparel jobs interview.
179. What is Compliance?
Ans. Compliance means comply something’s that is yield to the wishes another. The main aim of compliance is to ensuring the all labour rights and facilities according to the Buyer code of conduct.
180. What are the different types of order?
- FOB (Free on boat) order
- FOA (Free on air) order
- C & F (Cost and freight) order
- CIF (Cost, insurance and freight) order
- CIFC (Cost, insurance, freight and commission) order
- CMT (Cutting, making and trimmings) order
- CM (Cost of making) order
- TT (Telephonic transfer) order
- Subcontract order
- Exchange order.
181. What do you mean by FOB (Free on boat) order?
Ans. This is the export term of delivery and price quotation. The sellers send the goods for export and delivers them on boat (the ship). The risk is passed from seller to buyer when the goods are loaded in the ship at the port of departure. The buyer payes the freight charges. The seller does not include the freight charge with his costing.
182. What do you mean by FOA (Free on air) order?
Ans. The seller delivers the goods to the air carrier at the airport of departure. The buyer bears the risk from that moment and payes the air transport cost. The seller bears the cost of materials and making, does not include air freight.
183. What do you mean by C & F (Cost and freight) order?
Ans. The sellers send the goods for export, payes the freight charge and deliver them on boat (the ship). The risk is passes to the buyer when the goods are left the port of departure.
184. What do you mean by CIF (Cost, insurance and freight) order?
Ans. This is identical to the C&F term except that in addition, the seller ensures (pay the insurance bill) the goods against loss and damage at his own cost.
185. What do you mean by CIFC (Cost, insurance, freight and commission) order?
Ans. At this type of order, the seller includes the cost of insurance, freight and commission for local buying house.
186. What do you mean by CMT (Cutting, making and trimmings) order?
Ans. In this case, the buyer fixes the rate of CMT with the factory. So, the seller does not add the price of fabric with his costing, but at L/C buyer gives all money to the factory. The factory collects only CMT money from the bank. Balance money return to the fabric supplier. This ordering system is following the tailoring shop.
187. What do you mean by CM (Cost of making) order?
Ans. In this case, the buyer fixes the rate of CM only with the factory. So, the seller does not add the price of fabric and trimmings with his costing, but at L/C buyer gives all money to the factory. The factory collects only CM money from the bank. Balance money return to the fabric and accessories supplier.
188. What do you mean by TT (Telephonic transfer) order?
Ans. When order quantity is very small and need urgent delivery, in that case, buyer gives purchase contract instead of L/C and sends money to seller bank by TT. After getting money, the seller sends the goods to buyer.
189. What do you mean by Subcontract order?
Ans. It is indirect order, the order is received by another factory and when it is not possible for that factory to complete the production within the time, in that case they share the order with other factory by giving subcontract. The subcontract factory only gets the CM charge by local money from the order taker.
190. What do you mean by Exchange order?
Ans. In this case, the buyer did not pay any money against buying garments from Bangladesh. Instead of money, they are giving another goods or products, which is surplus in their country but we need it very much. This type of business is very rare. They use L/C for doing this type of business.
191. What do you mean by Proforma invoice?
Ans. Proforma invoice is temporary commercial invoice, which is send by exporter to importer. It helps to open a letter of credit (L/C) in favor of exporter by importer. It helps the foreign buyer to obtain an import license if it is necessary.
192. What do you mean by commercial invoice?
Ans. Commercial invoice is the final invoice and basic document. It contains all the details like name & address of importer and exporter, description of goods, quantity, rate, value of goods, details of shipment.
193. What do you mean by letter of credit (L/C)?
Ans. It is important document, which is used for doing the business, where Bank is responsible for payment in favor of sellers. It is a means/instrument for opening a credit (L/C) in favor of exporter by importer to make payment on fulfillment of conditions within given time. It is a very common question in apparel jobs interview.
194. What is Tag gun?
Ans. It is used for attaching the Hang tag, Price ticket etc.
195. What do you mean by Bill of Exchange?
Ans. A Bill of Exchange is a legal document and order in writing, requesting the drawee (Factory) to pay within the specified time. The drawer (supplier), drawee and payee (Bank) are involved in this transaction. The Bill of Exchange also known as draft, can be right draft or wsanee draft.
196. What do you mean by Bill of Landing?
Ans. Bill of Landing is a document issued by the shipping company acknowledging that the goods have been shipped on board and undertaking that the goods as received will be delivered to the consignee (Buyer).
When the export contract is CIF, then the exporter makes payment of the freight and gets “freight paid” Bill of Landing. On the other hand, if the contract is FOB, the freight has to be paid by the importer. In that case, the shipping company will issue a “freight collect” Bill of Landing.
197. What do you mean by Shipping Bill?
Ans. The shipping bill is the main documents required by the customs authority for allowing shipment. It contains description of export goods and other particulars as defined in The Sea Customs Act, name of the vessel in which goods are to be shipped, Country of Destination etc.
198. What do you mean by Shipping Order?
Ans. It is a document issued by the shipping line intimating the shipper (Exporter) about the reservation of space for shipment of cargo through a particular vessel from a specified port and on a specified date.
199. What do you mean by Vehicle Ticket/Cart Ticket?
Ans. It is a gate pass for port gate. It is prepared for admittance of cargo through the port gate. It contains details of cargo for export, the shipper name, cart, lorry number, gate number, marks on package, quantity and description.
200. What is pattern engineering?
Ans. It is the engineering idea which is applied at the time of marking for reducing the consumption of fabric. In this case consumption is reduced by overlapping the patterns or reducing the patterns or dividing the patterns into two parts like cuff, side pocket of pant etc.
201. What is Style?
Ans. A style is a type of product that has one or more specific feature or characteristics that distinguish it and make it different from other product of the same type. e.g. A crew neck is one style of neck line and a turtle neck is another style.
202. What is Design?
Ans. Within a specific style there can be many variations in trimmings, texture, decoration or other details like embroidery, screen printing etc. The individual interpretation or variations of the same styles are called design. One style can be many designs.
203. What is Fashion?
Ans. Fashion means consumer acceptance, the prevailing or accepted style in dress or personal decoration established or adopted during a particular time or season. The most widely recognize fashion authority, the late Dr. Paul-H-Nystrom (1928) define fashion is similar words as “Nothing more or less than the prevailing style at any given time”.
204. What do you mean by D/P (Document of payment)?
Ans. Under this method, the goods are shipped and documents are sent to the importer through the banking channel. The documents are handed over to the clearing (C&F) agent for clearing the goods from the port.
205. What do you mean by D/A (Documents in Acceptance)?
Ans. Under this method of payment terms, importer takes delivery of the documents on acceptance of a claim in the form of Bill of Exchange from the bank through whom documents are sent after goods are shipped. In this method there is risk of non-acceptance of bill and non-payment due to bankruptcy.
206. What are the processes for fixation of export prices?
Ans. There are three processes-
- FOB (Free on board)
- C & F (Cost & Freight) (FOB cost+ Freight = C & F) and
- CIF (Cost, insurance & freight) (C&F cost + Insurance = CIF)
207. What is consumption?
Ans. In the garments trade, consumption means quantity of raw materials with a view to determine the price of a garment. In order to calculate the above quantity how much fabric, sewing thread, button, label, zipper and other accessories are required to produce a garment up to the exporting is called consumption.
208. How many types of accessories?
Ans. Two types-
- Visible accessories e.g. button, sewing thread etc
- Invisible accessories e.g. interlining
209. What do you know about synthetic thread/yarn?
Ans. This is large group of thread/yarn made mainly from nylon, polyester, rayon and polyamide filaments or fibres.
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It’s me, a Textile Consultant, Blogger & Entrepreneur. I’m working as a textile consultant in several local and international companies. I’m also a contributor of Wikipedia.