Inspection in Batch Selection of Finished Knit Fabrics
Mustaque Ahammed Mamun
Department of Textile Engineering
Dhaka University of Engineering & Technology (DUET)
Inspection of the finished knit fabrics to evaluate it whether it is acceptable or not is not an easy task. Based on the inspection result, fabrics roll is evaluated and if the roll is rejected then it leads to increased wastage. To inspect and evaluate a fabric roll, there are a number of methods are recognized internationally but among them four-point system are widely used fabric inspection. In four-point system fabric is evaluated based on the fault dimension occurred during processing i.e. Knitting, Dyeing and Finishing. For every fault, there is a respective penalty points and by calculating them through a formula fabric roll is evaluated. In knitting, dyeing and finishing several fabric faults are occurred among them some are recoverable and some are not. A manufacturer always tries to minimize the fault to reduce the fabric wastage. In order to observe the inspection system of finished knit fabric an observation was done in a recognized factory by the name ECHO-TEX Limited. The factory produces knit fabrics and garment items.
- To know the different method of fabric inspection.
- Learning how a fabric roll is inspected to select for next stage.
- To observe the different defects visualized in the finished fabric.
- To understand the fabric inspection system in factory.
- To take a bird’s eye view over the different documents used in inspection.
What is inspection?
Visual examination or review of raw materials, partially finished components of the garments and completely finished garments in relation to some standard, specifications or requirements in order to satisfy the buyers demand.
To perform the inspection task successfully, it is run by maintaining following inspection loop-
Advantages and importance:
- Avoids wastage of time and money.
- Avoidance of unnecessary use of resources.
- Helps in timely delivery of goods.
- Guarantees customers satisfaction.
Steps of inspections in garments industries: Mainly inspections are done in three steps in garment industries. The steps are:
Fabric inspection is important as it is directly related with the quality of the final garment. Fabric inspected to determine it acceptability from a quality view point, otherwise extra cost may be incurred due to either the loss of material or time. Fabric should be inspected before cutting, the defects marked and the patterns cut around the defects so that they are not included in the final garment. Width of the marker is critical, especially to the manufacturer of basic garments.
Fabric inspection procedure:
Fabric Inspection System:
There are a number of systems available to inspect the fabric which are-
- 4-point system
- 10-point system
- Graniteville system
Among them 4-point system is granted by AAMA and AAQC and that is why widely used for fabric inspection.
Four-point System implied in ECHO-TEX: The four-point system is widely used for fabric inspection. In this system, defected points are found in 100 square yards of fabric by inspection. The fabric is rejected if the defected points are greater than 40. But in ECHO-TEX this system is somewhat differ from standard pattern because of the consistent relationship with buyer and quality assurance.
The penalty points with defects length dimension and the fabric category based on points measured are given below:
|Points with respective fault dimension||Classification of inspected fabric|
|Size of defect||Penalty||Points||Grade|
|0-3”||1 points||40||A Grade|
|3-6”||2 points||41-60||B Grade|
|6-9”||3 points||61-80||C Grade|
|>9” and all hole||4 points||80 above||Reject|
Finished Fabric Defects:
- Oil Stain,
- Chemical Spot,
- Water Drops,
- Fly Yarn,
- White Specks,
- Dirty Spot,
- Rub Mark,
- Rust Stain,
- Yarn Conta.,
- Insect Spot,
- Color Spot,
- Wrong Design,
- Uneven Shade,
- Crease Mark,
- GSM Hole,
- Needle Line,
- Crample Mark,
- Dead Cotton,
- Line Mark,
- Thick/ Thin,
- Machine Stoppage,
- Barre Mark,
- Pin Hole,
- Lycra Out etc.
Fabric inspection equipment’s:
An inspection report has been attached which has collected from the finishing section of ECHO-TEX Limited. It represents the different faults along with contents contained in a report.
Inspection report along with sample: An inspection report of the running fabric has been attached which was collected from in-line inspection process. The parameters were-
- Order No: Tu-742
- Buyers: Sains Bury’s
- Shade: Black
- Fabric type: Single Jersey
- GSM: 180
- Width: 68 inches
Contents of a Batch Card: A batch card of finishing section has been attached collected from ECHO-TEX Limited. The contents are also given here-
Final Inspection Conforming:
After inspection if the fabric roll is accepted then a conforming card is attached to it. The conforming card contains different parameters such as: Buyer name, Shade, Style, Order, required width, Actual width, Required GSM, Actual GSM, Yarn count, Composition, Roll No, Roll weight and Fabric roll length.
Conforming card sample: A conforming card has been attached here which was collected from the visited factory. It also represents the different parameters contains in it.
The inspection and evaluation procedure and pattern of finished knit fabrics are varied from factory to factory. Although, a standard method is followed in every factory. The reason behind this is that, the relation between buyers to factory and quality assured by the factory. There are various types of fault are visualized in the finished fabric which always try to minimize to reduce the fabric wastage. And only, finishing stage is the last stage where fabric defects can be minimized.
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It’s me, a Textile Consultant, Blogger & Entrepreneur. I’m working as a textile consultant in several local and international companies. I’m also a contributor of Wikipedia.