Raw Material Inspection in Garment Industry
Merchandiser at Fashion Xpress Buying House.
Badda, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
Raw Material for Garments:
Fabric, sewing threads, buttons, trims, etc. are the raw material in garments industry. The quality of a final garment depends on the quality of a fabric when it is received as a roll. Even the most outstanding manufacturing methods cannot compensate for defective materials. So, before production of garments quality check of raw material specially fabric is very important task in garment industry.
There are various systems for raw material (fabric) inspection in garment industry. Among them followings are very important:
1. 4-Points system
The 4-Point System, also called the American Apparel Manufacturers (AAMA) point-grading system for determining fabric quality, is widely used by producers of apparel fabrics and is endorsed by the AAMA as well as the ASQC (American Society or Quality Control). Inspection is done about 10% of the products in the shipment.
2. 10 Points system
The 10-point method is a point per fault system, which gives a measurable guide to quality grading per roll. In 1955s “Ten Points” piece goods evaluation was adapted by the Textile Distributors and National Federation of Textiles.
3. Graniteville “78” system:
The system assigns penalty points to each defect as per following guideline.
For either Length or Width
- Size of defects →→→→→→→→→→→Penalty
- Up to 9 inches →→→→→→→→→→→1 Point
- 9 to 18 inches →→→→→→→→→→→2 Points
- 18 to 27 inches →→→→→→→→→→→3 Points
- 27 to 36 inches →→→→→→→→→→→4 Points
The maximum penalty points per linear yard that can be assigned are determined by dividing the fabric width in inches by 9.
Maximum penalty points for 48 inches wider fabric = 48/9 = 5.33 or 6.
Maximum penalty points for 60 inches wider fabric = 60/9 = 6.33 or 7.
The maximum penalty point per square yard is 4.
Sewing Thread Inspection
Sewing threads should be checked and tested for the following characteristics:
- Yarn count
- Yarn ply
- Number of twists per unit length (TPI or TPM)
- Twist balance
- Yarn strength (tenacity)
- Yarn elongation
At least three sewing thread packages from a lot should be used for at least 100 yards of sewing under normal conditions and record kept of running performance. A good quality sewing thread should be able to produce consistent stitches in the chosen sewing material at the highest machine speed under normal conditions.
Sewing thread is basically finished by one type of lubricant. As lubricant applied 3 to 5% of the weight of thread, it provides slip easily and smoothly through the needle eye and other i.e. various parts through which it passes.
Color of sewing thread should match with the original or standard sample and should not vary too much within a lot or shipment of sewing thread. Color should not bleed during washing and/or dry cleaning and fade in sunlight.
Package density of sewing thread should be consistent from package to package within a shipment or lot and from shipment to shipment. It the package density varies too much sewing machine operators will have to adjust the tension frequently resulting in lower productivity.
Winding of sewing thread on packages should be uniform; otherwise, it may result in excessive thread breakages again causing lower efficiency.
Length of sewing thread on each package should be at least the specific amount or within a certain tolerance such as ± 2% and so on.
Zipper should be checked for the followings:
- Dimension: Tape width, tape extensions, and overall useable length of zipper should be as specified.
- Top and bottom stoppers should be fastened securely.
- Zipper tape should be uniform in color. Zipper should not cause wrinkling and puckering after sewn into garments.
- Puller or pull tab should be affixed firmly to the slider body.
- Slider should ride freely but must not be so free that it is loose on the chain.
- Slider should be locked securely.
- Zipper should be perfect and washing and/or dry cleaning and will not fade.
- Zipper should not deform under pressing and ironing.
- Zipper should be well-matched with garments design.
- Zipper should be azo-free, nickel free, non-magnetic and non-toxic painting.
Button should be checked for the followings:
- Button holes should be large, clean, and free from flash, so that it will not cut the thread.
- Button holes should be located properly.
- Button thickness should be uniform.
- Button shade should be within tolerance.
- Button should be able to withstand laundering, dry cleaning, and pressing without any change or deforms.
- Button size should be as specified.
- In case of any special requirements button should have all.
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Founder & Editor of Textile Learner. He is a Textile Consultant, Blogger & Entrepreneur. He is working as a textile consultant in several local and international companies. He is also a contributor of Wikipedia.