SAM and SMV Calculation in Garment Industry

SAM and SMV Calculation in Garment Industry

Swati Wadekar
Executive IE officer at PratibhaSyntex, Indore


What is SAM and SMV?
SMV & SAM both are very important terms for garment manufacturing industry. SAM stands for “Standard allowed minute” and SMV stands for “Standard minute value”. SAM and SMV is a unit to measure the time to calculate the time it takes to produce a specific garment in garment manufacturing industry. In few companies treat both terms differently, SAM is standard allowed minute, is a time in which a particular task should happen while SMV is Standard minute value and this is an amount, which can be used for costing.

SAM = Time for garment (unit is minute)

SMV = Value of a particular time (unit is ₹/ min)

SAM is appeared in American Published Books while SMV is appeared in European Published books. So, Asian industries which are influenced by the European consultant use the term SMV and South America industries which are influenced by American consultants use term SAM.

SAM and SMV Calculation in Garment Industry

Why SAM / SMV is Essential for Garment Manufacturing Industry?
SAM and SMV are crucial concepts in the garment manufacturing industry, especially in the context of time management and production efficiency. For following reasons SAM and SMV are essential for garment manufacturing industry.

1. Value/ Price estimation:
SAM / SMV is used to calculate cost and value for the particular garment. Manufacture can estimate the labor cost and price of the garment by knowing the number of minutes a worker take to complete the particular garment.

2. Cost comparison:
By SAM / SMV the manufacturer can compare the cost between different suppliers which can be helpful for sourcing decisions.

3. Workforce analysis and management:
Through SAM/SMV we can calculate the value of particular garment and the time taken for it. By establishing a standard time, manufacturers measure the productivity and efficiency of their workers. This helps to identify workers who may need additional training or who may be performing below standard.

4. Production planning:
By the cost of the garment and the time taken to make it, manufacture can compare the efficiency of different production methods. By analyzing the time it takes to complete each step of the production process, manufacturers can identify bottlenecks and optimize the production process to increase efficiency.

5. Production target:
SMV / SAM can be used to set production target. The manufacturer can set production targets with the help of the time taken to make a garment, which can be helpful for monitoring performance and making adjustments as necessary to meet production targets.

How to Calculate SAM/SMV in Garment Industry?
Time that is allowed for average worker to perform a task by standard method at normal condition by taking into personal and fatigue allowance, machine delay allowance and bundle handling allowance.

For example: An operator need to join shoulder within 20 sec. That 20 sec. is called as SAM. So how to calculate that 20 sec? What is formula for that?

SAM = Basic time + Personal and fatigue allowance + Machine delay allowance + Bundle handling allowance

Let’s see what is Basic time –

Basic time = Average single cycle time × (Observed Rating)/(Standard Rating)

Cycle time = Time taken to complete one operation.

You can measure the cycle time with the help of stopwatch.

Observed Rating = Different operator have different skills and work at different speed and make a different efforts in different time. So based on the skills and effort you need to rate your operator. For example all the operators are skilled and willing to give maximum efforts then you can give 100rating.

Standard Rating = Standard rating is always 100.

Personal and fatigue allowance = The worker takes some time to relax, to stretch their body, to drink water, to visit washroom during working hours. We consider that personal and fatigue allowance. In garment manufacturing generally gives 15% as personal and fatigue allowance of the basic time.

Machine delay allowance = While stitching garment sometimes the delay will happen because of thread breaking, needle breaking etc. Machine delay allowance will very machine to machine for example SNLS (single needle lock stitch) machine you can give 9% of basic time.

Bundle handling allowance = An operator is tying up a bundle after stitching. Bundle Allowance Time per piece will depend on the size of the bundle. A bundle may contain 5 pieces or 20 pieces of garments. For both bundles more or less same time will be required to untie and tie the bundle. Normally bundle allowances should be added 10% with basic time.

*Note– Personal and fatigue allowance, machine delay allowance and bundle handling allowance can vary for different process, different work and different industries.

SAM (Standard Allowed Minute) Calculation:
Let’s see the calculation of basic time

Basic time = ASCT (Average single cycle time) X ( Observed rating / Standard rating)

We need to take at least 5 cycle of an operation

Basic time = 24.2 (100/100) = 24.2

Here I have taken 5 cycle time of an operation. Generally you have to take 10-15 cycle time to calculate the SAM. Higher the cycle time better accuracy.

Personal and fatigue allowance = 15% X Basic time

= (15/100) X 24.2= 3.63 Sec.

Machine delay allowance = 9% X Basic time

= (9/100) X 24.2 =2.17 Sec.

Bundle handling allowance = 10% X Basic time

= (10/100) X 24.2 = 2.42 Sec.

SAM (Standard allowed minute) = Basic time + Personal and fatigue allowance + Machine delay allowance + Bundle handling allowance

SAM = 24.2 + 3.63 + 2.17 + 2.42

= 32.42Sec. or 0.540 Minute

SAM (Standard Allowed Minute) and SMV (Standard Minute Value) play crucial roles in the garment manufacturing industry. They are essential for cost estimation, cost comparison among suppliers, workforce analysis, production planning, and setting production targets. Calculating SAM/SMV involves determining the basic time, personal and fatigue allowance, machine delay allowance, and bundle handling allowance. These measurements contribute to efficient production processes and informed decision-making within the industry.


  1. Apparel Manufacturing Technology by T. Karthik, P. Ganesan, and D. Gopalakrishnan

You may also like:

  1. How to Make Operation Bulletin (OB) of T-Shirt and Calculate the SAM
  2. Sourcing of Fabrics and Trims in Apparel Industry
  3. Time and Action Plan for Garment Merchandising
  4. Role of Merchandiser in Garment Industry
  5. What is Tech Pack & Why It Is Important in Garment Industry

Share this Article!

Leave a Comment