Study on Effect of Applying Industrial Engineering Tools in Sewing Section

Study on Effect of Applying Industrial Engineering Tools in Sewing Section

Abu Saleh1, Shah Poran and Syed Sohan
Department of Textile Engineering
Northern University Bangladesh
Email: abusaleh.tex@gmail.com1


In this modern world, fashion and styles are changing frequently. The emergence of fast changes in fashion has given rise to shorten production cycle time in the garment industry. Nowadays it’s impossible to run a garment manufacturing operation without scientific and professional approach. Industrial engineering concepts are required in  every stage in Costing, Product R&D, Planning, Supply Chain, Product Management, layout Plan, Productivity Improvement, Man Power Skill Development, and so on. The objective of this project is to accurately delegate workers to the various operations required to complete the product based on their skill and experience so as to achieve the highest level of productivity and delivery as per planned target. For this experiment two garments (Tank Top and Short sleeve t-shirt) have been chosen. Work study is most important tools that can help to increase productivity in garments products industry. Hence, this study helps to identify the bottleneck and suggest appropriate system to improve productivity. For this purpose, method study has been carried out by applying questioning techniques concept where recording and critical analysis of all related information has been performed in particular production line. As a result considerable amount of work content is reduced in the new improved method. Then time study has been taken by stopwatch and determined the basic time for all operation sequences and the capacity of each workstation per day has been calculated. By applying method study and work measurement in the industry at production for Tank Top productivity has been improved by 7% and T-shirt productivity has been improved by 5%.


1.1 Introduction:
As a supply chain of textile industry, garment industry is one of the major industries of the world. The production process of garments is separated into four main phases: designing/ clothing pattern generation, fabric spreading and cutting, sewing and ironing and packing. The most critical phase is sewing phase [1]. As the sewing is the heart of apparel industry, we have to design the sewing line properly so as to achieve the best output at maximum efficiency. Apparel is a mass production system. Assembly line production systems are developed to meet the requirements of mankind, which continue to grow day by day [2]. The demand for greater product variability and shorter life cycles has caused traditional production methods to be replaced with assembly lines [3]. Assembly line is an industrial arrangement of machines, equipments and workers for continuous flow of work pieces in mass production operation. Manufacturing a product in an assembly line requires partitioning the total amount of work into a set of  elementary 3 operations called tasks [4]. Tasks are assigned to operators depending on constrains of different labor skill levels. Finally, several workstations in sequence are formed as a sewing line. So the aim of assembly line balancing in sewing line is to assign tasks to the workstations, so that the machines of the workstation can perform the assigned task with a balanced loading with different labor skill levels [5].

The sewing process includes a set of work stations, at each of which a specific task is carried out in a restricted sequence, with hundreds of employees and thousands of bundles of subassemblies producing different style simultaneously [6]. Therefore this process is of critical importance and needs to be planned more carefully [7]. As a consequence, good line balancing with small stocks in the sewing line has to be drawn up to increase the efficiency and quality [7-9]. The focus of Industrial Engineering is how to improve processes or design things that are more efficient and waste less money, time, raw resources, man-power and energy while following safety standards and regulations. Industrial engineers may use knowledge of Math, Physics but also Social Sciences to analyze, design, predict and evaluate the results and roadblocks of processes and devices. Industrial engineers make sure your mobile phone fits in your pocket while still having a lot of processing power and also not overheating, or they can make sure it won’t burst into flames while you’re flying on a plane, for instance. As you can assume, there’s a great need for capable industrial engineers in the world [10]. Industrial engineering directs the efficient conduct of manufacturing, construction, transportation, or even commercial enterprises of any undertaking, indeed in which human labor is directed to accomplishing any kind of work. Industrial engineering has drawn upon mechanical engineering, upon economics, sociology, psychology, philosophy, accountancy, to fuse from these older sciences a distinct body of science of its own. It is the inclusion of the economic and the human elements especially that differentiates industrial engineering from the older established branches of the profession [11]. Industrial Engineering is Human Effort Engineering and System Efficiency Engineering. It is an engineering discipline that deals with the design of human effort and system efficiency in all occupations: agricultural, manufacturing and service.

industrial engineering in sewing section
Figure 1.1: Sewing section

The objectives of industrial Engineering are optimization of productivity of work-systems and occupational comfort, health, safety and income of persons involved. Industrial engineering defined as system efficiency engineering has application in all branches of engineering. Productivity improvement is needed in engineering systems of all branches and therefore industrial engineering needs to be used in all branches of engineering. It needs to be taught in all engineering branches. Industrial engineering is an art for creating the most efficient system composed of people, matters, energy, and information, by which a specific goal in industrial, economic, or social activities will be achieved within predetermined probabilities and accuracy. The system may be for a small single work station, a group, a section, a department, an institution or for a whole business enterprise. It may be also be of a regional, national, international, or inter-planetary scope. Industrial Engineering is Human Effort Engineering and System Efficiency Engineering. It is an engineering- based management staff-service discipline that deals with the design of human effort and system efficiency in all occupations: agricultural, manufacturing and service. The objectives of Industrial Engineering are optimization of productivity of work-systems and occupational comfort, health, safety and income of persons involved [12].

1.2 Objective of the Project:

  • To calculate process wise target.
  • To calculate line target.
  • To calculate process wise SMV.
  • To calculate efficiency.
  • To balancing the sewing line.
  • To increase productivity.
  • Set the target and make a draft, layout design of the machine requirement, material flow, and workstation to bring the best possible efficiency. Modern tools are used to design of the layout.
  • Monitor factory performance in terms of quality, delivery, cost-efficiency and target improvements with the internal factory team and taking necessary corrective action.


2.1 Background:
The assembly line balancing problem was first introduced by Bryton in his graduate thesis. In his study, he accepted the amount of workstations as constant, the workstation times as equal for all stations and work tasks as moving among the workstations [13]. The first article was published in 1955 by Salveson. Helgeson ve Birnie (1961) developed the “Ranked Positional Weight Technique” in which operation having the largest ranged weight is assigned to the first workstation, and other operations are assigned to workstations in accordance with their ranked positional weight value [14].  He developed a 0-1 integer programming model to solve the problem. This heuristic method was developed by Helgeson and Birnie of the General Electric Company in 1961 COMSOAL (Computer Method of Sequencing Operations for Assembly Lines) was first used by Arcus in 1966 as a solution approach to the assembly line balancing problem [14,15]. Bartholdi (1993) was the first to address the Two-sided Assembly Line Balancing Problem with the objective of minimizing the number of stations by applying a simple assignment rule. Liu and Chen (2002) presented a Genetic Algorithm approach for assembly planning involving various objectives, such as minimizing cycle time, maximizing workload smoothness, minimizing the frequency of tool change, minimizing the number of tools and machines used and minimizing the complexity of assembly sequences [16-17]. Abdolmajid Yolmeh et al. (2012) proposed a hybrid genetic algorithm to solve the assembly line balancing problem [17].

2.2 Definition of Industrial Engineering:
Industrial engineering is a branch of engineering which is related with the optimization of complex systems or processes. It is totally concerned with the improvement, development, and implementation of integrated systems of people, money, information, knowledge, energy and it’s also analysis as well as the mathematical, physical and social sciences together with the principles and systems of engineering design to predict and assess the results to be obtained from such types of systems. Industrial Engineering assigns certain systems such as floor layouts, personnel, organization, standard of time, wage rates, incentive payment plants to control the quantity and specially quality of goods and services produced.

2.3 Functions of an Industrial Engineer:

  • Developing the simplest work methods and establishing one best way of doing the work.
  • Establishing the performance standards as per the standard methods (Standard Time)
  • To develop a sound wage and incentive schemes
  • To aiding the development and designing of a sound inventory control, determination of economic lot size and work in process for each stage of production.

2.4 Techniques of Industrial Engineering:

2.4.1 Method study:
To establish a standard method of performing a job or an operation after thorough analysis of the jobs and to establish the layout of production facilities to have a uniform flow of material without back tracking.

2.4.2 Time study (work measurement):
This is a technique used to establish a standard time for a job or for an operation.

2.4.3 Motion Economy:
This is used to analyses the motions employed by the operators do the work. The principles of motion economy and motion analysis are very useful in mass production or for short cycle repetitive jobs.

2.4.4 Value Analysis:
It ensures that no unnecessary costs are built into the product and it tries to provide the required functions at the minimum cost. Hence, helps to enhance the worth of the product.

2.4.5 Production, Planning and Control:
This includes the planning for the resources (like men, materials and machine) proper scheduling and controlling production activities to ensure the right quantity, quality of product at predetermined time and pre-established cost.

2.4.6 Inventory Control:
To find the economic lot size and the reorder levels for the items so that the item should be made available to the production at the right time and quantity to avoid stock out situation and with minimum capital lock-up.

2.4.7 Job Evaluation:
This is a technique which is used to determine the relative worth of jobs of the organization to aid in matching jobs and personnel and to arrive at sound wage policy.

2.4.8 Material Handling Analysis:
To scientifically analysis the movement of materials through various departments to eliminate unnecessary movement to enhance the efficiency of material handling.

2.4.9 Ergonomics (Human Engineering):
It is concerned with study of relationship between man and his working conditions to minimize mental and physical stress. It is concerned with man-machine system.

2.5 IE JOB Profile:
It was just a couple of years back that demand of an industrial engineer has increased many times. Reason, an Industrial engineer can do a lot to improve performance of the company. But the fresh student passed out from educational institute (Fashion institutes) acquired limited knowledge about the job profile of an Industrial engineer. Maximum works are learnt in factory by working. There is number of tools and techniques which are used in by industrial engineers to establish an effective production system in the company. Without having such tools earlier production managers and line supervisors faced difficulty in measuring work content, garment costing, and production planning correctly, even it was difficult to finalize orders. Our team has worked to find out important tasks those are important for an engineer, and needs detailed understanding of production fields, included in the following. Though job profile of an Industrial Engineer varies company to company, most of the job profile fall under following list.

  • Knowledge about various sewing production systems
  • Knowledge of all types of Sewing machine necessary for the company
  • Time study (Cycle timing)
  • Motion analysis of the operations
  • Operation break down
  • Preparation of OB (Operation bulletin)
  • SAM Calculation
  • M/C Layout and Work station layout
  • Line Set up
  • Production estimation of a line
  • Work Sampling
  • Method Study (Seeing Movements of an operation)
  • WIP Control
  • Line Balancing
  • Capacity study
  • Cost estimation of a garment
  • Developing and Maintaining Skill Matrix
  • Calculating Thread Consumption

2.6 Work Study:
Work study is the systematic examination of the methods of carrying activities. So as to improve the effective use of resources and to set up standards of performance for the activities being carried out.

You may also like: An Overview of Work Study in Textile & Apparel Industry

2.7 Objectives of Work Study:

  • Lower cost.
  • Increase productivity.
  • Increase profitability.
  • Increase jobs security.
  • To make the work easier.
  • Establish fair task for everyone.

2.8 Father of Work Study:
FW (Frederic Winslow) tailor who is called the father of scientific management is the founder of work study. During Second World War USA needed many arms in short time? Then Mr. FW Tailor applied work study concept to make many arm in short time and got a tremendous result. His ideas were generated as they worked for various firms and work study is being used everywhere. Now it is circumference is getting largely day by day.

2.9 Components of Work Study:

Components of Work Study
Figure 2.1: Components of Work Study

2.10 Characteristic of Work Study Engineer:
A work study engineer need to be educated, expert, smart, confident, personal dignity and honest. Details below-

2.10.1 Sincerity and Honest:
The work study person must be sincere and honest only if is the case will he she gain the confidence and respect of those with whom he or she will work.

2.10.2 Enthusiasm:
He she must be really keen on the job, believe in the importance of what he or she is doing and be able to transmit enthusiasm to the people round about.

2.10.3 Tact/ Diplomacy:
Tact is dealing with people comes from understanding them and not wishing to hurt their feeling by unkind or thoughtless word, even when these may be justified. Without justified no work study person is going to get very far.

2.10.4 Good Appearance:
The person must be neat tidy and look efficient. This will inspire confidence among the people with whom he or she has to work.

2.10.5 Self-Confidence:
This can only come with good training and experience of applying work study successfully. The work study practitioner must be able to stand up to top management, supervisors or workers in defense of his opinion and finding, and to do so in such a way that will respect and not give offence.

2.11 Engineering Function:

2.11.1 Method Study:
Space environment, Equipment, Machine attachment, Element study, Effective and ineffective time segregation, Handling and movement, Contingency, Improve worker performance, Find better way of work, Reduce ineffective time and Increasing needling time, Selling better method to others.

2.11.2 Work Measurement:
Cycle check, observed time, Rating, BMV, and SMV, Production study, Time study, setting time standard and sampling.

2.11.3 General Sewing Data (GSD):
Method study and develop within GSD coding time by reducing unnecessary task through method study.

2.11.4 Breakdown and Layout:
Operation breakdown, Time setting, Process sequence, tight and loose flow, Incentive or No incentive layout, Operation and workers selection.

2.11.5 Consumption:
All measurable trims like Thread, String, Tape, Webbing, Binding, Gros grain, and Velcro. Elastic, Z-Band/linear, fabric and other like.

2.11.6 Calculation:
Feeding time, Produced time, Efficiency, Target setting, productivity gap, Individual performance and capacity, Potential pieces, Required production days/hours/workers, Contingency, AQL, Accuracy and confident level, Cost breakdown point, Ratio, Load range, Sewing time, Effective time, SMV.

2.12 General Function:

  • SMV and Production Plan: SMV estimation and update production plan.
  • Incentive Package: Analysis and control production plan as higher performance level.
  • Reporting: Efficiency, Performance, Capacity, Production statement, Earning statement, Comparison, Factory/line capacity, Incentive calculation and management key information as required.
  • Keeping History: Standard data, Product, Earning, Efficiency, Performance, Progression, Target and target efficiency analysis.
  • Data Centralization: Control and centralization of all data across units.
  • Save Material: Protection to misuse of trims measurable like threads. String, Binding, Tape, Velcro, Elastic, Z-band, Webbing, Grosgrain etc. and countable likes button eyelet, Stopper, Puller, Zipper etc.
  • Multi-Experience: Basic quality procedure and acceptance level, Basic maintenance, Cutting, Marker, Pattern, Sample and packing/shipping method.
  • Reserved Expert: To help others section where needed as reserved expert.
  • Motivation: Training, Job facilities, Life standardization and techniques presentation.

2.13 Steps Involved:

  • Analyze each style to determine its requirement for production.
  • Style Analysis is based on:
    • Firm’s quality standards
    • Amount of labor required
    • Available equipment
    • Volume to be produced
    • Expected “throughput time”
  • Style requirements are determined through analysis of samples and specifications
  • Apparel Engineers are concerned with:
    • Number, complexity and sequence of Operation
    • Equipment Required
    • Time and Skill Required
  • Operation Breakdown: Work in each style is broken down into operations
  • An operation B/down is sequential list of all the operations that involved in assembling a garment used to establish the workflow for each style.
  • Apparel engineers study each operation to improve its effectiveness and efficiency and to establish methods to ensure a consistent performance by operators and consistent products.

2.14 Standard Time and Target Setting:
Many companies do not use standard time systems; target setting is based on guesswork and experience. Establishment of Standard times and the development of the best method to manufacture is vitally important to improve productivity. Every company that wishes to compete in the future must realize this. This chart clearly illustrates the benefits to factory efficiency if standard times and well developed methods are used.

2.14.1 Method Analysis:
Most of the companies are using poor methods, operators are left to establish best way to do the job, decide on the number of bursts of stitching, folding and unfolding of parts, unnecessary matching and additional handling, all of these motions add to the time it takes to manufacture the garment and should be eliminated. Method study can be implemented in any type of production system whether it is in- house or on a contract basis. Proper method analysis can improve productivity by at least 15%.

2.14.2 Workplace Layout:
The management wants to fit as many machines in the factory as possible, reducing the scope for methods improvement. The space between machines is insufficient in many cases. A good workplace layout will eliminate unnecessary motions and fatigue resulting in substantial increase in the efficiency of the operator. Just look at the picture alongside and think how efficiently you will be able to work 8 hours a day sitting in that posture.

2.14.3 Operation Sequence:
Some of the production departments work without a properly planned or written operation sequence. This is a critical step in garment production and a mistake or negligence at this stage can result into huge losses later in terms of operator time, work content and quality.

2.14.4 Work Aids and Attachments:
Use of work aids and attachments is insufficient. Many new and inexpensive attachments and folders are being continuously developed, it is vital that these developments are known to ensure a program of constant improvement. Many new and inexpensive attachments and folders are being continuously developed, it is vital that these developments are known to ensure a program of constant improvement.

2.14.5 Operator Monitoring:
Most of the companies surveyed do not have the means to establish their performance against standard, so they have no idea where they stand. There are no proper measurements so their efficiency levels are at best a guess, it is impossible to understand how they will be able to continue to compete unless they have proper controls in place, and have established productivity improvement programs to move forward in the future.

2.14.6 Cycle Checks:
A simple technique aimed at establishing operator potential against their actual performance, this can be done by relatively inexperienced work study personnel and is a great aid to factory performance improvement. None of the companies perform cycle checks. The chart below shows the comparison between factories in Group A (with work study department) and Group B (without work study department) on various aspects of apparel production. Looking at the comparison shown below it is obvious that group A factories are more productive than the group B factories. This fact is further strengthened when the overall factory survey results are compared. The factories in group A have a combined score of 61% for overall performance whereas factories in group B achieved a score of only 48%. Work-study is the need of the hour and it is high time that the industry stalwarts understand its importance and its contribution to profitability.

2.15 Method Study for Garment Operations:
Method study is more of a systematic approach to job design than a set of techniques. It is defined as the systematic recording and critical examination of existing and proposed methods of doing work, as a means of developing and applying easier and more effective methods and reducing costs. The method involves systematically following six steps:

You may also like: Working Procedure of Method Study in Garment Industry

a. Selection of work to be studied: Most operations consist of many discrete jobs or activities. The first stage is to select those jobs to be studied that will give the best returns for the time spent. For example, activities with the best scopes for improvement, those causing delays or bottlenecks or those resulting in high costs.

b. Recording of all relevant facts of current method: Method study uses formal techniques to record the sequence of activities, the time relationship between different tasks, the movement of materials, and the movement of staff. There are many techniques used in method study.

c. Critical examination of those facts: This is the most important stage in method study. It, is used to critically examine the current method by seeking answers to questions:

  • The purpose of each element
  • The place
  • The sequence
  • The person
  • The means

d. Development of the most practical, economic and effective method: This stage issued to develop a new and better method of executing the task, by taking into account the results of critical examination. The new method is developed by a combination of entirely eliminating some activities, combining some parts, changing the sequence of some activities and by simplifying the content of others.

e. Installation of new method: This step involves project managing the changes and ensuring that everybody involved understands the changes involved. In other word, they understand the new method, which is doing what, the differences compared to the old method and crucially the reason for the changes. Training is an important part of this stage particularly if the new method involves radical changes. Providing modified equipment, components and layouts may also be involved.

f. Maintenance of new method and periodic checking: Monitoring of how effective the new method is and how personnel have adapted is very important. One aspect that is sometimes overlooked is to check what effect the new method has on other activities. For instance, it may be that whilst the new method is successful in eliminating a bottleneck in a particular area, the bottleneck has moved elsewhere in the process. By periodic checking the new method and its effects, management can ensure that overall efficiency is improving rather than deteriorating.

2.16 Definition of Time Study:
Time study is a method of measuring work for recording the times of performing a certain specific task or its elements carried out under specified conditions. An operator does same operation (task) throughout the day. Time study help to define how much time is necessary for an operator to carry out the task at a defined rate of performance.

2.17 Time Study Tools:

  • A stop watch
  • Time study format
  • One pen or pencil

2.18 How to Conduct Time Study:
An operation cycle consists of material handling, positioning and aligning parts, sewing, trimming threads and tying and untying a bundle. So in the time study format, divide whole task into various elements according to the motion sequences of the operation. For example, in operation „collar run stitch‟, task elements may be i) pick up panel to sew first seam, ii) turn collar to sew second seam, iii) turn collar to sew third seam iv) check work and dispose and v) waiting for next pieces.

Step 1: Preparation

  • Ready with stationeries like time study format, stop watch (digital one) and pencil
  • Select one operation for Time study
  • Tell the operator that you are going measure time he/she taking to do the job.
  • Observe the operation carefully and break down operation into elements.
  • Fill the basic information in the time study format. Like machine category, guide or attachment used.

Step 2: Time capturing
Now measure the time taken for completing each elements of the operation cycle by the operator. Time should be captured in seconds. Similarly, capture element timing for consecutive 5 operation cycles. During data capturing only note down reading (see following table-1) of the stop watch and later calculate element timing. If you found any abnormal time in any elements record time during time study and later discard that reading. Or you capture time for one more cycle. Abnormal time may be occurred due to bobbin change, thread break, power cut or quality issues.

Step 3: Calculation of Basic time
From the Reading (R) calculates time taken for each element for all five cycles just by

2.19 Factors that Hamper Production:
Any one of the following can reduce production of assembly line. So to get estimated output, you have to take on the following areas.

  • Machine break down
  • Imbalance line (WIP control)
  • Continuous feeding to the line
  • Quality problems
  • Individual operator performance level.
  • Operator absenteeism.

2.20 Calculate SAM or SMV of a Garment:
SAM or Standard Allowed Minute is used to measure task or work content of a garment. This term is widely used by industrial engineers and production people in the garment manufacturing industry. For the estimation of cost of making a garment SAM value plays a very important role. In past scientists and apparel technicians did research on how much time to be allowed to do a job when one follows standard method during doing the job. According to the research study minute value has been defined for each movement needed to accomplish a job. Synthetic data is available for each movement. General Sewing Data (GSD) has defined set of codes for motion data for SAM calculation. There is, also other methods through which one can calculate SAM of a garment without using synthetic data or GSD.

2.21 Calculate Efficiency of a Production Batch or Line:
Like individual operator efficiency, efficiency of a production line or batch or section is important for a factory. Daily line efficiency shows the line performance. To calculate efficiency of a line for a day, you will need following data (information) from the line supervisor or line recorder.

  • Number of operators – how many operators worked in the line in a day
  • Working hours (Regular and overtime hours) – how many hours each of the operators worked or how many hours the line run in a day
  • Production in pieces – How many pieces are produced or total line output at the end of the day
  • Garment SAM – What is exact standard minute of the style (garment)

Once you have above data you have to calculate following using above information:

  • Total minutes produced by the line: To get total produced minutes multiply production pieces by SAM
  • Total minutes attended by the all operators in the line: Multiply number of operators by daily working hours.

2.22 Calculate Operator Worker Efficiency:
In apparel manufacturing, skills and expertise of a sewing operator is being presented in “Efficiency” term. An operator with higher efficiency produces more garments than an operator with lower efficiency in the same time frame. When operators work with higher efficiency, manufacturing cost of the factory goes down.

Secondly, factory capacity is estimated according to the operator efficiency or line efficiency. Hence, efficiency is one of the mostly used performance measuring tools. So how do you calculate operator efficiency in factory? To calculate operator efficiency you will be needed standard minutes (SAM) of the garment and operations your operator is making. Use following formula and calculate operator efficiency.

2.23 Efficiency Calculation Formula:

Efficiency% = [(Production x SMV) / (Manpower x Working Hour)] x 100

2.24 Productivity:
The definition of Productivity is given as “OUTPUT” compared to “INPUT”. According to Marsh, Brush (2002) in his article Journal of industrial technology, productivity is a measure of the efficiency and effectiveness to which organizational resources (inputs) are utilized for the creation of products and/or services (outputs). Productivity measurement is both a measure of input utilization and an assessment as to whether or not input utilization is growing faster than output.

In the case of a garment manufacturing factory, “output” can be taken as the number of products manufactured, whilst “input” is the people, machinery and factory resources required to create those products within a given time frame. The key to cost effective improvements in output – in “productivity” – is to ensure that the relationship between input and output is properly balanced. For example, there is little to be gained from an increase in output if it comes only as a result of a major increase in input. Indeed, in an ideal situation, “input” should be controlled and minimized whilst “output” is maximized.

Higher productivity provides more products from the same number of people, in the same time frame. This in turn improves “overhead recovery” related to factory costs, such as electricity and fuel, because overheads are fixed within that time frame. So, the more products produced in a given time frame the less overhead allocation per product, which, in turn, reduces the cost of each individual item and therefore improves competitive edge.

Dr. Bheda in his book “Managing Productivity in the Apparel Industry” explained the different ways of measuring productivity. Productivity can be expressed in many ways but mostly productivity is measured as lab our productivity, machine productivity or value productivity. These three terms can be defined as-

  • Lab our productivity – Output per labor (direct +indirect) in a given time frame (in pieces)
  • Machine productivity – Output per machine in a given time frame (in pieces)
  • Value productivity – Total value of output in a given time frame.


3.1 Methodology:
For this experiment two garments (Tank top and Short sleeve T-shirt) have been chosen. After that time and method study is conducted according to the process sequences. Then find out the flaws in the system which reduces the productivity. Then those processes are improved by replacing higher efficient worker, improving the method and installing higher speed machine. After that, time study is again conducted to see the difference between before and after SMV to check that the productivity of different garments have been improved or not.

Spec sheet of Tank Top
Figure 3.1: Spec sheet of Tank Top

Table 3.1 Measurements of a Tank TopMeasurements of a Tank Top

Front view of Tank Top
Figure 3.2: Front view of Tank Top

Table 3.2 Operation Bulletin of Tank Top before Line Balancing

Operation Bulletin of Tank Top before Line Balancing
(Click on Image for large size)

Table 3.3 Summery of Tank Top Operations before Line Balancing

Summery of Tank Top Operations before Line Balancing
(Click on Image for large size)

Table 3.4 Operation Bulletin of Tank Top after Line Balancing

Operation Bulletin of Tank Top after Line Balancing
(Click on Image for large size)

Table 3.5 Machine Summery after Line Balancing

Machine Summery after Line Balancing
(Click on Image for large size)
Spec sheet of Short sleeve T-shirt
Figure 3.3: Spec sheet of Short sleeve T-shirt

Table 3.6 Measurements of Short Sleeve T-shirt
Measurements of Short Sleeve T-shirt

Front View of Short Sleeve T-shirt
Figure 3.4 Front View of Short Sleeve T-shirt

Table 3.7 Operation Bulletin of Short Sleeve T-shirt before Line Balancing

Operation Bulletin of Short Sleeve T-shirt before Line Balancing
(Click on Image for large size)

Table 3.8 Summery of Short Sleeve T-shirt Operations before Line Balancing
Summery of Short Sleeve T-shirt Operations before Line Balancing

Table 3.9 Operation Bulletin of Short Sleeve T-shirt after Line Balancing

Operation Bulletin of Short Sleeve T-shirt after Line Balancing
(Click on Image for large size)

Table 3.10 Summery of Short Sleeve T-shirt after Line Balancing
Summery of Short Sleeve T-shirt after Line Balancing


4.1 Result:
Comparative study on productivity and SMV of different garments are shown below:

Table 4.1 Comparative study on SMV and productivity of different garments
Comparative study on SMV & productivity of different garments

Comparative study on SMV & productivity of different garments
Figure 4.1 Comparative Study on SMV before and after Line Balancing
Comparative Study on Productivity before and after Line Balancing
Figure 4.2 Comparative Study on Productivity before and after Line Balancing

4.2 Result Discussion:
From figure 4.1 and 4.2 and table 4.1, it can be said that, the average hourly output of the system increased from 199 to 215 pieces for Tank top and 168 pieces to 180 pieces for Short Sleeve T-shirt. In both cases, considerable improvements have been found. Tank Top productivity has been improved by 7% and T-shirt productivity has been improved by 5%.


5.1 Conclusion:
Changing from traditional layout to balanced layout model by proper allocation of workers, there are considerable improvements have moved towards us. With final scenario, the best performance results were obtained as summarized in table 4.1. The average hourly output of the system increased from 199 to 215 pieces for Tank top and 168 pieces to 180 pieces for Short Sleeve T-shirt. With reference to scenario, it can be said that the balance of sewing line seems appropriate for all performance measures. A series of skilled workers are needed to achieve more productivity. On this regard, workers should be train regularly and properly to achieve the optimum productivity and efficiency.

5.2 References:

[1] Chen J.C., Chen C.C., Lin Y.J., Lin C.J., and Chen T.Y. Assembly Line Balancing Problem of Sewing Lines in Garment Industry. International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Operations Management, Bali, Indonesia, 2014.

[2] Eryürük S.H., Clothing assembly line design using simulation and heuristic line balancing techniques, Ege University Textile and Apparel Research and Application Center, 2012.

[3] Eryuruk S. H, Kalaoglu F. and Baskak M. Assembly Line Balancing in a Clothing Company. FIBRES and TEXTILES in Eastern Europe, 2008.

[4] Jithendrababu B. L., RenjuKurian and Pradeepmon T.G. Balancing Labor Intensive Assembly Line Using Genetic Algorithm. International Journal of Innovative Research in Science, Engineering and Technology, 2013.

[5] Jaganathan V. P. Line balancing using largest candidate rule algorithm in a garment industry: a case study. International Journal of Lean Thinking, 2014.

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