Effects of Various Enzymes on Denim Garment Washing

Effects of Various Enzymes on Denim Garment Washing

Farhan Habib, Md. Rezaul Karim Faruk,
Suman Mir, Md.Mamunur Nasim, Md. Tanzil Hasan,
Adnan Maroof Khan, Lamya Zahir, Ibney Monjuzul Khalid
Dept. of Apparel Manufacturing Engineering
Bangladesh University of Textiles

 

Abstract
The paper contains effects on enzyme wash on denim garments. The main aim of this paper is to identify the changes in denim properties during enzyme washing. The paper gives general idea about denim fabric and its dyeing process followed by general picture on enzyme. During experiments a general recipe is used although with the variation in ingredients, desizing technique and use of stone. Total 27 type of washing recipes are used for these purposes. It includes use of liquid, powder and combination of liquid and powder enzymes with two concentration variations, with or without desizing and with or without use of stone. We used two different concentrations: 1 g/l & 1.5 g/l. Then total 27 samples are collected to test the sample properties to identify the changes occurs during washing. The test includes strength, count, EPI/PPI, stiffness, GSM etc. Each test accompanied by observations.

INTRODUCTION
Nowadays enzyme wash on denim garments has become a very popular wash. It is found that most of the denim garments are washed through enzyme washing process. As Enzyme is eco-friendly and it can give various fading effects its popularity is even more increasing.

It is natural that after washing the properties of the garment’s changes. Al though the change is not high the changes are important for understanding the future performance of the garments. Advance garments Technology studies on washing effects and changes of properties of garments.

Our project the effects of enzyme wash on Denim garments is a part of practical knowing of the effects of enzyme washing on denim garments. Along with shade variation the concentration variation of enzyme the type variation of enzyme like powder, liquid or both at a time gives changes in properties. It is also noticed that Desizing and use of stone also create changes in properties of denim garments.

CHAPTER 1
Literature Review

DENIM[1]
Denim is a rugged cotton twill textile, in which the weft passes under two or more warp threads. This produces the familiar diagonal ribbing identifiable on the reverse of the fabric, which distinguishes denim from cotton duck. Denim has been in American usage since the late eighteenth century. The word comes from the name of a sturdy fabric called serge, originally made in Nîmes, France, by the Andre family. Originally called serge de Nîmes, the name was soon shortened to denim. Denim was traditionally colored blue with indigo dye to make blue “jeans,” though “jean” then denoted a different, lighter cotton textile; the contemporary use of jean comes from the French word for Genoa, Italy (Gênes), where the first denim trousers were made.

Denim
Fig: Denim

TYPES OF DENIM[2]
While the original denim was a 100% cotton serge material, you can now get it in a variety of materials, including blends that give you the same wonderful look of 100% cotton denim with some great additional features. Denim’s unique look comes from the rich indigo blue in one shade or another woven together with white threads to give the “depth” that people associate with denim. Today, some denims no longer have indigo, but other colors with the white opposing threads, producing denims in a rainbow of shades.

You may also like: What is Denim | Different Types of Denim

DRY DENIM
Dry or raw denim, as opposed to washed denim, is a denim fabric that is not washed after being dyed during its production. Most denim is washed after being crafted into an article of clothing in order to make it softer and to eliminate any shrinkage which could cause an item to not fit after the owner washes it. In addition to being washed, non-dry denim is sometimes artificially “distressed” to achieve a worn-in look. Much of the appeal of dry denim lies in the fact that with time the fabric will fade in a manner similar to factory distressed denim. With dry denim, however, such fading is affected by the body of the person who wears the jeans and the activities of their daily life. This creates what many enthusiasts feel to be a more natural, unique look than pre-distressed denim. To facilitate the natural distressing process, some wearers of dry denim will often abstain from washing their jeans for more than six months, though it is not a necessity for fading. Predominantly found in premium denim lines, dry denim represents a small niche in the overall market. Dry denim can be identified by its lack of a wash, or “fade”. It typically starts out as the dark blue color pictured here.

SELVAGE DENIM
Selvage denim (also called selvedge denim) is a type of denim which forms a clean natural edge that does not unravel. It is commonly presented in the unwashed or raw state. Typically, the selvage edges will be located along the out seam of the pants, making it visible when cuffs are worn. Although selvage denim is not completely synonymous with unwashed denim, the presence of selvage typically implies that the denim used is a higher quality. The word “selvage” comes from the phrase “self-edge” and denotes denim made on old-style shuttle looms. These looms weave fabric with one continuous cross thread (the weft) that is passed back and forth all the way down the length of the bolt. As the weft loops back into the edge of the denim it creates this “self-edge” or Selvage.

Here are some of the newer types of denim on the market:

1. STRETCH DENIM is usually about 98% cotton and 2% Spandex for a bit of that forgiving stretch we all love. This blend gives you wonderful ease of movement and at the same time some support for those “trouble spots” you aren’t so fond of around the hips or thighs. Stretch denim jeans are one of the fastest growing segments of the women’s market for jeans manufacturers.

2. POLY DENIM blends appeal to those who like the look of denim but prefer polyester blends that wash and dry quickly and are lighter weight and a bit dressier. These usually appeal to a slightly older market, but are also finding favor for pantsuits, etc. when the look is meant to be “dressy but casual.”

3. RAMIE COTTON DENIM blends are found in a variety of combinations, with a wide price variance. Ramie is a plant fiber usually added because it reduces wrinkling and adds a silky luster to the fabric. It isn’t as strong as cotton, however, so it has to be blended with this stronger material in order to stand up as a denim material.

YARN DYING FOR DENIM[2]
The classical jeans were produced out of indigo-dyed Denim fabric. The special character of this fabric – only the warp thread is dyed – makes it necessary to carry out dyeing in yarn form. The yarns applied for Denim were exclusively produced on ring spinning machines in former times. The development of OE (open end) yarns – by applying smaller rotors with a spinning speed of up to 200 m/min – has led to the application of OE rotor yarns both for warp and weft. The yarns applied for weaving must be of high quality: a high fiber for strength, regularity as well as a small part of short stapled cotton fibers belong to the basic features of the denim yarn. For regular jeans qualities the warp yarns are spun in a fineness of 50 to 90 tex, for the weft yarn the fineness ranges are mainly 75 to 120 tex.

If Denim is made out of Tencel or Modal especially for jeans shirts the finenesses are up to 25 tex. Indigo, sulphur and indanthrene are mainly used in the dyeing process. Two methods are applicable for continuous dyeing with indanthrene dyes: rapid dyeing and vat dyeing. While processing the basic colored denim, reactive dyes are used and fixed with hot caustic soda solution. The dyeing process is mainly influenced by the dyestuff characteristics, dyeing temperature and necessary chemicals used in the process. Indigo dye is the most popular choice as it has good depth of shade and suitable rubbing and washing fastness. When cotton yarn is dyed with indigo, it leaves a ring-dyeing effect, because of which the outer layer of warp yarn is coated with indigo, and the core of the yarn remains undyed. This gives the denim garment a unique ‘faded look’ and a rich blue shade after repeated use and wash.

Originally, the warp yarns or ends were put through the dye bath side by side to form a sheet of yarn, which passed continuously through several dye baths, squeeze rollers or airing sequences. However, if there were breaks in the yarn (and there would be, as each yarn had to take the tension of being pulled through these processes virtually on its own), the dyeing process had to be stopped. The yarns would be then mended, or else it would lead to very bad tangling. These stoppages would in turn cause large shade variations, and the yarn breaks would show up as bad faults in the fabric. Now, an infinitely more efficient system has been introduced.

Special attention shall be paid here to Indigo, the “king of dyestuffs” since it plays an important role in obtaining the jeans effect. Indigo belongs to the category of ate insoluble dyestuffs. It was first mentioned in a book 13 BC; at that time the name Indian blue indicated the country the color came from. It is said to have been used for dyeing in India and China 2000 years BC already.

Chemical structure of indigo dye

INDIGO REDUCTION

C16H10O2N2 + Na2S2O4 + 4NaOH = C16H10O2N2Na2 + 2Na2SO3 + 2H2O

OXIDATION REACTION

Na2S2O4 + O2 + 2NaOH. Na2SO4 + Na2SO3 + H2O + C16H10O2N2Na2 + ½O2 + H2O + Sodium Hydrosulfide C16H10O2N2 + 2NaOH

HOW TO MAKE INDIGO SOLUTION?

In a tank of 1000 liters:

  1. Take 400 liters of water (soft)
  2. Add setamol ws–> 4 g/l (stirring) (dispersing solution)
  3. Add 100 kg of indigo (at 1.8 % shade -see the indigo calculations- stirring)
  4. Add caustic soda –> stirring (for solubilising and ph)
  5. Allow to cool it for 2/3 hours
  6. Add hydrosulphide (as reducing agent)
  7. Make the solution to 1000 l by adding water.

If pH is fluctuating, if it is > 11.7 then hydro is added (2-3 kg), if (<11.2) then caustic is added.

For 100 kg of Indigo,

Caustic Required = 90 kg
Hydro Required = 80 kg

WARP PREPARATION – DYEING AND SIZING PROCESSES

INDIGO, DYESTUFF AND HIS DENIM CHARATERISTICS[5]
Indigo has despite many other blue dyestuffs kept his popularity. This by no doubt is achieved by the fact that Indigo has a number of properties which have in this combination not yet been achieved by other single dyestuffs.

INDIGO, DYESTUFF AND HIS DENIM CHARATERISTICS

The main properties are:

  • Pleasant color shade.
  • Possibility to achieve by simple repeated dipping, deep marine blue shade.
  • Possibility to dye cotton in cold dye bath.
  • Competitive in price.
  • Possibility to achieve an acceptable color fastness and the exceptional advantage by repeated washing of fading color, to keep the color shade that always a clear, pleasant blue shade result.

The following drawing shows the symbolic the built-up of dye stuff of the yarn according to the multi-deep process. The sketch shows how Indigo layers one after the other is placed on the surface of the yarn then again scraped off, similar tot knife. Through force or tension or by washing.

Concertration of indigo in dyebath

An Indigo has only a very low affinity the depth of color of the fiber is achieved by repeated dipping / oxidation. Each dipping cycle occur in a certain balanced manner as dye stuff is observed by the fiber at the same time and part of the already oxidized dye stuff is reduced and migrates from the fibers. With increasing dipping operations. The balance of absorption / migration moves towards migration.

A very important factor for the reduction of migration is the squeezing effect and the oxidation which follows. A high squeezing effect promotes a quick and through oxidation and reduces the migration and reduction in the following bye bath.

With the low squeezing effect, that means with high liquid absorption, the purely visual impression of a good oxidation can be deceptive as the outer color skin looks blue. In the core of the thread however more or less vat dye stuff may be deposited

Warp Yarns are Indigo Dyed and Sized With the Help of Two Methods.[3]

  1. Threads from several back beams are combined to form a warp sheet and dyed and sized on the same machine.
  2. Threads, about 350-400 in number are formed into ropes. 12-14 ropes run adjacent to each other through the continuous dyeing unit. After dyeing, the ropes are dried on drying cylinders and then collected in a can. After that, a worker’s beam is prepared. Sizing is then done in the conventional manner.

There are various dyeing and sizing processes, which can be classified into four categories.

  1. Continuous Indigo-Rope dyeing and sizing.
  2. Continuous Indigo dyeing and sizing.
  3. Indigo-back beam dyeing and sizing.
  4. Continuous dyeing and sizing.

Continuous Indigo-Rope dyeing and sizing
The yarn coming out from the ring frames is wound into cheeses or cones and then placed on the ball wrapper on which 350-400 threads are formed into a rope and are cross wound to a ball in accordance with the length of warp beam. During this process, lease bands are inserted at particular intervals as they are required for further processing on Long Chain Beamer. Based on the size of the rope dyeing plant, 12-24 ropes, at a time, are dyed, oxidized, dried and placed in large containers. These ropes are then opened on the Long Chain Beamer through tension roll and expansion comb and wound on to a back beam. Back beams are then sized and the sized warp is then woven. This system is commonly used in the US.

Continuous Indigo-Rope dyeing and sizing
Fig: Continuous Indigo-Rope dyeing and sizing

Continuous Indigo dyeing and sizing:
In this process, back beams are processed on the dyeing/ sizing machine instead of ropes. The warp is dyed, oxidized, dried and sized at a one go. Although this process is less cumbersome, the risk of individual thread breakage is greater than dyeing in rope form. This method is commonly used in the European countries.

Indigo-back beam dyeing and sizing
Dyeing and sizing is done in two stages in this method. In the first stage, back beams are dyed, oxidized, dried and wound on a batch roll. The batch roll is then sized, dried and wound on a weaver’s beam.

Continuous dyeing and sizing
Although glass is hard and rigid yet it can be transformed into fine, translucent and flexible Glass Fiber, commonly known as fiberglass. It is very glossy in appearance and feels like silk. There are two methods for glass fiber manufacturing, Continuous Filament Process and Staple Fiber Process. Apart from being glossy and flexible, glass fiber is also heat resistant. Due to its many qualities, this fiber is widely used for home furnishings, apparels and many other industrial purposes. It’s really very interesting to know about the whole process of Glass Fiber Manufacturing.

DENIM WEAVING[2]
The process of producing a fabric by interlacing warp and weft threads is known as weaving. The machine used for weaving is known as weaving machine or loom. Weaving is an art that has been practiced for thousands of years. The earliest application of weaving dates back to the Egyptian civilization. Over the years, both the process as well as the machine has undergone phenomenal changes. As of today, there is a wide range of looms being used, right from the simplest handloom to the most sophisticated loom.

BASIC WEAVE DESIGNS
There are three basic weaves:

  1. Plain weave
  2. Twill weave
  3. Satin Weave

Most of the other weaves are derived from these three basic weaves. The immediate derivatives of these three structures are warp rib, filling rib, and basket weave. Denim is a derivative of Twill weave.

Twill weave

AIR-JET WEAVING:
Air-jet weaving is a type of weaving in which the filling yarn is inserted into the warp shed with compressed air. Air-jet system utilizes a multiple nozzle system and a profiled reed. Yarn is drawn from a filing supply package by the filing feeder and each pick is measured for the filling insertion by means of a stopper. Upon release of the filling yarn by the stopper, the filling is fed into the reed tunnel via tandem and main nozzles, which provide the initial acceleration. The relay nozzles provide the high air velocity across the weave shed. Profiled reed provides guidance for the air and separates the filling yarn from the warp yarn.

Air-jet weaving
Fig: Air-jet weaving

BASIC DENIM WASHING PRINCIPLES[4]
Below is the brief introduction to common steps done & followed in denim garments washing in Laundries across the world. Different kind & make of machines being used across the globe to hit similar results.

Every small step in denim washing makes a big difference because indigo dye has very poor wet & dry rubbing fastness. All parameters are critical to maintain for repetitive results. Eg Many laundries across the Globe ignore the importance of pH M: L: R & R P M of machine.

Some important steps in the process of Denim Washing

  • Pretreatment (Desizing, Rinsing, Scouring etc.)
  • Enzyme or Stone wash
  • Clean up to adjust the desire effect
  • Bleaching
  • Tinting / Dyeing
  • Sand Blasting
  • Softening & Much more…..

DENIM WASHING[6]
Denim washing is the aesthetic finish given to the denim fabric to enhance the appeal and to provide strength.

Dry denim, as opposed to washed denim, is a denim fabric that is not washed after being dyed during its production.

Much of the appeal of dry denim lies in the fact that with time the fabric will fade in a manner similar to that which artificially distressed denim attempts to replicate. With dry denim, however, such fading is affected by the body of the person who wears the jeans and the activities of their daily life. This creates what many feels to be a more natural, unique look than pre-distressed denim.

DENIM WASHES ARE OF TWO TYPES[6]

1. Mechanical washes

2. Chemical washes

  • Denim bleaching
  • Enzyme wash
  • Acid wash
Different samples of denim wash
Fig: Different samples of denim wash

ENZYME WASHING[7]
The cellulose enzymes are used in washing. They act on the cotton yarn and there by facilitate the abrasions of the indigo dyeing from the yarn surface. The cellulose hydrolyses cellulose, yielding soluble produce such as a short-chain polysaccharides and glucose. The action loosens the indigo lyre, which is then more easily to remove by the chemical abrasions. Use of cellulose overcome must of the disadvantages of stone while yielding the desire softening and “worn” look.

They are two categories of the enzyme, acid cellulose and nature cellulose. The nature enzyme gives less back staining. The latter property is responsible for a more reproducible finish from different wash.

ENZYME[10]
Enzymes are mainly proteins, that catalyze (i.e., increase the rates of) chemical reactions. In enzymatic reactions, the molecules at the beginning of the process are called substrates, and the enzyme converts them into different molecules, called the products. Almost all processes in a biological cell need enzymes to occur at significant rates. Since enzymes are selective for their substrates and speed up only a few reactions from among many possibilities, the set of enzymes made in a cell determines which metabolic pathways occur in that cell.

Diagrams to show the induced fit hypothesis of enzyme
Fig: Diagrams to show the induced fit hypothesis of enzyme

Like all catalysts, enzymes work by lowering the activation energy (Ea‡) for a reaction, thus dramatically increasing the rate of the reaction. Most enzyme reaction rates are millions of times faster than those of comparable un-catalyzed reactions. As with all catalysts, enzymes are not consumed by the reactions they catalyze, nor do they alter the equilibrium of these reactions. However, enzymes do differ from most other catalysts by being much more specific. Enzymes are known to catalyze about 4,000 biochemical reactions. A few RNA molecules called ribozymes also catalyze reactions, with an important example being some parts of the ribosome.  Synthetic molecules called artificial enzymes also display enzyme-like catalysis.

Enzyme activity can be affected by other molecules. Inhibitors are molecules that decrease enzyme activity; activators are molecules that increase activity. Many drug sand poisons are enzyme inhibitors. Activity is also affected by temperature, chemical environment (e.g., pH), and the concentration of substrate. Some enzymes are used commercially, for example, in the synthesis of antibiotics. In addition, some household products use enzymes to speed up biochemical reactions (e.g., enzymes in biological washing powders break down protein or fat stains on clothes; enzymes in meat tenderizers break down proteins, making the meat easier to chew).

CLASSIFICATION OF CELLULOSE ANZYME[7]

1: Acid cellulose (cellulose 450 AP)
It works best in the pH range of 4.5-5.5 and exhibit optimum activity 50oC

2: Natural cellulose (cellucom 110 OM)
It works best at pH 6 however its activity is not adversely affected in the range of pH 6-8 and show maximum activity at 550oC.

RECIPE AND CONDITIONS[7]

1: FOR ACID CELLULASE ENZYME: –

  • Cellulose 450 AP: 0.5-1% (on weight of garment)
  • Lube pro vx (creases inhibitor): 0.5-1gm/ltr
  • White MRC (anti-redepositing agent): 1-2gm/ltr
  • Treat at 50oC and pH 5 for 30-45 min

2: FOR NATURAL CELLULASE ENZYME: –

  • Cellucom 110 OM: 0.5-1% (on weight of garment)
  • Lube PRO VX (crease inhibitor): 0.5-1%gm/ltr
  • White MRC (anti-redepositing agent): 1-2gm/ltr
  • Treat at 550 Oc and Ph 6-8 for 30-60 min

ENZYME AND STONE WASHING[7]
The cellulose enzyme can also be combining with the pumice stone. This is recommendable for heavy stone wash finish. The same result can be reach in a shorter time. Around 0.5kg pumice stone is used for 1kg garment and 50% of the normal doze age to the enzyme is used.

ENZYME & STONE WASHING PROCESS OF DENIM GARMENTS[8]
There are four kind of Enzymes available in market for Denim Laundry business.

  1. Amylase …. Desizing
  2. Cellulose…. For Salt & pepper effect, contrast
  3. Laccase …. bio bleaching
  4. Catalyst ….. Peroxide killer

Enzyme is kind of protein that is obtained from fermentations method from naturally existing bacteria & fungi. The structure of Enzyme is a biological polymer and it can be found in every cell. Generally called as Cellulose & it works on cotton (Cellulosic fiber) only. Enzyme are living organisms which will attack a specific molecular group.

There are mainly three kind of Cellulose being used for Denim washing, Neutral, Acid and Bio polishing Enzyme. Enzyme are very sensitive with parameters in washing cycle i.e. pH, Temperature & time. If any of these parameters are not up to the mark, result will not be accurate.

The reaction of enzyme can be easily controlled, its biodegradable products, so they eco-friendly.

Bio Polishing Cellulose are being used to have protruded fiber removal from denim & oven fabric. This is also widely known as Anti pilling enzyme.

Any Cellulose used in process must be cleaned/killed after the process completion by simply disturbing the parameters i.e. By raising high temp. or raising pH to alkaline where no Cellulose withstand.

ADVANTAGE OF ENZYME WASHING[6]

  • Soft handle and attractive clean appearance are obtained without severe damage to the surface of yarn.
  • Simple process handling and minimum effluent problem.
  • Better feel to touch and increased gloss or luster.
  • Prevents tendency of pilling after relatively short period of wear.
  • Can be applied on cellulose and its blend.
  • Due to mild condition of treatment process is less corrosive.
  • Fancy colour-flenced surface can be obtained without or a partial use of stone.
  • More reproducible effect can be obtained.
  • It allows more loading of the garment into machines.
  • Environmental friendly treatment.
  • Less damage to seam edges and badges.
  • Wear and tear of equipment is minimum due to absence of stone.
  • Use of softener can be avoided or minimized.
  • Easy handling of floor and severs as messy sludge of stones does not interfere.
  • Due to absence of stone, labor intensive operation of stone removal is not required.
  • Homogenous abrasion of the garments.
  • Puckering effect can also be obtained.

BIO-STONE WASHING WITH CELLULOSES[9]
Stone washing added a new dimension to denim garments in the late 1970s: the process enabled artificial ageing of denim garments which imparted a fashionably aged look. As the name ‘stonewashing’ implies, the blue jeans were washed with pumice stones to achieve a faded look. Due to the disadvantages of using pumice stones, such as machine damage, blocking of the drainage system, difficulty in removing pumice-stone residues and excessive damage to garment hems and seams, alternative methods for stone washing were developed.

Cellulose enzymes were introduced in the 1980s as a denim-washing, aid to achieve a faded and abraded look similar to that provided by pumice stones. Cellulose works by loosening the indigo dye on the denim in a process known as ‘bio-stone washing’. A small dose of enzyme can replace several kilograms of pumice stones.

Bio-stone washing has opened up new possibilities in denim finishing by increasing the variety of finishes available. For example, it is now possible to fade denim to a greater degree without running the risk of damaging the garment. Productivity can also be increased because laundry machines contain fewer stones or no stones and more garments. The use of less pumice stone results in less damage to garment and machine, and less pumice dust in the laundry environment.

A range of celluloses for denim finishing, each with its own unique properties, is available in the market. These can be used either alone or in combination with pumice stones in order to obtain a specific look. An ideal bio-stone washing enzyme would possess high abrasive activity (the ability to remove indigo from denim) as well as low back staining (the re deposition of indigo) with lower fabric strength loss.

Celluloses have been used for the past twenty years and it is estimated that approximately 80% of denim garments are processed in this way. Celluloses are enzymes that are specific for the hydrolysis of the beta-1, 4 glucose linkage of cellulose. The reaction mechanism of the naturally occurring cellulose enzymes on cellulose is very complicated and several different enzymes – endoglucanases, cellobiohydrolases and beta-glucosidases – are synergistically involved in the chain of reactions needed to break down cellulose into glucose. The first type of celluloses introduced to market was derived from the Trichoderma family, a fungus with the longest history of cellulose research.

The second phase in the, development of cellulose was the introduction of products based on another fungus called Humicola insolens. These celluloses soon became known as the neutral celluloses, as they could work in a more neutral pH environment. A special feature of the neutral celluloses is their ability to provide the stonewashed look with minimal indigo re deposition during the treatment. Thus the jeans and other denim garments would have a higher contrast between white and blue yarns, and the inside pockets as well as the leather labels would not be stained with indigo. However, the reaction time of this enzyme is slow and its use requires a longer processing time.

Since then, much progress has been made in the development of cellulose compositions, which are customized to achieve specific applications. Research and development activities have been focused on a new generation of cellulose enzymes whose composition has been altered through genetic engineering to provide higher abrasion contrast, reduced back staining, improved fabric-strength retention and broadened operating pH and temperature ranges. The development of modern biotechnology brought new tools for scientists to create new, better cellulose products for textile applications. IndiAge® Super (Genencor International) are the examples of genetic engineered cellulose with improved features.

IndiAge Super, an engineered component enzyme, is the first cold cellulose in the market that works effectively at low temperatures and provides high contrast finish. The optimal temperature range of the enzyme is 40 to 45°C, which is significantly lower than that of other celluloses, thereby resulting in energy savings for processors. Also, the cold cellulose can be used to treat elastic denim fabric, which might be susceptible to fabric damage by conventional cellulose treatment at higher processing temperature.

CHAPTER 2
Experimental

Working place:

  • Sepal group (Washing Unit)
  • HAMS Washing & Dyeing Ltd.
  • Testing laboratory in Bangladesh University of Textiles
  • Apparel manufacturing laboratory of Bangladesh University of Textiles

RAW MATERIALS:

1. Denim garments (leg panels)
Collected from Apparel manufacturing laboratory in Bangladesh University of Textiles

Specification of denim fabric:

  • Type                 : 100% cotton, twill (3/1)
  • Construction    : 72×41/9×9
  • Warp way         : Black (combination shade)
  • Weft way          : White

2. Enzyme:
Collected from Sepal Group & HAMS Washing & Dyeing Ltd.

  • Liquid              : Genzyme 200
  • Powder            : Bactosol

3. Pumic Stone:
Collected from Sepal Group & HAMS Washing & Dyeing Ltd.

Washing Condition:

  • No. of the sample: 27
  • M: L: 1: 10
  • Material weight: 350 gm
  • Enzyme concentration (Bactosol): 1g/l, 1.5g/l
  • Enzyme concentration (Genzyme): 1g/l, 1.5g/l
  • Enzyme concentration (Bactosol+ Genzyme): 1g/l, 1.5g/l
  • Pumic Stone: 1.5 kg
  • Temperature: 45˚C (fixed)
  • Time: 30 min

Experimental

SAMPLE NO : 01 (Raw Sample)
Raw sample (Without desizing and washing)
This sample is not washed.

SAMPLE NO: 02 (Liquid Enzyme + Desized)(Enzyme conc.:1g/l)
Desized and washed with liquid enzyme without stone.

RECIPE

Desizing step

  • Water                                                            : 100 liter
  • Desizing agent (Ecosize AM)                          : 0.5g/l
  • Anti-back-staining agent                               : 0.2g/l
  • Temp                                                             : 60˚ C
  • Time                                                              : 15 min

Rinsing 2 times with 150 liter of water each time.

Enzyme Step

  • Water                                                            : 60 liter
  • Acetic acid                                                     : 0.4g/l
  • Liquid enzyme (GENZYME 200)                     : 1g/l
  • Anti-back-staining agent                               : 0.3g/l
  • Temp                                                             : 45˚ C
  • Time                                                              : 30 min
  • PH                                                                 : 4.5-5.0

Neutralization Step

  • Water                                                             : 100 liters
  • Soda ash                                                         : 20 gm
  • Time                                                               : 3 min
  • Temp                                                              : 45˚ C

Rinsing for 2 times with 150-liter water each time

HYDRO-EXTRACTING:

  • Time                                                               : 1.5-2.0 min

DRYING:

  • Type                                                                 : Gas dryer
  • Temp                                                                : 80˚ C
  • Time                                                                 : 30-40 min

SAMPLE NO: 3 (Liquid Enzyme + Undesized) (Enzyme conc.:1g/l)
Undesized and washed with liquid enzyme without stone

RECIPE:

  • Enzyme Step
  • Water                                                                  : 60 liters
  • Acetic acid                                                           : 0.4g/l
  • Liquid enzyme (GENZYME 200)                           : 1g/l
  • Anti-back-staining agent                                     : 0.3g/l
  • Temp                                                                   : 45˚C
  • Time                                                                    : 30 min
  • PH                                                                       : 4.5-5.0

Neutralization Step

  • Water                                                                   : 100 liters
  • Soda ash                                                              : 0.2g/l
  • Time                                                                     : 3 min
  • Temp                                                                    : 45˚C

Rinsing for 2 times with 150-liter water each time

HYDRO-EXTRACTOR:

  • Time                                                                     : 1.5-2.0 min

DRYING:

  • Type                                                                     : Gas dryer
  • Temp                                                                    : 80˚C
  • Time                                                                     : 40 min

SAMPLE NO: 4 (Liquid Enzyme + Desized +Stone) (Enzyme conc.:1g/l)
Desized and washed with liquid enzyme with stone.

RECIPE:

Desizing step

  • Water                                                                  : 100 liters
  • Desizing agent (Ecosize AM)                              : 0.5g/l
  • Anti-back-staining agent                                   : 0.2g/l
  • Pumice stone                                                      : 1 mug (1.5 kg)
  • Temp                                                                   : 60˚C
  • Time                                                                    : 15 min

Rinsing 2 times with 150 liter of water each time.

Enzyme Step

  • Water                                                                   : 60 liters
  • Acetic acid                                                            : 0.4g/l
  • Liquid enzyme (GENZYME 200)                          : 1g/l
  • Anti-back-staining agent                                    : 0.3g/l
  • Pumic stone                                                         : 1 mug (1.5 kg)
  • Temp                                                                   : 45˚C
  • Time                                                                    : 30 min
  • pH                                                                       : 4.5-5.0

Neutralization Step

  • Water                                                                   : 100 liters
  • Soda ash                                                              : 0.2g/l
  • Time                                                                     : 3 min
  • Temp                                                                    : 45˚C

Rinsing for 2 times with 150-liter water each time

HYDRO-EXTRACTING:

  • Time                                                                     : 1.5-2.0 min

DRYING:

  • Type                                                                     : Gas dryer
  • Temp                                                                    : 80˚C
  • Time                                                                     : 30-40 min

SAMPLE NO: 5 (Liquid Enzyme +Undesized +Stone) (Enzyme conc.:1g/l)
Undesized and washed with liquid enzyme with stone.

RECIPE:

Enzyme Step

  • Water                                                                   : 60 liters
  • Acetic acid                                                            : 0.4g/l
  • Liquid enzyme (GENZYME 200)                            : 1g/l
  • Anti-back-staining agent                                      : 0.3g/l
  • Pumic stone                                                         : 1 mug (1.5 kg)
  • Temp                                                                    : 45˚ C
  • Time                                                                     : 30 min
  • pH                                                                       : 4.5-5.0

Neutralization Step

  • Water                                                                   : 100 liters
  • Soda ash                                                              : 0.2g/l
  • Time                                                                     : 3 min
  • Temp                                                                    : 45˚ C

Rinsing for 2 times with 150-liter water each time

HYDRO-EXTRACTING:

  • Time                                                                     : 1.5-2.0 min

DRYING:

  • Type                                                                     : Gas dryer
  • Temp                                                                    : 80˚C
  • Time                                                                     : 30-40 min

SAMPLE NO: 6 (Liquid & Powder Enzyme + Undesized) (Enzyme conc.:1g/l)
Undesized and washed with liquid and powder enzyme without stone.

RECIPE:

Enzyme Step

  • Water                                                                   : 60 liters
  • Acetic acid                                                            : 0.2g/l (pH-5.5)
  • Liquid enzyme (Genzyme-200) +
    Powder enzyme (Bactosol)                                   : 1g/l
  • Anti-back-staining agent                                     : 20 gm
  • Temp                                                                    : 45˚C
  • Time                                                                     : 30 min
  • pH                                                                        : 4.5-5.0

Neutralization Step

  • Water                                                                   : 100 liter
  • Soda ash                                                              : 0.2g/l
  • Time                                                                     : 3 min
  • Temp                                                                    : 45˚ C

Rinsing for 2 times with 150-liter water each time

HYDRO-EXTRACTING:

  • Time                                                                     : 1.5-2.0 min

DRYING:

  • Type                                                                      : Gas dryer
  • Temp                                                                     : 80˚ C
  • Time                                                                      : 30-40 min

SAMPLE NO: 7 (Liquid & Powder Enzyme + Desized) (Enzyme conc.:1g/l)
Desized and washed with liquid and powder enzyme without stone

RECIPE:

Desizing step

  • Water                                                                   : 100 liter
  • Desizing agent (Ecossaise AM)                              : 0.5g/l
  • Anti-back-staining agent                                      : 0.2g/l
  • Temp                                                                    : 60˚C
  • Time                                                                     : 15 min

Rinsing 2 times with 150 liter of water each time.

Enzyme Step

  • Water                                                                   : 60 liter
  • Acetic acid                                                            :  0.2g/l (pH-5.5)
  • Liquid enzyme (GENZYME 200) +
    Powder enzyme (Bactosol)                                    : 1g/l
  • Anti-back-staining agent                                      : 0.3g/l
  • Temp                                                                    : 45˚C
  • Time                                                                     : 30 min
  • pH                                                                        : 4.5-5.0

Neutralization Step

  • Water                                                                   : 100 liter
  • Soda ash                                                              : 0.2g/l
  • Time                                                                     : 3 min
  • Temp                                                                    : 45˚C

Rinsing for 2 times with 150-liter water each time

HYDRO-EXTRACTING:

  • Time                                                                     : 1.5-2.0 min

DRYING:

  • Type                                                                     : Gas dryer
  • Temp                                                                    : 80˚C
  • Time                                                                     : 40 min

SAMPLE NO: 8 (Liquid & Powder Enzyme + Undesized +Stone) (Enzyme conc.:1g/l)
Undesized and washed with liquid and powder enzyme with stone.

RECIPE:

Enzyme Step

  • Water                                                                   : 60 liters
  • Acetic acid                                                            : 0.2g/l(pH-5.5)
  • Liquid enzyme (GENZYME 200+
    Powder enzyme (Bactosol)                                    : 1g/l
  • Anti-back-staining agent                                      :  0.3g/l
  • Pumic stone                                                         : 1 mug (1.5 kg)
  • Temp                                                                    : 45˚C
  • Time                                                                     : 30 min
  • pH                                                                        : 4.5-5.0

Neutralization Step

  • Water                                                                   : 100 liter
  • Soda ash                                                              : 0.2g/l
  • Time                                                                     : 3 min
  • Temp                                                                    : 45˚C

Rinsing for 2 times with 150 liter water each time

HYDRO-EXTRACTING:

  • Time                                                                     : 1.5-2.0 min

DRYING:

  • Type                                                                     : Gas dryer
  • Temp                                                                    : 80˚C
  • Time                                                                     : 30-40 min

SAMPLE NO: 9 (Liquid & Powder Enzyme + Desized + Stone) (Enzyme conc.:1g/l)
Desized and washed with liquid and powder enzyme with stone

RECIPE:

Desizing step

  • Water                                                                   : 100 liter
  • Desizing agent (Ecosize AM)                                 : 0.5g/l
  • Anti-back-staining agent                                      : 0.2g/l
  • Pumic stone                                                         : 1 mug (1.5 kg)
  • Temp                                                                    : 60˚C
  • Time                                                                     : 15 min

Rinsing 2 times with 150 liter of water each time.

Enzyme Step

  • Water                                                                   : 60 liters
  • Acetic acid                                                            : 0.2g/l (pH-5.5)
  • Liquid enzyme (GENZYME 200) +
    Powder enzyme (Bactosol)                                    : 1g/l
  • Anti-back-staining agent                                      : 0.3g/l
  • Pumic stone                                                         : 1 mug (1.5 kg)
  • Temp                                                                   : 45˚C
  • Time                                                                    : 30 min
  • pH                                                                       : 4.5-5.0

Neutralization Step

  • Water                                                                   : 100 liter
  • Soda ash                                                              : 20 gm
  • Time                                                                     : 3 min
  • Temp                                                                    : 45˚C

Rinsing for 2 times with 150 liter water each time

HYDRO-EXTRACTING:

  • Time                                                                     : 1.5-2.0 min

DRYING:

  • Type                                                                     : Gas dryer
  • Temp                                                                    : 80˚ C
  • Time                                                                    : 30-40 min

SAMPLE NO: 10 (Powder enzyme + Desized + Stone) (Enzyme conc.:1g/l)
Desized and washed with powder enzyme with stone

RECIPE:

Desizing step

  • Water                                                                  : 100 liters
  • Desizing agent (Ecosize AM)                                : 0.5g/l
  • Anti-back-staining agent                                     : 0.2g/l
  • Pumic stone                                                        : 1 mug (1.5 kg)
  • Temp                                                                   : 60˚ C
  • Time                                                                    : 15 min

Rinsing 2 times with 150 liter of water each time.

Enzyme Step

  • Water                                                                  : 60 liter
  • Acetic acid                                                           : 0.2g/l (pH-6.0)
  • Powder enzyme (Bactosol)                                   : 1g/l
  • Anti-back-staining agent                                     : 20 gm
  • Pumic stone                                                        : 1 mug (1.5 kg)
  • Temp                                                                  : 45˚ C
  • Time                                                                   : 30 min
  • PH                                                                      : 4.5-5.0

Neutralization Step

  • Water                                                                  : 100 liter
  • Soda ash                                                             : 10 gm
  • Time                                                                    : 3 min
  • Temp                                                                   : 45˚ C

Rinsing for 2 times with 150-liter water each time

HYDRO-EXTRACTING:

  • Time                                                                    : 1.5-2.0 min

DRYING:

  • Type                                                                     : Gas dryer
  • Temp                                                                    : 80˚ C
  • Time                                                                     : 30-40 min

SAMPLE NO: 11 (Powder enzyme + Undesized + Stone) (Enzyme conc.:1g/l)
Undesized and washed with powder enzyme with stone.

RECIPE:

Enzyme Step

  • Water                                                                  : 60 liter
  • Acetic acid                                                           : 0.2g/l (pH-6.0)
  • Powder enzyme (Bactosol)                                   : 50 gm
  • Anti-back-staining agent                                     : 20 gm
  • Pumic stone                                                        : 1 mug (1.5 kg)
  • Temp                                                                  : 45˚ C
  • Time                                                                   : 30 min
  • PH                                                                      : 4.5-5.0

Neutralization Step

  • Water                                                                  : 100 liter
  • Soda ash                                                             : 10 gm
  • Time                                                                    : 3 min
  • Temp                                                                   : 45˚ C

Rinsing for 2 times with 150 liter water each time

HYDRO-EXTRACTING:

  • Time                                                                     : 1.5-2.0 min

DRYING:

  • Type                                                                     : Gas dryer
  • Temp                                                                    : 80˚ C
  • Time                                                                     : 30-40 min

SAMPLE NO: 12 (Powder enzyme + Desized) (Enzyme conc.:1g/l)
Desized and washed with powder enzyme without stone

RECIPE:

Desizing step

  • Water                                                                  : 100 liter
  • Desizing agent (Ecosize AM)                                : 0.5g/l
  • Anti-back-staining agent                                     : 0.2g/l
  • Temp                                                                   : 60˚ C
  • Time                                                                    : 15 min

Rinsing 2 times with 150 liter of water each time.

Enzyme Step

  • Water                                                                   : 60 liter
  • Acetic acid                                                            : 0.2g/l (pH-6.0)
  • Powder enzyme (Bactosol)                                    : 50 gm
  • Anti-back-staining agent                                      : 20 gm
  • Temp                                                                    : 45˚ C
  • Time                                                                     : 30 min
  • pH                                                                        : 4.5-5.0

Neutralization Step

  • Water                                                                   : 100 liter
  • Soda ash                                                              : 10 gm
  • Time                                                                     : 3 min
  • Temp                                                                    : 45˚ C

Rinsing for 2 times with 150 liter water each time

HYDRO-EXTRACTING:

  • Time                                                                      : 1.5-2.0 min

DRYING:

  • Type                                                                     : Gas dryer
  • Temp                                                                    : 80˚ C
  • Time                                                                     : 30-40 min

SAMPLE NO: 13 (Powder enzyme + Undesized) (Enzyme conc.:1g/l)
Undesized and washed with powder enzyme without stone.

RECIPE:

Enzyme Step

  • Water                                                                   : 60 liter
  • Acetic acid                                                            : 0.2g/l (pH-6.0)
  • Powder enzyme (Bactosol )                                   : 50 gm
  • Anti-back-staining agent                                      : 20 gm
  • Temp                                                                    : 45˚ C
  • Time                                                                     : 30 min
  • pH                                                                        : 4.5-5.0

Neutralization Step

  • Water                                                                   : 100 liter
  • Soda ash                                                              : 10 gm
  • Time                                                                     : 3 min
  • Temp                                                                    : 45˚ C

Rinsing for 2 times with 150-liter water each time

HYDRO-EXTRACTING:

  • Time                                                                     : 1.5-2.0 min

DRYING:

  • Type                                                                     : Gas dryer
  • Temp                                                                    : 80˚ C
  • Time                                                                     : 30-40 min

SAMPLE NO: 14 (Only Desized)
Only desized sample

RECIPE:

Desizing step

  • Water                                                                  : 100 liter
  • Desizing agent (Ecosize AM)                                 : 0.5g/l
  • Anti-back-staining agent                                      : 0.2g/l
  • Temp                                                                    : 60˚ C
  • Time                                                                     : 15 min

Rinsing 2 times with 150 liter of water each time.

HYDRO-EXTRACTING:

  • Time                                                                     : 1.5-2.0 min

DRYING:

  • Type                                                                     : Gas dryer
  • Temp                                                                    : 80˚ C
  • Time                                                                     : 30-40 min

SAMPLE NO: 15 (Powder enzyme + Desized) (Enzyme conc.:1.5g/l)
Desized and washed with powder enzyme without stone.

RECIPE

Desizing step

  • Water                                                                    : 100 L
  • Desizing agent (Ecosize AM)                                  : 0.5g/l
  • Anti-back-staining agent                                       : 0.2g/l
  • Time                                                                      : 15 min
  • Temp                                                                     : 60 c
  • Rinse two times                                                     : 150 L

Enzyme Step

  • Water                                                                   : 60 L
  • Acetic acid                                                            : 0.5g/l
  • Powder enzyme                                                    : 150 gm
  • ID eco                                                                   :50 gm
  • Temp                                                                     :45˚ c
  • Time                                                                      :30 minute

Rinse two times

Neutralization Step

  • Water                                                                   : 100 liter
  • Soda ash                                                              : 20 gm
  • Time                                                                     : 3 min
  • Temp                                                                    : 45˚ C

Rinsing for 2 times with 150 liter water each time

HYDRO-EXTRACTING:

  • Time                                                                      : 1.5-2.0 min

DRYING:

  • Type                                                                      : Gas dryer
  • Temp                                                                     : 80˚ C
  • Time                                                                      : 30-40 min

SAMPLE NO: 16 (Powder enzyme + Undesized) (Enzyme conc.:1.5g/l)
Undesized and washed with powder enzyme without stone.

RECIPE

Enzyme Step

  • Water                                                                   : 60 L
  • Acetic acid                                                            : 0.5g/l
  • Powder enzyme                                                    : 150 gm
  • ID eco                                                                  : 50 gm
  • Temp                                                                    : 45 c
  • Time                                                                     : 30 minute

Rinse two times

Neutralization Step

  • Water                                                                    : 100 liter
  • Soda ash                                                               : 20 gm
  • Time                                                                      : 3 min
  • Temp                                                                     : 45˚C

Rinsing for 2 times with 150 liter water each time

HYDRO-EXTRACTING:

  • Time                                                                      : 1.5-2.0 min

DRYING:

  • Type                                                                      : Gas dryer
  • Temp                                                                     : 80˚ C
  • Time                                                                      : 30-40 min

SAMPLE NO: 17 (Liquid Enzyme +Undesized +Stone) (Enzyme conc.:1.5g/l)
Undesized and washed with Liquid enzyme with stone.

RECIPE

Enzyme Step

  • Water                                                                 : 100 L
  • Acetic acid                                                          : 0.5g/l
  • Liquid enzyme                                                    : 150 gm
  • ID eco                                                                : 70 gm
  • Stone                                                                 : 2 kg
  • Temp                                                                 : 45 c
  • Time                                                                  : 30 minutes
  • Rinse two times                                                 : 150 L

Neutralization Step

  • Water                                                                  : 100 liter
  • Soda ash                                                             : 20 gm
  • Time                                                                    : 3 min
  • Temp                                                                   : 45˚ C

Rinsing for 2 times with 150-liter water each time

HYDRO-EXTRACTING:

  • Time                                                                     : 1.5-2.0 min

DRYING:

  • Type                                                                     : Gas dryer
  • Temp                                                                    : 80˚ C
  • Time                                                                     : 30-40 min

SAMPLE NO: 18 (Liquid & Powder Enzyme + Desized) (Enzyme conc.:1.5g/l)
Desized and washed with Liquid and Powder enzyme without stone.

RECIPE

Desizing step

  • Water                                                                : 100 L
  • Desizing agent (Ecosize AM)                              : 0.5g/l
  • Anti-back-staining agent                                   : 0.2g/l
  • Time                                                                 : 15 min
  • Temp                                                                 : 60 c
  • Rinse two times                                                 : 150 L

Enzyme Step

  • Water                                                                : 100 L
  • Acetic acid                                                         : 0.3g/l
  • Powder + liquid enzyme                                    : 10 gm
  • ID eco                                                               : 50 gm
  • Temp                                                                 : 45 c
  • Time                                                                  : 30 minutes

Rinse to times

Neutralization Step

  • Water                                                                   : 100 liter
  • Soda ash                                                              : 20 gm
  • Time                                                                     : 3 min
  • Temp                                                                    : 45˚ C

Rinsing for 2 times with 150 liter water each time

HYDRO-EXTRACTING:

  • Time                                                                     : 1.5-2.0 min

DRYING:

  • Type                                                                     : Gas dryer
  • Temp                                                                    : 80˚ C
  • Time                                                                     : 30-40 min

SAMPLE NO: 19 (Liquid & Powder Enzyme + Undesized) (Enzyme conc.:1.5g/l)
Undesized and washed with Liquid and powder enzyme without stone.

RECIPE

Enzyme Step

  • Water                                                                    : 100 L
  • Acetic acid                                                             : 30 gm
  • Powder + liquid enzyme                                        : 10 gm
  • ID eco                                                                   : 50 gm
  • Temp                                                                     : 45 c
  • Time                                                                      : 30 minutes

Rinse to times

Neutralization Step

  • Water                                                                   : 100 liter
  • Soda ash                                                              : 20 gm
  • Time                                                                     : 3 min
  • Temp                                                                    : 45˚ C

Rinsing for 2 times with 150 liter water each time

HYDRO-EXTRACTING:

  • Time                                                                     : 1.5-2.0 min

DRYING:

  • Type                                                                      : Gas dryer
  • Temp                                                                    : 80˚ C
  • Time                                                                      : 30-40 min

SAMPLE NO: 20 (Liquid & Powder Enzyme + Undesized + Stone) (Enzyme conc.:1.5g/l)
Undesized and washed with Liquid and Powder enzyme with stone.

RECIPE

Enzyme Step

  • Water                                                                 : 100 L
  • Acetic acid                                                          : 0.5g/l
  • Liquid +powder enzyme                                     : 150 gm
  • ID eco                                                                 : 70 gm
  • Stone                                                                  :  2 kg
  • Temp                                                                  : 45 c
  • Time                                                                   : 30 minutes
  • Rinse two times                                                   : 150 L

Neutralization Step

  • Water                                                                   : 100 liter
  • Soda ash                                                              : 20 gm
  • Time                                                                     : 3 min
  • Temp                                                                    : 45˚ C

Rinsing for 2 times with 150-liter water each time

HYDRO-EXTRACTING:

  • Time                                                                     : 1.5-2.0 min

DRYING:

  • Type                                                                     : Gas dryer
  • Temp                                                                    : 80˚ C
  • Time                                                                     : 30-40 min

SAMPLE NO: 21 (Powder Enzyme + Desized + Stone) (Enzyme conc.:1.5g/l)
Desized and washed with Powder enzyme with stone.

RECIPE

Desizing step

  • Water                                                                    : 100 L
  • Desizing agent (Ecosize AM)                                  : 0.5g/l
  • Anti-back-staining agent                                       : 0.2g/l
  • Time                                                                      : 15 min
  • Temp                                                                    : 60 c
  • Rinse two times                                                     : 150 L

Enzyme Step

  • Water                                                                 : 60 L
  • Acetic acid                                                          : 0.5g/l
  • Powder enzyme                                                  : 150 gm
  • ID eco                                                                : 50 gm
  • Temp                                                                  : 45 c
  • Time                                                                  : 30 minute

Rinse two times

Neutralization Step

  • Water                                                                   : 100 liter
  • Soda ash                                                              : 20 gm
  • Time                                                                     : 3 min
  • Temp                                                                    : 45˚ C

Rinsing for 2 times with 150 liter water each time

HYDRO-EXTRACTING:

  • Time                                                                     : 1.5-2.0 min

DRYING:

  • Type                                                                     : Gas dryer
  • Temp                                                                    : 80˚ C
  • Time                                                                     : 30-40 min

SAMPLE NO: 22 (Powder Enzyme + Undesized + Stone) (Enzyme conc.:1.5g/l)
Undesized and washed with Powder enzyme with stone.

RECIPE

Enzyme Step

  • Water                                                                 : 60 L
  • Acetic acid                                                          : 0.5g/l
  • Powder enzyme                                                  : 150 gm
  • ID eco                                                                 : 50 gm
  • Temp                                                                  : 45 c
  • Time                                                                   :30 minute

Rinse two times

Neutralization Step

  • Water                                                                   : 100 liter
  • Soda ash                                                              : 20 gm
  • Time                                                                     : 3 min
  • Temp                                                                    : 45˚ C

Rinsing for 2 times with 150 liter water each time

HYDRO-EXTRACTING:

  • Time                                                                      : 1.5-2.0 min

DRYING:

  • Type                                                                     : Gas dryer
  • Temp                                                                    : 80˚ C
  • Time                                                                     : 30-40 min

SAMPLE NO: 23 (Liquid &Powder Enzyme + Desized + Stone) (Enzyme conc.:1.5g/l)
Desized and washed with Powder and Liquid enzyme with stone.

RECIPE

Desizing step

  • Water                                                                   : 100 L
  • Desizing agent (Ecosize AM)                                 : 0.5g/l
  • Anti-back-staining agent                                      : 0.2g/l
  • Time                                                                     : 15 min
  • Temp                                                                    : 60oC
  • Rinse two times                                                    : 150 L

Enzyme Step

  • Water                                                                   : 100 L
  • Acetic acid                                                            : 0.5g/l
  • Liquid +powder enzyme                                       : 150 gm
  • ID eco                                                                  : 70 gm
  • Stone                                                                   :  2 kg
  • Temp                                                                    : 45oC
  • Time                                                                     : 30 minute
  • Rinse two times                                                    : 150 L

Neutralization Step

  • Water                                                                   : 100 liter
  • Soda ash                                                              : 20 gm
  • Time                                                                     : 3 min
  • Temp                                                                    : 45˚ C

Rinsing for 2 times with 150 liter water each time

HYDRO-EXTRACTING:

  • Time                                                                     : 1.5-2.0 min

DRYING:

  • Type                                                                     : Gas dryer
  • Temp                                                                    : 80˚ C
  • Time                                                                     : 30-40 min

SAMPLE NO: 24 (Liquid Enzyme + Desized + Stone) (Enzyme conc.:1.5g/l)
Desized and washed with Liquid enzyme with stone.

RECIPE

Desizing step

  • Water                                                                     : 100 L
  • Desizing agent (Ecosize AM)                                   : 0.5g/l
  • Anti-back-staining agent                                        : 0.2g/l
  • Time                                                                       : 15 min
  • Temp                                                                      : 60 c
  • Rinse two times                                                      : 150 L

Enzyme Step

  • Water                                                                   : 60  L
  • Acetic acid                                                            : 0.5g/l
  • Liquid enzyme                                                      : 150 gm
  • Id eco                                                                   : 50 gm
  • Temp                                                                    : 45oC
  • Time                                                                     : 30 minutes
  • Rinse two times                                                    : 150 L

Neutralization Step

  • Water                                                                   : 100 liter
  • Soda ash                                                               : 20 gm
  • Time                                                                     : 3 min
  • Temp                                                                    : 45˚ C

Rinsing for 2 times with 150-liter water each time

HYDRO-EXTRACTING:

  • Time                                                                      : 1.5-2.0 min

DRYING:

  • Type                                                                     : Gas dryer
  • Temp                                                                    : 80˚ C
  • Time                                                                     : 30-40 min

SAMPLE NO: 25 (Liquid + Undesized) (Enzyme conc.:1.5g/l)
Undesized and washed with Liquid enzyme without stone.

RECIPE

Enzyme Step

  • Water                                                                 : 60 L
  • Acetic acid                                                          : 30 gm
  • Liquid enzyme                                                    : 150 gm
  • Id eco                                                                 : 50 gm
  • Temp                                                                  : 45oC
  • Time                                                                   : 30 minutes
  • Rinse two times                                                  : 150 L

Neutralization Step

  • Water                                                                  : 100 liter
  • Soda ash                                                             : 20 gm
  • Time                                                                    : 3 min
  • Temp                                                                   : 45˚ C

Rinsing for 2 times with 150-liter water each time

HYDRO-EXTRACTING:

  • Time                                                                     : 1.5-2.0 min

DRYING

  • Type                                                                     : Gas dryer
  • Temp                                                                    : 80˚ C
  • Time                                                                     : 30-40 min

SAMPLE NO: 26 (Liquid + Desized) (Enzyme conc.:1.5g/l)
Desized and washed with Liquid enzyme without stone.

RECIPE

Desizing step

  • Water                                                                 : 100 L
  • Desizing agent (Ecosize AM)                               : 0.5g/l
  • Anti-back-staining agent                                    : 0.2g/l
  • Time                                                                   : 15 min
  • Temp                                                                  : 60 c
  • Rinse two times                                                  : 150 L

Enzyme Step

  • Water                                                               : 60 L
  • Acetic acid                                                        : 30 gm
  • Liquid enzyme                                                  : 150 gm
  • Id eco                                                               : 50 gm
  • Temp                                                                : 45 c
  • Time                                                                 : 30 minutes
  • Rinse two times                                                : 150 L

Neutralization Step

  • Water                                                                : 100 liter
  • Soda ash                                                           : 20 gm
  • Time                                                                  : 3 min
  • Temp                                                                 : 45˚ C

Rinsing for 2 times with 150-liter water each time

HYDRO-EXTRACTING:

  • Time                                                                   : 1.5-2.0 min

DRYING:

  • Type                                                                     : Gas dryer
  • Temp                                                                    : 80˚ C
  • Time                                                                     : 30-40 min

CHAPTER 3
Results & Discussion

Following Tests are done

  1. GSM Measurement.
  2. Count Measurement.
  3. Shrinkage Test.
  4. Stiffness Test.
  5. Strength Test

GSM Measurement

Sample no Sample details GSM values Avg GSM Remarks
1 Raw sample (Without wash) a) 389
b) 391
c) 390
390
2 E(L)+ Desized a) 383
b) 383
c) 383
383
3 E(L)+  Undesized a) 391
b) 389
c) 389
389
4 E(L)+ Desized+ Stone a) 382
b) 382
c) 382
382
5 E(L)+ Undesized+ Stone a) 376
b) 380
c) 378
378
6 E(P+L)+ Desized a) 388
b) 388
c) 388
386
7 E(P+L)+ Undesized a) 390
b) 386
c) 386
388
8 E(P+L)+ Undesized+ Stone a) 388
b) 388
c) 391
387
9 E(P+L)+ Desized+ Stone a) 388
b) 387
c) 387
388
10 E(P)+ Desized + Stone a) 384
b) 386
c) 385
385
11 E(P)+ Undesized + Stone a) 386
b) 387
c) 388
387
12 E(P)+ Desized a) 387
b) 390
c) 387
387
13 E(P)+ Undesized a) 388
b) 388
c) 388
388
14 Only Desized a) 386
b) 383
c) 383
383
15 E(P)+ Desized a) 386
b) 385
c) 387
386
16 E(P)+ Undesized a) 381
b) 381
c) 381
381
17 E(L)+ Undesized+ Stone a) 386
b) 383
c) 383
383
18 E(L+P)+ Desized a) 380
b) 380
c) 383
380
 

19

E(L+P)+ Undesized a) 383
b) 381
c) 381
381
20 E(L+P)+ Undesized+ Stone a) 380
b) 378
c) 379
379
21 E(P)+ Desized+  Stone a) 384
b) 385
c) 385
385
22 E(P)+ Undesized+ Stone a) 374
b) 374
c) 377
374
23 E(L+P)+ Desized+ Stone a) 381
b) 382
c) 383
382
24 E(L)+ Desized+ Stone a) 378
b) 381
c) 378
378
25 Only Desized a) 382
b) 380
c) 380
380
26 E(L)+ Undesized a) 383
b) 384
c) 384
384
27 E(L)+ Desized a)380
b)382
c)384
382
Graph For GSM
Fig: Graph for GSM

Discussion

  • GSM is higher while washing with liquid enzyme than others.
  • GSM is lower for undesized washing sample than desized sample.
  • GSM is lower while washing with stone.
  • From the table, we can see that undesized samples have more gsm than the desized one.
  • Sample 16 and sample 19 have the same gsm. So, for undesized sample (without stone), liquid and liquid & powder have the same effect in case of GSM.
  • Less Difference (390-389) *100/390=0.25% In case of sample 3.
  • More Difference (390-374) *100/390=4.10% In case of sample 22.

COUNT MEASURMENT

Sample no Sample details Warp Count (in Ne) Avg Count (in Ne) Weft Count (in Ne ) Avg Count (in Ne)
1 Raw sample (Without wash) a)9
b)9
c)9
9 a)9
b)9
c)9
9
2 E(L)+ Desized a)10
b)10
c)11
10 a)9
b)9
c)9
9
3 E(L)+  Undesized a)9
b)9
c)9
9 a)8
b)8
c)8
8
4 E(L)+ Desized+ Stone a)10
b)11
c)11
11 a)9
b)9
c)9
9
5 E(L)+ Undesized+ Stone a)10
b)10
c)10
10 a)7
b)7
c)8
7
6 E(P+L)+ Desized a)9
b)10
c)9
9 a)8
b)8
c)9
8
7 E(P+L)+ Undesized a)9
b)9
c)9
9 a)8
b)8
c)8
8
8 E(P+L)+ Undesized+ Stone a)10
b)10
c)10
10 a)9
b)9
c)9
9
9 E(P+L)+ Desized+ Stone a)10
b)10
c)10
10 a)8
b)9
c)9
9
10 E(P)+ Desized + Stone a)11
b)9
c)10
10 a)9
b)9
c)9
9
11 E(P)+ Undesized + Stone a)10
b)10
c)11
10 a)9
b)9
c)8
9
12 E(P)+ Desized a)9
b)9
c)9
9 a)8
b)8
c)8
8
13 E(P)+ Undesized a)9
b)9
c)8
9 a)8
b)8
c)8
8
14 Only Desized a)10
b)10
c)10
10 a)8
b)8
c)8
8
15 E(P)+ Desized a)10
b)10
c)9
10 a)7
b)7
c)7
7
16 E(P)+ Undesized a)10
b)9
c)9
9 a)8
b)8
c)8
8
17 E(L)+ Undesized+ Stone a)10
b)10
c)10
10 a)8
b)8
c)9
8
18 E(L+P)+ Desized a)9
b)9
c)9
9 a)8
b)8
c)8
8
19 E(L+P)+ Undesized a)9
b)10
c)9
9 a)8
b)9
c)8
8
20 E(L+P)+ Undesized+ Stone a)10
b)10
c)10
10 a)8
b)8
c)8
8
21 E(P)+ Desized+  Stone a)10
b)10
c)10
10 a)8
b)8
c)8
8
22 E(P)+ Undesized+ Stone a)10
b)10
c)10
10 a)9
b)9
c)9
9
23 E(L+P)+ Desized+ Stone a)10
b)9
c)9
9 a)8
b)8
c)8
8
24 E(L)+ Desized+ Stone a)10
b)10
c)10
10 a)9
b)9
c)9
9
25 Only Desized a)10
b)9
c)10
10 a)8
b)8
c)8
8
26 E(L)+ Undesized a)10
b)10
c)10
10 a)8
b)8
c)8
8
27 E(L)+ Desized a)10
b)10
c)10
10 a)8
b)8
c)8
8
Graph For Warp Count
Fig: Graph for Warp Count
Graph For Weft Count
Fig: Graph for Weft Count

Discussion

  • Very Small variation in Count for different washing.
  • Stone wash causes finer count.
  • Count is lower in powder washing than liquid washing.

Less difference

Warp
(9-9)*100/9=0%

Weft
(9-9)*100/9=0%

More Difference

Warp
(9-11)*100/9=22.2%

Weft
(9-7)*100/9=22.2%

EPI and PPI

Sample No Sample details EPI PPI
1 Raw sample (Without wash) 72 41
2 E(L)+ Desized 71 41
3 E(L)+  Undesized 71 42
4 E(L)+ Desized+ Stone 73 41
5 E(L)+ Undesized+ Stone 71 41
6 E(P+L)+ Desized 71 41
7 E(P+L)+ Undesized 71 41
8 E(P+L)+ Undesized+ Stone 73 42
9 E(P+L)+ Desized+ Stone 71 41
10 E(P)+ Desized + Stone 72 42
11 E(P)+ Undesized + Stone 73 41
12 E(P)+ Desized 71 41
13 E(P)+ Undesized 73 41
14 Only Desized 71 41
15 E(P)+ Desized 72 41
16 E(P)+ Undesized 71 41
17 E(L)+ Undesized+ Stone 71 41
18 E(L+P)+ Desized 72 42
19 E(L+P)+ Undesized 71 41
20 E(L+P)+ Undesized+ Stone 73 41
21 E(P)+ Desized+  Stone 72 42
22 E(P)+ Undesized+ Stone 72 41
23 E(L+P)+ Desized+ Stone 72 41
24 E(L)+ Desized+ Stone 72 41
25 Only Desized 73 41
26 E(L)+ Undesized 71 41
27 E(L)+ Desized 73 41
Graph For EPI
Fig: Graph for EPI
Graph For PPI
Fig: Graph for PPI

Discussion

  • EPI and PPI can be changed due to shrinkage.
  • EPI of the samples varies from 71 to 73.
  • In case of PPI most of the sample shows constant PPI which is 41 but 5 sample shows PPI 42.
  • Less Difference (72-72)*100/72=0%
  • More Difference (72-71)*100/72=1.38%

Shrinkage

shrinkage testdenim shrinkage test

Graph For Warp Shrinkage (%)
Fig: Graph for Warp Shrinkage (%)
Graph For Weft Shrinkage (%)
Fig: Graph for Weft Shrinkage (%)

COMMENTS

  1. Shrinkage occurs in washing.
  2. Warp way shrinkage is more than weft way shrinkage.
  3. Stone washing causes more shrinkage.
  4. Maximum shrinkage occurs in case of sample no. 8. This sample is undesized and stone washed and shrinkage% is out of range and rejected.
  5. In case of out of range shrinkage sample that particular type of washing cannot be done.
  6. Less Difference
    1. Warp 1%
    2. Weft 0%
  7. 7. More Difference
    1. Warp 9%
    2. Weft 2.5%

STIFFNESS
BENDING LENGH TESTING (Stiffness)

Sample Warp Weft
Face side Back Side Face side Back Side
B.L (cm) avgas  B.L (cm) avg B.L (cm) avg B.L (cm) avg
1 3.9 3.875 3.75 3.7 2.35 2.325 2.75 2.725
3.85 3.65 2.3 2.7
2 3.65 3.6 2.9 2.875 2.4 2.35 2.65 2.675
3.55 2.85 2.3 2.7
3 3.35 3.4 2.8 2.775 2.3 2.325 2.6 2.65
3.45 2.75 2.35 2.7
4 3.35 3.375 2.5 2.525 2.25 2.275 2.55 2.575
3.4 2.55 2.3 2.6
5 3.2 3.25 2.65 2.675 2.3 2.325 2.7 2.675
3.3 2.7 2.35 2.65
6 3.3 3.275 2.65 2.675 2.15 2.2 2.5 2.55
3.25 2.7 2.25 2.6
7 3.2 3.25 2.7 2.65 2.25 2.225 2.7 2.675
3.3 2.6 2.2 2.65
8 3.3 3.275 2.65 2.675 2.15 2.2 2.6 2.625
3.25 2.7 2.25 2.65
9 3.2 3.225 2.65 2.625 2.2 2.25 2.65 2.675
3.25 2.6 2.3 2.7
10 3.3 3.275 2.65 2.65 2.25 2.3 2.55 2.6
3.25 2.65 2.35 2.65
11 3.2 3.25 2.6 2.65 2.15 2.2 2.65 2.675
3.3 2.7 2.25 2.7
12 3.25 3.275 2.65 2.625 2.3 2.25 2.6 2.625
3.3 2.6 2.2 2.65
13 3.25 3.3 2.65 2.675 2.25 2.225 2.7 2.65
3.35 2.7 2.2 2.6
14 3.3 3.275 2.7 2.75 2.45 2.4 2.5 2.55
3.25 2.8 2.35 2.6
15 3.2 3.22 2.65 2.575 2.2 2.35 2.8 2.775
3.24 2.5 2.5 2.75
16 3.2 3.25 2.7 2.65 2.25 2.3 2.65 2.625
3.3 2.6 2.35 2.6
17 3.25 3.275 2.65 2.625 2.35 2.325 2.55 2.575
3.3 2.6 2.3 2.6
18 3.15 3.125 2.7 2.65 2.25 2.275 2.65 2.625
3.1 2.6 2.3 2.6
19 3.35 3.325 2.5 2.55 2.15 2.2 2.55 2.6
3.3 2.6 2.25 2.65
20 3.15 3.125 2.65 2.6 2.35 2.35 2.75 2.7
3.1 2.55 2.35 2.65
21 3.25 3.275 2.7 2.65 2.3 2.325 2.75 2.725
3.3 2.6 2.35 2.7
22 3.2 3.225 2.75 2.725 2.35 2.3 2.7 2.725
3.25 2.7 2.25 2.75
23 3.25 3.275 2.75 2.7 2.3 2.25 2.65 2.675
3.3 2.65 2.2 2.7
24 3.15 3.2 2.7 2.675 2.35 2.325 2.7 2.65
3.25 2.65 2.3 2.6
25 3.3 3.325 2.6 2.65 2.35 2.3 2.7 2.65
3.35 2.7 2.25 2.6
26 3.35 3.3 2.6 2.625 2.2 2.275 2.55 2.575
3.25 2.65 2.35 2.6
Graph For Warp side Stiffness
Fig: Graph for Warp side Stiffness .. – face side, .. – back side
Graph For Warp side Stiffness
Fig: Graph for Warp side Stiffness .. – face side, .. – back side

Discussion
In the warp direction face side has more bending length than back side. So, In the warp direction face side has less stiffness than back side. On the other hand, in the weft direction face side has less bending length than the back side. So, in the weft direction back side has less stiffness than face side.

  1. Stiffness reduces after washing.
  2. The stiffness has not changed noticeably.
  3. It can be said that washing do not occur huge change in stiffness property.
  4. Stiffness is more in liquid washing than powder washing.
  5. Stiffness is less in stone washing.
  6. Less Difference
    1. (Warp) 3.125 (sample 18)
    2. (Weft) 2.2 (sample 19)
  7. More Bending Length
    1. (Warp) 3.875 (sample 2)
    2. (Weft) 2.4   (sample 14)

STRENGTH TEST

Sample  no Sample details Values For Warp Way (in lb) Avg Value (in lb) Values For Weft Way (in lb) Avg Value (in lb) Remarks
1 Raw sample (Without wash) a)350
b)350
c)351
350 a)172
b)180
c)188
180
2 E(L)+ Desized a)410
b)409
c)408
409 a)200
b)210
c)190
200
3 E(L)+  Undesized a)253
b)251
c)249
251 a)310
b)310
c)311
310
4 E(L)+ Desized+ Stone a)320
b)320
c)319
320 a)140
b)150
c)130
150
5 E(L)+ Undesized+ Stone a)318
b)320
c)322
320 a)265
b)270
c)275
270
6 E(P+L)+ Desized a)110
b)111
c)110
110 a)180
b)188
c)172
180
7 E(P+L)+ Undesized a)218
b)220
c)222
220 a)320
b)310
c)300
310
8 E(P+L)+ Undesized+ Stone a)280
b)280
c)280
280 a)368
b)370
c)372
370
9 E(P+L)+ Desized+ Stone a)430
b)432
c)428
430 a)330
b)330
c)319
330
10 E(P)+ Desized + Stone a)271
b)270
c)270
270 a)150
b)150
c)150
150
11 E(P)+ Undesized + Stone a)330
b)330
c)331
330 a)351
b)350
c)350
350
12 E(P)+ Desized a)320
b)318
c)322
320 a)310
b)300
c)310
310
13 E(P)+ Undesized a)360
b)357
c)363
360 a)340
b)330
c)340
340
14 Only Desized a)381
b)380
c)379
380 a)265
b)270
c)275
320
15 E(P)+ Desized a)320
b)317
c)323
320 a)290
b)290
c)290
290
16 E(P)+ Undesized a)330
b)334
c)326
330 a)220
b)210
c)220
220
17 E(L)+ Undesized+ Stone a)450
b)444
c)456
450 a)310
b)300
c)320
310
18 E(L+P)+ Desized a)330
b)336
c)324
330 a)190
b)180
c)200
190
19 E(L+P)+ Undesized a)460
b)460
c)460
460 a)220
b)220
c)210
220
20 E(L+P)+ Undesized+ Stone a)411
b)410
c)412
410 a)240
b)250
c)250
250
21 E(P)+ Desized+  Stone a)331
b)330
c)330
330 a)210
b)210
c)200
210
22 E(P)+ Undesized+ Stone a)500
b)510
c)490
500 a)340
b)350
c)330
340
23 E(L+P)+ Desized+ Stone a)451
b)450
c)449
450 a)300
b)320
c)340
320
24 E(L)+ Desized+ Stone a)355
b)350
c)345
350 a)250
b)230
c)210
230
25 Only Desized a)440
b)440
c)441
440 a)160
b)160
c)150
160
26 E(L)+ Undesized a)400
b)354
c)400
400 a)150
b)140
c)150
150
27 E(L)+ Desized a)430
b)450
c)410
430 a)230
b)260
c)250
250
Graph For Strength test Warpwise
Fig: Graph for Strength test Warp wise
Graph For Strength test Weftwise
Fig: Graph for Strength test Weft wise

Discussion

  1. Washing causes a huge change in strength of garments.
  2. Strength has fluctuated randomly in different sample.
  3. Some sample has very low strength like no 6 which is Desized with powder and liquid enzyme washed.
  4. Other sample warp wise shows acceptable strength.
  5. In weft direction strength is lower than warp direction.
  6. Some sample shows very low strength in weft wise they are no 4, 10, 25, 26.
  7. Strength reduces in stone washing.
  8. Strength is more in undesized sample than desized sample.
  9. More Difference
    • (warp) (350-110) *100/350=68.57% in case of sample 6
    • (weft) (180-150) *100/180=16.67% in case of sample 26
  10. Less Difference
    • (warp) (350-330) *100/350=5.71% in case of sample 11
    • (weft) (180-160) *100/180=11.11% in case of sample 25

Conclusion
We have done Enzyme washing on 27 samples with a little variation of recipe. And found difference in their properties. We have examined 5 properties they are count measurement, GSM, Stiffness, Strength, EPI & PPI.

We found some differences which is for difference in recipe some differences were too much and unacceptable which occur due to poor testing machine condition.

CHAPTER 4
Appendix

DESIZING
Process sequence of Desizing –

  1. Sample
  2. Add water
  3. Machine Run
  4. Desizing Agent
  5. Anti-black Staining Agent
  6. 15 min M/C run
  7. Rinse 2 time

ENZYME WASH WITHOUT STONE
Process sequence of Enzyme Wash without Stone –

  1. Sample
  2. Add water
  3. Machine Run
  4. Enzyme
  5. Acetic Acid
  6. Anti-Back Staining Agent
  7. Machine Run 30 min
  8. Neutralization
  9. Rinse 2 time

ENZYME WASH WITH STONE
Process sequence of Enzyme Wash without Stone –

  1. Sample
  2. Add water
  3. Machine Run
  4. Stone
  5. Enzyme
  6. Acetic Acid
  7. Anti-Back Staining Agent
  8. Machine Run 30 min
  9. Neutralization
  10. Rinse 2 time

HYDROEXTRACTING
Process sequence of Hydro extracting –

  1. Sample
  2. Machine Run for 1.5min – 2min

DRYING
Process sequence of Drying –

  1. Sample
  2. Temp 800c
  3. Machine Run for 30 min – 45 min

PROCESS OF LAB TESTS

EPI PPI

  1. EPI means End Per Inch &
  2. PPI means Picks Per Inch

They can be measured manually.

Apparatus Needed

  • Counting Glass
  • Needle

Procedure

  • First some yarns are loosen out and by magnifying the yarns by counting glass the EPI and PPI are counted manually.

Shrinkage

  • To measure the Shrinkage before wash by using a template of 10”*10” a square box is drawn and after wash the box is measured again and the difference is calculated as shrinkage.

Count

  • A number indicating the mass per unit length or the length per unit mass of yarn is called count.
  • Cotton yarn count is measured by English count.
  • English Count: Number of 840 yards in 1 lb is called English Count.
  • 840 yards is called 1 hank. So, in another way, English Count is-
  • Number hank per pound.
  • English Count is expressed by Ne.

Englist count

Apparatus Needed

  • Beesly balance
  • Template
  • ½ cotton rider
  • Full cotton rider

Procedure

  1. At first sample is taken and with the help of template it is cut into ½ cotton and full cotton.
  2. Then some ½ cotton are put on the right side of the beesly balance and the ½ cotton rider on the left side of the balance.
  3. By increasing or decreasing the number of ½ cotton yarn the machine is balanced.
  4. Count was the total number of ½ cotton yarn. The same process is done 5 times with different ½ cotton yarn.

Stiffness
Stiffness is a special property of a fabric. It is the tendency of the fabric to keep standing without any support. It is a key factor to study of handle and drape.

A rectangular strip of fabric, 6″ ×1″, is mounted on a horizontal platform in such a way that it over change, like a cantilever, and bends downwards as shown in figure.

Stiffness

From the length l and the angle q  a number of values are determined. Here the length of the fabric that will bend under its own weight to a definite extent is called bending length. It is a measure of stiffness that determines draping quality. The calculation is as follows.

Where,Stiffness calculation

Three specimens in warp way and three in weft are usually tested and since the relative humidity can affect the results the test should be made in a standard testing atmosphere. The horizontal platform of the instrument is supported by two side pieces made of plastic. These side pieces have engraved on them index lines at the standard angle of deflection of,at which angle. Attached to the instrument is a mirror which enables the operator to view both index lines from a convenient position. The scale of the instrument is graduated in centimeters of bending length and it also serves as the template for cutting the specimens to size.

Apparatus:

  • Stiffness tester.
  • Scissor.
  • Scale.

Procedure:

  1. To carry out a test the specimen is cut to size 6″ ×1″ with the aid of the template.
  2. Both the template and specimen are transferred to the platform with the fabric underneath.
  3. Now both are slowly pushed forward.
  4. The strip of the fabric will commence to drop over the edge of the platform and the movement of the template and the fabric is continued until the tip of the specimen viewed in the mirror cuts both index lines.
  5. The bending length can immediately be read off from the scale mark opposite a zero-line engraved on the side of the platform.
  6. Each specimen is tested four times, at each end and again with the strip turned over.
  7. In this way three samples are tested.
  8. Finally mean values for the bending length in warp and weft directions can be calculated.

STRENGTH TEST
The strength of a fabric gives us an idea how much load we can apply on it and it is very important for fabric. The strength of the fabric is very necessary for it because if the fabric strength is not good then it will break with excessive tensile force and thus the dresses produced may tear with the outside force. The strength of a fabric varies with EPI, PPI, and Count Variation. The strength of the fabric also varies if the length and width of the fabric to be tested is changed. The strength of the fabric also depends on the construction of the fabric. A plain fabric is stronger than a twill fabric if made from yarn of same count.

The machine used here is a horizontal strength tester. Therefore, the experiment has two objects:

  1. To find out the strength of the fabric.
  2. To be precise in testing.

Basically, two methods are used to observed the effect of tensile forces on textile specimens, ‘constant rate of loading’ (C.R.L.) and ‘constant rate of extension’ (C.R.L.).

Consider two identical specimens A and B. Specimen A is gripped in a jaw J1 and in a fixed-top jaw J2 which is movable. A force F, initially zero but increasing at a constant rate, is applied to the specimen in a direction shown. The effect of applying this force is to extend the specimen until it eventually breaks. The loading has thus caused the elongation. Here we have C.R.L. conditions.

Apparatus:

  1. Fabric strength tester.
  2. Scissors.

M/c specification:

  • Name: The Fabric Strength Tester
  • Brand: GOODBRAND & CO. LTD.
  • Capacity: 2000lb

Procedure:

  1. At first 10inch × 2inch fabric was cut out from a big piece of fabric. The excess amount of fabric was cut because the two jaws will require at least 2inch each to grip the fabric. Thus 10 samples were cut down for testing warp way strength and 10 samples for weft way strength.
  2. Now, the first sample is fixed with the upper jaw J1 and the lower jaw J2.
  3. The m/c is started and observed the dial until the sample is torn out.
  4. When the sample is torn out the m/c is stopped and the reading is taken.
  5. By this way the others’ reading are taken.

GSM
The GSM of fabric is one kind of specification of fabric which is very important for a textile engineer for understanding and production of fabric. ‘GSM’ means ‘Gram per square meter’ that is the weight of fabric in gram per one square meter. By this we can compare the fabrics in unit area which is heavier and which is lighter.

The weight of a fabric can be expressed in two ways, either as the ‘weight per unit area’ or the ‘weight per unit length’; the former is self-explanatory but the latter requires a little explanation because the weight of a unit length of fabric will obviously be affected by its width. In woven fabric, the weight per unit length is usually referred to as the ‘weight per running yard’. It is necessary therefore to know the agreed standard width upon which the weight per running yard is based. Usually this width depends upon the width of loom. Before coming the term ‘GSM’ there was another term called ‘lb/100 yards’. This expression is used by British Standard. For measuring this there are a template and a quadrant balance. The template area is 1/100 square yards of which each arm is 1/10 yards in length. For measuring GSM, a GSM cutter is used to cut the fabric and weight is taken in balance. Both of these measurement and method is equally used for both woven and knitted fabrics.

Apparatus:

  • GSM cutter
  • Electric balance.

Procedure:

  1. For Measuring GSM, fabric sample is cut by GSM cutter
  2. Now weight is taken by electric balance.
  3. By this way we get the weight in gram per one square meter fabric.
  4. Here GSM of the fabrics by the GSM cutter is obtained by the multiplying the sample weight with 100.

REFERENCES

  1. http://wikipedia.com
  2. http://www.scribd.com/doc/21333297/denim-washing
  3. http://www.teonline.com/knowledge-centre/manufacturing-process-denim.html
  4. http://www.denimsandjeans.com
  5. http://www.scribd.com
  6. http://www.scribd.com/doc/21333297/denim-washing
  7. http://www.1888articles.com/author-fibre2fashion-1093.html
  8. http://www.denimsandjeans.com/denim/manufacturing-process/denim-   washing-basic-steps-and-guide/
  9. http://www.scribd.com/doc/23645878/Denim-Finishing-with-Enzymes
  10. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Enzyme

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