Industrial Revolution and Its Impact in Textile Industry

Industrial Revolution and Its Impact in Textile Industry

Vilas Gharat
Board Member of Trustees (Textile Association India-Mumbai)
Managing Director (Gharat and Associates)


Industrial Revolutions (1st-2nd-3rd-4th-5th)

  • 1st IR – use of metals, not just stone and wood – Bronze Age/Iron Age;
  • 2nd IR – use of “steam” energy, not just animal/wind/water;
  • 3rd IR – use of electricity;
  • 4th IR – use of information technology.
  • Industry 5.0 – May not be another revolution, but A complement or correction.

The four industrial revolutions are coal, gas, electronics, nuclear, and the internet and renewable energy. Beginning from 1765 through the present day, we’ve seen an amazing evolution. As we discovered different energy sources and later, digital technologies, the entire landscape of the modern world has been transformed over and over. Here’s a brief primer on the four industrial revolutions.

Industrial Revolution in textile industry

First Industrial Revolution: Coal in 1765
The original industrial revolution transformed our economy from agriculture to industry.

Processes became mechanized and products were manufactured for the first time. During this period, the discovery of coal and its mass extraction, as well as the development of the steam engine and metal forging.

It completely changed the way goods were produced and exchanged. Inventions such as spinning machines and looms to make fabric were making their appearance. Canal transportation began replacing wagon and mules for moving around these goods.

conventional loom

Several new inventions in textile machinery increased productivity such as Cotton ginning, Mule Spinning, Power Looms and Steam Power. Cloth production became faster with less cycle time. Many textile units in UK revolutionized textile process.

Second Industrial Revolution: Gas in 1870
As the first industrial revolution was driven by coal, the second revolved around the discovery of electricity, gas and oil.

The invention of the combustion engine went hand-in-hand with these fuel sources. Both steel- and chemically based products entered the market during this time. Developments in communication technology got a jump start with the telegraph and later the telephone.

Second Industrial Revolution

Transportation grew by leaps and bounds with the invention of the plane and car. Mechanical production grew in speed through the advent of mass production.

The textile industry was highly benefited for modern technology reducing cost and less manpower. The power is key to any industry and it was well established.

Third Industrial Revolution: Electronics and Nuclear in 1969
After another hundred years, nuclear energy and electronics enter the landscape. Nuclear power began in Europe, grew in both Great Britain and the United States, went into remission for years, and grew in Asia.

Fourth Industrial Revolution: Internet and Renewable Energy in 2000
As we continue moving through the fourth industrial revolution, we see a shift to renewable energy such as solar, wind and geothermal.

However, the momentum started not from the acceleration of digital technology. The internet and the digital world mean a real- time connection within maximum components of a production line, both inside and outside facility.

As the development of the Industrial Internet of Things (IoT), Cloud Technology and Artificial Intelligence continue, a virtual World being merged with the physical World.

Predictive maintenance and real-time data is leading to smarter business decisions for a myriad of companies around the world.

The Textile Machine makers created energy efficient with highly automated machines giving much higher productions with international quality. The machine makers designed automated machine to avoid human errors. Industry 4.0 made revolution in textile industry.

textile machinery

Industry 5.0 – not another revolution, A complement or correction:
The term Industry 5.0 popped up as a reaction to the vision of Industry 4.0. Driven by the impact of the Pandemic, the focus on topics such as Sustainability / Resilience which is very essential subject to Experts, Policymakers and Consulting organizations.

The Fifth Industrial Revolution is the combination of humans and machines at workplace. Industry 5.0 brings benefits to Industry, Workforce and Society.

Benefits of Industrial Revolution to Textile Industry:

  1. Textile Industry is basically labor intensive and hence there are many human errors affecting product quality. All these industrial revolution made Textile Industry more competitive and quality efficient.
  2. It has benefited Textile Industry to minimize operating cost with higher productivity.
  3. Technology improvements at all IR made industry to be competitive in international market.
  4. It helped to increase Export of Indian Products.

About Authors:

Vilas GharatMr. Vilas Gharat is working as a Managing Director of Gharat and Associates, having over 52 years’ experience in manufacturing function in all composite sectors of Textile Industry. Out of which more than a decade in Operations and HR with emphasis in Business process Consulting. He is an ex-president of Textile Association India-Mumbai.

You may also like:

  1. Industry 5.0: Not another Revolution, a Complement or Correction
  2. Application of Internet of Things (IoT) in Textile and Fashion Industry
  3. Cloud Computing in Textile and Apparel Industry
  4. Industry 4.0 for Textile and Apparel Industry
  5. Industry 4.0: Digitization in Garment Industry
  6. Effect of Industry 4.0 on Fashion Supply Chain Management
  7. Big Data in Fashion Industry: Impact, Benefits and Application
  8. Application of Data Science in Textile Industry

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