Application of Computer in Textile Testing:
The textile and garment industry comprises a complex network of interrelated sectors that produce fibers, spin yarns, fabricate cloth, and dye/finish/ print and manufacturing garment. Computer technology is one of the most important tools contributing to the significant advancement of this industry. In this article, I will discuss different application of computer in textile testing and quality control (TTQC).
The application of computer and microprocessors have brought great changes to the instrumentation used for testing textile. Their use falls into two main categories: Recording and calculation of results and automation of the test procedure. Both of these uses may be found in the most advanced instruments.
Recording of Results:
In these applications the computer is usually connected via an analogue to digital converter to an existing instrument from where it collects the data that would previously have been written down on paper by the operator. The advantages of such an installation are as follows:
More Consistent Measurement:
In the case of a graphical output the whole of the curve is recorded numerically so that results such as maxima, areas under the curve and slopes can be calculated directly without having to be read from a graph. This allows a more consistent measurement of features such as slopes which would previously have been measured by placing a rule on the graph by eye. However, it is important in such applications to be clear what criteria the computer is using to select turning points in the curve and at what point the slope is being measured. It is useful to have visual checks on these points in case the computer is making the wrong choice.
Adjustment of Zero Level:
The ability to adjust the zero level for the instrument automatically. This can be done, for instance, by taking the quiescent output as being the zero level and subtracting this from all other readings.
Ability to Calculation:
The ability to perform all the intermediate calculations together with any statistical calculations in the case of multiple tests.
The ability to give a final neatly printed report which may be given directly to a customer.
It is important, however, to be aware of the fact that the precision of the basic instrument is unchanged and it depends on, among other things, the preparation and loading of the sample into the instrument by the operator and the setting of any instrumental parameters such as speed or range.
Automation of the Test Procedure:
Each industry is getting benefit from automation and ease provided by computer science. Textile industry is not exception. Automation in textile testing is described below.
Use of Electronic Processing Technology:
In such applications use is made of electronic processing power to control various aspects of the test rather than just to record the results. This means that steps such as setting ranges, speeds, tensions and zeroing the instrument can all be carried out without the intervention of an operator. The settings are usually derived from sample data entered at the keyboard. In the case of yarn testing instruments can all be carried out without the intervention of an operator. The settings are usually derived from sample data entered at the keyboard. In the case of yarn-testing instruments the automation can be carried as far as loading the specimen. This enables the machinery to be presented with a number of yarn packages and left to carry out the required number of tests on each package.
Repeatability of Test Results:
The automation of steps in the tests procedure enables an improvement to be made in the repeatability of test results owing to the reduction in operator intervention and a closer standardization of the test conditions. The precision of the instrument is then dependent on the quality of the sensors and the correctness of the sample data given to the machine. The accuracy of the results is, however, still dependent on the calibration of the instrument. This is a point that is easily overlooked in instruments with digital outputs as the numbers have lost their immediate connection with the physical world. If the machine fails in some way but is still giving a numerical output, the figures may still be accepted as being correct.
To be generally acceptable automated instruments have to be able to carry out the test to the appropriate standard or have to be able to demonstrate identical results to those that have been obtained with the standard test method.
It is still possible even with advanced automation for results to be incorrect for such simple reasons as wrong identification of samples or failure to condition samples in the correct testing atmosphere.
List of Computerized Textile Testing Instruments:
Following textile testing instruments are run, controlled and displayed its result on computer monitor with help of various program.
1. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM): It is used for tensile testing. SEM is also used for imaging of conductive fibers.
2. X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS): X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) is a technique for analyzing the surface chemistry of a fabric. XPS can measure the elemental composition, empirical formula, chemical state and electronic state of the elements within a material. Investigation of surface treatment of a polyester fabric by XPS. Investigation surface chemical composition of raw unscoured cotton by XPS.
3. Spectrophotometer: In the textile industry, using a spectrophotometer to capture both color and appearance on a physical sample has greatly improved quality, consistency, and speed to market. Spectrophotometer usually used in textile to measure the efficiency of dyeing. It is used in the quantitative measurement of the reflection or transmission properties of a material as a function of wavelength.
4. Rotawash Colour Fastness Tester: The rotawash is a laboratory instrument used for conducting accelerated laundering or dyeing tests. It is applicable for performing washing, dry cleaning, dyeing, colorfastness to fulling, detergency and other laboratory tests. It is capable of conducting low temperature tests up to 95ºC.
Application of computer in other textile testing instruments are point out below:
- Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM)
- X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS)
- Micro Glider
- Gas Chromatography-mass Spectrometry (GC-MS)
- Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Analyser
- Standard Reference Washing Machine
- Standard Tumble Dryer
- Tensile Tester
- Lea Strength Tester
- Single Yarn Tester
- Twist Tester
- Wrap reels
- Yarn evenness tester
- Fabric strength tester
- Crimp rigidity tester
- Bursting strength tester
- Stiffness tester
- Tearing strength tester
- Pilling tester
- Air permeability tester
- Crease recovery tester
- Crimp tester
- Drape tester
- Crock tester
- Spray tester
- Color fastness tester (Perspirometer)
- Package hardness
- Yarn tension meter
- Moisture meter
- High Volume Instrument (HVI)
- Advanced fiber information System (AFIS)
- Uster tester-5 (UT-5)
- Servo controller
- Fault detector
- Ring data system
- Hairiness tester
- Yarn strength tester (Tensile and compression)
- Friction tester
- Abrasion tester
- Yarn tension meter
- Flammability tester
- Maturity tester
- Thermal stress tester
- Torsion tester
- Luster color meter
- Yarn friction tester
- Trash analyzer
- Fibre bundle strength tester
- Yarn appearance apparatus
- Thickness gauge/micrometer
- Beasley balance
- Fiber blender (fibro-mixer)
- Fabric yarn counting
- Fabric construction by OASYS
- Temperature measurement by thermo sensor
- Squeezing pressure messing devices
- Automatic fabric inspection machine by OASYS
- Spectrophotometer (shade matching, recipe formulation, fastness assessment, batch sorting)
- Color separation
- Fabric inspection machine for knitted and woven fabrics
- Quadrant scale
- Scorch tester
- Knit shrinkage gauge
- Martindale abrasion tester
- Wrinkle recovery tester
- Computer color matching (CCM)
You may also like:
- Classification of Textile Testing: Fiber Testing, Yarn Testing, Fabric Testing
- Different Types of Textile Testing Methods
- Reasons for Textile Testing and Different Fabric Test
- Textile Testing Instruments for Yarn, Fabric and Garments
- List of Basic Tests of Textile Fabric
Founder & Editor of Textile Learner. He is a Textile Consultant, Blogger & Entrepreneur. He is working as a textile consultant in several local and international companies. He is also a contributor of Wikipedia.