Study on Different Chemical Finished Treatment on Knitted Fabric

Study on Different Chemical Finished Treatment on Knitted Fabric

Raduan Hasan1
Md. Ruhul Amin & Md. Masud Rana

Department of Textile Engineering
Northern University Bangladesh
Email: raduanhasan91@gmail.com1

 

Abstract
In this study, the effect of chemical treatment on knitted fabric was observed. The research works on that Chemical treatment of cotton cellulose without changing their fibrous form is a common practice in the textile industry. However, some change is observed due to chemical finishing. In this paper, cotton knitted fabrics are selected and treated with different softener and others chemicals. For the reason of use of different chemical that the shade changes no occurred, the GSM change slightly occurred and overall, the fastness was good for all type of chemical.

Chapter 1
Introduction

1.1 Introduction
Chemical finishing can be defined as the use of chemicals to achieve a desired fabric property. Chemical finishing, also referred to as ‘wet’ finishing, includes processes that change the chemical composition of the fabrics that they are applied to. In other words, an elemental analysis of a fabric treated with a chemical finish will be different from the same analysis done prior to the finishing[1].

Typically, chemical finishing takes place after coloration (dyeing or printing) but before fabrics are made into garments or other textile articles. However, many chemical finishes can also be successfully applied to yarns or garments.

Chemical finishes can be durable, i.e. undergo repeated launderings or dry cleanings without losing effectiveness, or non-durable, i.e. intended when only temporary properties are needed or when the finished textile typically is not washed or dry cleaned, for example some technical textiles. In nearly all cases, the chemical finish is a solution or emulsion of the active chemical in water. Use of organic solvents to apply chemical finishes is restricted to special applications owing to the expense and the real or possible toxicity and flammability of the solvents employed.

The actual method of finish application depends on the particular chemicals and fabrics involved and the machinery available. Chemicals that have strong affinities for fiber surfaces can be applied in batch processes by exhaustion in dyeing machines, usually after the dyeing process has been completed. Examples of these exhaust applied finishes include softeners, ultraviolet protection agents and some soil-release finishes. Chemicals that do not have an affinity for fibers are applied by a variety of continuous processes that involve either immersing the textile in a solution of the finishing chemical or applying the finishing solution to the fabric by some mechanical means.

To soften the knitted goods, softening is done by using softening agents. Because it is tubular form, normally exhaust method is applied using winch machine softeners like anionic, nonionic, cationic and reactive softeners may be used. Reactive softeners produce permanent softening effect. Silicone emulsion is also used as softening agent for knitted goods [2].

Chemical Finishing involves applying chemicals to the fabric that may be dissolved or suspended in a liquid medium such as water.

1.2 Objectives of the Thesis

  • To know the effects of different chemical finished treatment on knitted fabric.
  • How to change of shade due to different chemical treatment on knitted fabric.
  • To know the finishing treatment process.

1.3 Work Outline

Collection of Dyeing fabric

Normal Wash (Wash by detergent)

Stenter

Compactor

GSM Test

Preparation for fastness properties

Color fastness Test (Wash, Perspiration, Rubbing)

Fatness Grading

Result

Chapter 2
Literature Review

2.1 Literature Review
Chemical finishing of textiles is the process where we enhance the value of the product by adding some incentives to it. The world market place is continuously changing and so is demand of people changing. Every person desire for some change.i.e. something new & unique. The successful effective implementation of change has to be done to in the market. We by the medium of this paper have made an earnest attempt to present you a detailed comprehensive analysis done by chemical finishing and which has busted this industry with exuberant value added finish with the incorporation of different scents into fabrics, leading to the production of scented fabrics and the psychology of acceptance of synthetic scents in textile goods.

Chapter 3
Materials and Methods

3.1 Materials

Following materials are used for this research:

  • Fabric
  • Chemicals

Specification of Fabric

  • Fabric Types: Knit Single jersey (Dyed fabric)
  • Composition: 100% Cotton
  • GSM: 160

3.2 Chemicals
Table 3.1: Chemicals

Auxiliaries NameSupplier NameCountry
Hydrophilic SoftnerAustexGermany
White SoftnerAustexGermany
Silicon SoftnerAustexGermany
Fixign AgentAustexGermany
Color SofrnerAustexGermany
Solusoft R MW liqAustexGermany
Siligen R SIH liqHuntsmanGermany
Solusoft R ECO liqAustexGermany
Solusoft NUP liqHuntsmanGermany
Sandofix EC-(Fixing agent)HuntsmanGermany

3.3 Apparatus

  • Beaker
  • Stirrer
  • Conical Flux
  • Measuring Cylinder
  • pH Meter
  • Electric Balance
  • Scissor
  • Thermometer
  • Padding Mangle
  • Shaker Bath
  • Stenter Machine
  • Curing Machin

3.4 Hydrophilic Softener Recipe
Table 3.2: Hydrophilic Softener Recipe

Name of ChemicalsQuantity (g/l)
Hydrophilic Softener Recipe10 – 20 g/l
Temperature140-150oC
M/c Speed30 – 40
Pader Passer4/4
Time35 m/g

Working Procedure

  1. Hydrophilic softener is a compound of organic polysiloxane and polymer which is for soft finishing of natural fibers such as cotton, hemp, silk, wool, and human hair. It also deals with polyester, nylon, and other synthetic fibers.
  2. Hydrophilic softeners are macro molecule comprised of a poly backbone of alternating silicon oxygen atoms with of group attached to silicon.
  3. Hydrophilic softener softening capability comes from the hydrophilic backbones flexibility and its freedom of rotation along the (si-o) bonds.

3.5 White Softener Recipe
Table 3.3: White Softener Recipe.

Name of ChemicalsQuantity (g/l)
White Softener10 – 15 g/l
Temperature140-150oC
M/c Speed30 – 40
Pader Passer2/4
Time35 m/g

3.6 Silicon Softener Recipe
Table 3.4: Silicon Softener Recipe

Name of ChemicalsQuantity (g/l)
Silicon Softner2.5 g/l
Temperature140-150oC
M/c Speed30 – 40
Pader Passer¾
Time30 /g

Working Procedure

  1. Silicon softener is a compound of organic polysiloxane and polymer which is for soft finishing of natural fibers such as cotton, hemp, silk, wool, and human hair. It also deals with polyester, nylon, and other synthetic fibers.
  2. Silicon softener is macro molecule comprised of a poly backbone of alternating silicon oxygen atoms with of group attached to silicon.
  3. Silicon softener softening capability comes from the silicon backbones flexibility and its freedom of rotation along the (si-o) bonds.

3.7 Fixing
Table 3.5: Fixing Softener Recipe

Name of ChemicalsQuantity (g/l)
Fixing10 – 30 g/l
Temperature30-50oC
M/c Speed30 – 40
Pader Passer3/4
Time15-20 m/g
pH3-5

Working Procedure
Fixing agent is one of the important textile auxiliaries in dyeing and printing industry, which can improve the color fastness of dye in fabric. On the fabric, it can form insoluble colored material with dye, thus to improve the color of washing, perspiration fastness, and sometimes can       improve its sun fastness. In recent years, with the development of science and technology, dyeing and finishing technology has also been significantly improved. Due to the expansion of international textile trade and the improvement of people’s living standards and environmental awareness, it’s more required of textiles comfort, clean and safety. Since the 1970s, Germany first launched the “Blue Angel” plan,

3.8 Color Softener
Table 3.6: Color Softener Recipe

Name of ChemicalsQuantity (g/l)
Color Softener10.5 – 30.5 g/l
Temperature30-50oC
M/c Speed30 – 40
Pader Passer3/4
Time15-20 m/g
pH3-5

Working Procedure
Color Softener agent is one of the important textile auxiliaries in dyeing and printing industry, which can improve the color fastness of dye in fabric. On the fabric, it can form insoluble colored material with dye, thus to improve the color of washing, perspiration fastness, and     sometimes can improve its sun fastness. In recent years, with the development of science and technology, dyeing and finishing technology has also been significantly improved. Due to the expansion of international textile trade and the improvement of people’s living standards and environmental awareness, it’s more required of textiles comfort, clean and safety. Since the 1970s, Germany first launched the “Blue Angel” plan,

3.9 Solusoft R MW liq
Table 3.7: Solusoft RMW liq Softener Recipe

Name of ChemicalsQuantity (g/l)
Solusoft R MW liq Softener5 – 30 g/l
Pad65-85
Dry at130oC
pH5

Working Procedure
The nonionic character of Solusoft R MW liq Softener enables their application by the pad method on all substrates in all shades, in particular one bath application together with anionic fluorescent brighteners without any effect on the degree of whiteness. In general, when using silicone products care must be taken to rise the good thoroughly after pretreatment or dyeing in order to remove all chemical residues. In particular detergents based on polymers must be well rised out as they can cause precipitations and silicone spots on the good. The finishing liquors should be adjusted to ca. PH 5 to ensure good liquor stability. Solusoft R MW liq are distinguished by good stability so that they can also be used for special finished even under extremely acid conditions. Even the strongly alkaline scour required by these finishes does not cause any problems.

3.10 Siligen R SIH liq
Table 3.8: Siligen R SIH Softener Recipe

Name of ChemicalsQuantity(g/l)
Siligen R SIH Softener2 – 5 g/l
Time30 minutes
Temperature30-45oC
pH5

Working Procedure
Siligen R SIH Softener is applied at room temperature by a padding or exhaust process. The PH value of the prepared finishing liquor should be 5. The liquor picks up depending on the type of goods should be in the range of 60-90%. Drying is usually carried out in the temperature range of 120-150 degree. High shear stress and increased liquor temperature can lead to the instability of the finishing liquor. The permanence of silicone of silicone products means that care and attention should be paid when processing as faults one very difficult to repair. Before finishing alkaline fabrics should be adjusted to a slightly acid PH. After the finishing of dyes the washing and rubbing fastness usually remain unchanged. Deterioration occurs only in rare cases.

3.11 Solusoft R ECO liq
Table 3.9: Solusoft R ECO Softener Recipe

Name of ChemicalsQuantity (g/l)
Solusoft R ECO Softener0.5 – 4 g/l
Time20-30 minute
Temperature30-40oC
pH4-5

Working Procedure
Solusoft R ECO Softener can be applied in both exhaust and padding process. Its liquor stability is greatly improved in padding process compared to conventional polysiloxanes.

Application in overflow dyeing machines with low shearing forces is possible. When applying silicone products care should always be taken to ensure adequate rising to remove all chemical residues after pretreatment or dyeing. It is essential to rerse thoroughly if special detergents based on polymers have been used because these productions can cause precipitations and therefore silicone sports on the goods. High temperature should also be avoided because too high a temperature can have a negative effect on the stability of the finishing liquor.

3.12 Solusoft NUP liq
Table 3.10: Solusoft NUP liq Softener Recipe

Name of ChemicalsQuantity (g/l)
Solusoft NUP Softener5 – 30 g/l
Pat at60-85%
Dry at120-140oC
pH5

Working Procedure
Solusoft NUP Softener is mainly applied by the padding method due to their nonionic character. It can be applied on all substrates in all shades. The nonionic character of the product enables one bath application on together with anionic fluorescent brightness without any impainment of the degree of whiteness. The production should be applied in the weakly acid region. Application in the alkaline region should be avoided. When applying silicone production care should always be taken that the goods are adequately rinsed after pretreatment and or dyeing in oder to remove all chemical residues. In particular polymer-based detergents must be raised well as they can cause precipitions and therefore silicone sports on the goods.

3.13 Sandofix EC- (Fixing agent)
Table 3.11: Sandofix EC- (Fixing agent) Recipe

Name of ChemicalsQuantity(g/l)
Sandofix EC- (Fixing agent)15 – 30 g/l
Temperature30-40oC
Pader Passer3/4
Time20-25 m/g
pH5

Working Procedure
Sandofix EC- (Fixing agent) is one of the important textile auxiliaries in dyeing and printing industry, which can improve the color fastness of dye in fabric. On the fabric, it can form insoluble colored material with dye, thus to improve the color of washing, perspiration fastness, and sometimes can improve its sun fastness. In recent years, with the development of science and technology, dyeing and finishing technology has also been significantly improved. Due to the expansion of international textile trade and the improvement of people’s living standards and environmental awareness, it’s more required of textiles comfort, clean and safety. Since the 1970s, Germany first launched the “Blue Angel” plan,

3.14 Anionic Softener (Negative ion)
This types of tense is produced from condensed fatty acids. This type of softener has quality to make soft hand feel of fabric. In acid and hard water this type of softener not stable. This type of softener is negatively changed hydrophilic group. When cellulose fabric wet in water than it acquires negative change and attracts positively change hydrophobic group.

Padding Method

  • Softener = 20-25 G/L
  • Ph = 4-5
  • Pick Up % = 70-80%
  • Temperature = 120-140
  • Time = 2-3 Minutes

Ex Haust Mothod

  • Softener = 1-2% Of Wight Of Fabric
  • M: L = 1:10
  • Temperature: 45-50
  • Ph = 4-5
  • Time = 20-30 Minutes

3.15 Assessment of Color Fastness

  1. Changes in the color of the specimen being tested that is color fading.
  2. Staining of undyed material which is in contact with the specimen during the test that is bleeding of color.

Grey Scale:
Grey scale is an empirical scale containing a series of pairs of neutrally colored chips, showing increasing contrast within pairs.

It is used to assess contrasts between the pairs of patterns visually. Two types of grey scale:

  1. Color change
  2. Staining

3.16 Color Fastness to Washing
Wash fastness and rubbing fastness (dry and wet) of dye cotton were measured as per the ISO 105-C06 and ISO 105-X12 respectively. Color fatness to washing means, a specimen of the textile, in contact with one or two specified adjacent fabrics, is mechanically agitated under described conditions of time and temperature in a soap solution, then rinsed and dried. The change in color of the specimen and the staining of the adjacent fabric are assessed with the greyscales.

In my personal experience, in case of fastness test color fastness to washing is the first and most important requirements of buyers. There are a number of ISO test for color fastness to washing.

Instruments

  • Rotawash /Gyrowash
  • Stainless Still Ball
  • Multi-fiber fabric
  • Greyscale
  • Sewing machine
  • Thermometer
  • Cylinder

Recipe

  • ECE phosphate reference detergent (B) 4gm./liter
  • Sodium Perborate 1gm/liter

Sample Preparation

  • Sample Fabric——-100mm*4mm
  • Multifiber fabric—–100mm*40m

Working Procedure
Collecting the sample and then conditioning for 06 hours. Making a specimen of 04 cm x 10 cm in size. Sewing the specimen with multi-fiber fabric of same size at one corner, Making the solution of 4gm/liter ECE (B) detergent & 1 gm/liter sodium perborate). Putting the specimen with multi-fiber fabric into the solution in Gyrowash m/c Prog. A2S Temp.: / 40 C Time: 30 min Still ball: 10 pcs. Rinsing with hot water respectively. Squeezing with cold water of the sample is done (Hand Wash). Then drying is done at a temperature in the air not exceeding 60°C The stitching is then broken out except on one of the shorter ends. Measuring the staining and color change by grey scale & make a test report. [12]

For ISO 105 C06 (A2S)

  • Total solution (changeable)…………….150ml
  • Number of Stainless Still Ball………….10 (for hitting)
  • Time …………………………………………………30min
  • Temperature …………………………………..400C

For ISO 105 C06 (B2S)

  • Total solution(changeable)……………150ml
  • Number of Stainless Still Ball ……….25 (for hitting)
  • Time …………………………………………….. 30min
  • Temperature ……………………………… 500C

For ISO 105 C06(C2S)

  • Total solution(changeable) ………….50ml
  • Stainless Still Ball ………………………….25 (for hitting)
  • Time ……………………………………………30min
  • Temperature …………………………… 600C
Gyro wash (For Color Fastness to Washing Machine)
Figure 3.1: Gyro wash (For color fastness to washing machine)

3.17 Color Fastness to Perspiration
The color fastness to perspiration (acid and alkaline) shall be at least level 3-4 (color change and staining). This criterion does not apply to white products, to products that are neither dyed nor printed, to furniture fabrics, curtains or similar textiles intended for interior decoration. A level of 3 is nevertheless allowed when fabrics are both light colored (standard depth < 1/12) and made of silk or of blends with more than 20% silk. This kind of test is specially applied for the sportswear and heavy dresses which are used specially. Normal cloths are also tested by perspiration test. [20]

The garments which come into contact with the body where perspiration is heavy may suffer serious local discoloration. This test is intended to determine the resistance of color of dyed textile to the action of acidic and alkaline perspiration. Before knowing about the Color Fastness to perspiration you must have to know about Color Fastness to wash and Color Fastness to Rubbing. Well, in today’s class you will know about the perspiration matters which effects on Colorfastness.[14]

Reagent for Perspiration Test

1. Acid: Solution freshly prepared, containing 0.5g 1-histidine mono-hydrochloride mono- hydrate, 5g sodium chloride, and 2.2g sodium dihydrogenortho phosphate per liter brought to PH 5.5 with 0.1N sodium hydroxide.

2. Alkali: Solution freshly prepared, containing 0.5g 1-histidine mono-hydrochloride mono- hydrate, 5g sodium chloride, and 2.5g disodium hydrogenortho phosphate per liter brought to PH 8.0 with 0.1N sodium hydroxide.

Incubator & Perspirometer (For Color Fastness to Perspiration)
Figure 3.2: Incubator & Perspirometer (For color fastness to perspiration)

Working Procedure
Where fibers are to be tested, take a mass of the fiber approximately equal to one-half of the combined mass of the adjacent fabrics and either. Place it between a (100 ± 2) mm × (40 ± 2) mm piece of the multitier fabric and a (100 ± 2) mm × (40 ± 2) mm piece of the non-dye able fabric and sew them along all four sides.

Layout the composite specimen in a flat bottom dish and cover with grade 3 water at room temperature. Thoroughly wet out approximately liquor ratio 50:1, and allow it for 30 min. Pour off the solution and wipe the excess liquor off the between two glass plate. Place the composite sample between two resin plate under presser of 12.5± 0.9 kpa /5kg, place the test device in oven at temp 37±2ºC for 4 hours. Open out the specimen, dry by hanging in the air not exceeding 60ºC in contact only at the line of stitching.[14]

3.18 Color Fastness to Rubbing
There are two test methods for rubbing fastness.

1. ISO-105-X12AATCC-08
Determining the resistance of the color of textiles of all kinds, including textile floor coverings and other pile fabrics, to rubbing off and staining other materials.

A rectangular rubbing surface with the lead edge rounded measuring 19 mm × 25.4 mm (crock block). Downward force of (9 ± 0.2) N, Track length (104 ± 3) mm Diameter of rubbing finger (16 ± 0.1) mm. Two tests may be made, two with a dry rubbing cloth and two with a wet rubbing cloth on both directions. Two pieces not less than (50 × 140) mm are required for dry rubbing and two for wet rubbing. Two pieces not less than (50 × 140) mm are required for dry rubbing and two for wet rubbing. 10 cycle 10 sec, Condition the specimen and rubbing cloth for at least 4h in an atmosphere of (20 ± 2) ◦C and (65 ±

2. %RH by laying each test specimen and each piece of rubbing cloth separately on a screen or perforated shelf. What is the moisture pick up percentage for wet rubbing 95% to 100%. [15,16]

Crockmaster (For Color Fastness to Rubbing)
Figure 3.3 Crockmaster (For color fastness to rubbing)

Chapter 4
Results and Discussion

4.1 Effect of softener on GSM:
GSM change For Double Lacoste fabric (Second sample): During overall wet processing & finishing process of Double Lacoste fabric, GSM is changed to a greater extent as shown in table-10(a) & 10(b). GSM is mainly changed in Pretreatment, Dyeing, Stentering & in Compacting stages. During Pretreatment overall impurities are removed by using scouring & Bleaching Agent for why GSM is extremely reduced than grey fabric. During Ant pilling Protruding fibers are removed by using Enzyme for why GSM is reduced. During Dyeing a lot of dyes are used for Combination shade for why GSM is increased. During soaping extra unfixed color is cut for why GSM is reduced. During stentering GSM is reduced.

Table 4.1 Effect of softener on GSM

ChemicalBefore Softener GMSAfter Softener GSMChange GSM
Hydrophilic Softner163160-3
White Softner151150-1
Silicon Softner1571603
Fixign Agent1351383
Color Sofrner1371403
Solusoft R MW liq1581602
Siligen R SIH liq1551605
Solusoft R ECO liq1351405
Solusoft NUP liq1591601
Sandofix EC- (Fixing agent)1391401

4.2 Effect of softener on Hand feel and Shade

  • Hand feel ——–Good Softness, Flexibility Very Good.
  • Shade ————No changed

4.3 Effect of softener on Color Fastness to wash
Table 4.2: Effect of softener on Color fastness to Wash

Signal jersey
Sample TypeCombedCompactCombedCompactCombedCompact
Fiber SamplesCottonNylonPolyesterAcrylicWoolAcetate
Chemical
Hydrophilic SoftnerGradeGradeGradeGradeGradeGrade
White Softner4-544-54-544-5
Silicon Softner4-54-534-54-54-5
Fixign Agent4-54444-54-5
Color Sofrner4-54-54-554-55
Solusoft R MW liq4-54-54-554-55
Siligen R SIH liq4-544-54-544-5
Solusoft R ECO liq4-54-534-54-54-5
Solusoft NUP liq4-54444-54-5
Sandofix EC-(Fixing agent)4-54-54-554-55

From the above table can be said that the result of staining and change value of all chemical treatment fabric is natural same. When is show very good result of all sample?

4.4 Color Fastness to Rubbing
Table 4.3: Color fastness to Rubbing

Sample NameDryWet
RatingFastness GradeRaringFastness Grade
Hydrophilic Softner4-5Good4-5Fair
White Softner4-5Fair To Good3-5Fair
Silicon Softner4-5Good To Excellent3-6Fair To Good
Fixign Agent4-5Fair4-5Poor To Fair
Color Sofrner4-5Good4-5Fair
Solusoft R MW liq4-5Fair To Good3-5Fair
Siligen R SIH liq4-5Good To Excellent4-5Fair To Good
Solusoft R ECO liq4-5Fair4-5Poor To Fair
Solusoft NUP liq4-5Fair4-5Poor To Fair
Sandofix EC- (Fixing agent)4-5Good4-5Fair

From the table color fastness to rubbing it can be said that the wet and dry rubbing result of staining and change value of all chemical treatment fabric is nearly same. Which is show very good result. Better result in fining agent treatment in dark shade.

4.5 Color Fastness to Perspiration (Alkali)
Table 4.4: Color fastness to Perspiration

Chemical SampleAcetateCottonNylonPolyesterAcrylicWool
Hydrophilic Softner4-544-54-544-5
White Softner4-54-534-54-54-5
Silicon Softner4-54444-54-5
Fixign Agent4-54-54-554-55
Color Sofrner4-54-54-554-55
Solusoft R MW liq4-544-54-544-5
Siligen R SIH liq4-54-534-54-54-5
Solusoft RECO liq4-54444-54-5
Solusoft NUP liq4-54-54-554-55
Sandofix EC-(Fixing agent)4-544-54-544-5

From the table color fastness to perspiration is graded in three steps tor color staining in the multifabric and color change of the sample. One step in made for alkaline other is acidic perspiration. Two individual respective grey scales are used for color stain and color change the results are given as following. From the above data we found that alkaline perspiration fastness grads for color staining show good result all sample color fastness to perspiration result is good.

4.6 Color Fastness to Perspiration (Acid)
Table 4.5: Color fastness to Perspiration

Chemical SampleAcetateCottonNylonPolyesterAcrylicWool
Hydrophilic Softner4-544-54-544-5
White Softner4-54-534-54-54-5
Silicon Softner4-54444-54-5
Fixign Agent4-54-54-554-55
Color Sofrner4-54-54-554-55
Solusoft RMW liq4-544-54-544-5
Siligen R SIH liq4-54-534-54-54-5
Solusoft RECO liq4-54444-54-5
Solusoft NUP liq4-54-54-554-55
Sandofix EC-(Fixing agent)4-544-54-544-5

It is found that in this research with it is found that acidic perspiration grades are almost same to alkaline.

Chapter 5
Conclusion

5.1 Conclusion:
From this project work, we have gained a brief practical knowledge about different types of chemical treatment (Silicon Softener Hydrophilic Softener White Softener and Color Softener). We have compared different types of chemical process and also identified their effect on color fastness process. We believe this little effort taken by us can play a significant role in future practical life to improve practical knowledge to work in a textile factory. Finishing process to give an excellent result; Chemical can be exhausted almost entirely on to the cellulose fibers. The color fastness of these dying at different chemical treatment as different result. After treatments of dye fixing, and wet rubbing improving, the color fastness of dyed cotton fabric with different dye were improved without doubt.

References:

  1. E.P.G. Ghol & L.D. Vilensky, Textile Science (1983), CBS Publishers & Distributors, 41-42.
  2. S. Gordon and Y-L. Hsies, Cotton: Science and technology (2007), Woodhead Publishing Ltd, 3-5.
  3. A.D. Broadbent, Basic Principle of Textile Coloration9201), SDC, 72.
  4. E.R. Troatman, Dyeing & Chemical technology of Textile Fibers (1975), Charles Giffin & Company Ltd, 44.
  5. Postle, R. (1990) “Fabric Objective Measurement Technology: Present Status and Future Potential”, International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, Vol. 2 No: 3, pp.7 – 17
  6. Ukponmwan J. O. (1988). Correlation Between Objective and Subjective Methods of Assessing Fabric Handle, Journal of Textile Institute, No 4, 1988, pp 580-587.
  7. Kawabata S. (1989). Fabric Performance in Clothing and Clothing Manufacture, Journal of Textile Institute, Vol 80, No 1, pp 19-50
  8. Chen, Y., and Collier, B. J, (1997). Characterizing Fabric End Use by Fabric Physical Properties, Textile Research Journal, Vol 67, No 4, pp 247-252.
  9. BS (1979). Methods of Test for Textiles (British Standard Handbook No. 11), British Standards Institution, Revised Edition.
  10. Gong R.H. and Mukhopadhyay S.K. (1993). Fabric Objective Measurement: A Comparative Study of Fabric Characteristics, Journal of Textile Institute, Vol 84, No 2, pp 192-198.

Appendix

Sample Test

Hydrophilic Softener Tested Sample.
Fig: Hydrophilic Softener Tested Sample.

GSM Test

Hydrophilic Softener GSM Tested sample.
Fig: Hydrophilic Softener GSM Tested sample.

Color fastness to Wash, perspiration and Rubbing test.
Tested Sample Color fastness to Rubbing for different chemical treatment on knitted fabric.

Hydrophilic Softener Color fastness to Wash, perspiration And Rubbing.
Fig: Hydrophilic Softener Color fastness to Wash, perspiration And Rubbing.

Sample Test:

White Softener Tested Sample.
Fig: White Softener Tested Sample.

GSM Test

White Softener GSM Tested sample.
Fig: White Softener GSM Tested sample.

Color fastness to Wash, perspiration and Rubbing test.
Tested Sample Color fastness to Rubbing for different chemical treatment on knitted fabric.

White softener Color fastness to Wash, perspiration And Rubbing.
Fig: White softener Color fastness to Wash, perspiration And Rubbing.

Sample Test

Silicon softener Tested Sample.
Fig: Silicon softener Tested Sample.

GSM Test

Silicon softener GSM Tested Sample.
Fig: Silicon softener GSM Tested Sample.

Color fastness to Wash, perspiration And Rubbing test.
Tested Sample Color fastness to Rubbing for different chemical Treatment.

Silicon softener Color fastness to Wash, perspiration And Rubbing.
Fig: Silicon softener Color fastness to Wash, perspiration And Rubbing.

Sample Test

Fixing Softener Tested Sample.
Fig: Fixing Softener Tested Sample.

GSM Test

Fixing softener GSM Tested Sample.
Fig: Fixing softener GSM Tested Sample.

Color fastness to Wash, perspiration And Rubbing test.
Tested Sample Color fastness to Rubbing for different chemical treatment on knitted fabric.

Fixing Softener Color fastness to Wash, perspiration And Rubbing.
Fig: Fixing Softener Color fastness to Wash, perspiration And Rubbing.

Sample Test

Color Softener Tested Sample.
Fig: Color Softener Tested Sample.

GSM Test

Color Softener GSM Tested Sample.
Fig: Color Softener GSM Tested Sample.

Color fastness to Wash, perspiration And Rubbing test.
Tested Sample Color fastness to Rubbing for different chemical treatment on knitted fabric.

Color Softener Color fastness to Wash, perspiration And Rubbing.
Fig: Color Softener Color fastness to Wash, perspiration And Rubbing.

Sample Test

Solusoft R MW liq Softener Tested Sample.
Fig: Solusoft R MW liq Softener Tested Sample.

GSM Test

Solusoft R MW liq Softener GSM Tested Sample.
Fig: Solusoft R MW liq Softener GSM Tested Sample.

Color fastness to Wash, perspiration And Rubbing test.
Tested Sample Color fastness to Rubbing for different chemical treatment on knitted fabric.

Solusoft R MW liq Softener Color fastness to Wash, perspiration And Rubbing.
Fig: Solusoft R MW liq Softener Color fastness to Wash, perspiration And Rubbing.

Sample Test

Siligen R SIH liq Softener Tested Sample.
Fig: Siligen R SIH liq Softener Tested Sample.

GSM Test

Siligen R SIH liq Softener GSM Tested Sample.
Fig: Siligen R SIH liq Softener GSM Tested Sample.

Color fastness to Wash, perspiration And Rubbing test.
Tested Sample Color fastness to Rubbing for different chemical treatment on knitted fabric.

Siligen R SIH liq Softener Color fastness to Wash, perspiration And Rubbing.
Fig: Siligen R SIH liq Softener Color fastness to Wash, perspiration And Rubbing.

Sample Test

Solusoft R ECO liq Softener Tested Sample.
Fig: Solusoft R ECO liq Softener Tested Sample.

GSM Test

Solusoft R ECO liq Softener GSM Tested Sample.
Fig: Solusoft R ECO liq Softener GSM Tested Sample.

Color fastness to Wash, perspiration And Rubbing test.
Tested Sample Color fastness to Rubbing for different chemical treatment on knitted fabric.

Fig: Solusoft R ECO liq Softener Color fastness to Wash, perspiration And Rubbing.
Fig: Solusoft R ECO liq Softener Color fastness to Wash, perspiration And Rubbing.

Sample Test

Solusoft NUP liq Softener Tested Sample.
Fig: Solusoft NUP liq Softener Tested Sample.

GSM Test

Solusoft NUP liq Softener GSM Tested Sample.
Fig: Solusoft NUP liq Softener GSM Tested Sample.

Color fastness to Wash, perspiration and Rubbing test.
Tested Sample Color fastness to Rubbing for different chemical treatment on knitted fabric.

Solusoft NUP liq Softener Color fastness to Wash, perspiration And Rubbing.
Fig: Solusoft NUP liq Softener Color fastness to Wash, perspiration And Rubbing.

Sample Test

Sandofix EC-(Fixing agent) Softener Tested Sample.
Fig: Sandofix EC-(Fixing agent) Softener Tested Sample.

GSM Test

Sandofix EC-(Fixing agent) Softener GSM Tested Sample.
Fig: Sandofix EC-(Fixing agent) Softener GSM Tested Sample.

Color fastness to Wash, perspiration And Rubbing test.
Tested Sample Color fastness to Rubbing for different chemical Treatment on knitted fabric.

Chemical Treatment on Knitted Fabric
Fig: Sandofix EC-(Fixing agent) Color fastness to Wash, perspiration And Rubbing.

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