Application of Ultrasonic in Textile Wet Processing

Last Updated on 05/04/2021

Application of Ultrasonic in Textile Wet Processing

Nadeem Ahmed1, Mohammad Nadeem Shaikh,
Taimoor Mohammad Khan, Umair Ahmad Shaikh
College of Textile and Polymer Engineering, Pakistan
Email: engr.nadeem@hotmail.com1

 

REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE
CHAPTER 1: ULTRASOUND TECHNOLOGY

1.1 Introduction
Sound generated above the human hearing range (20 Hz to 20 kHz) is called ultrasound. Ultrasonic vibrations travel in the form of a wave, similar to the way light travels. However, unlike light waves, which can travel in a vacuum (empty space); ultrasound requires an elastic medium such as a gas, liquid or solid. However, the frequency range normally employed in ultrasonic nondestructive testing and thickness gagging is 100 kHz to 50 MHz. Although ultrasound behaves in a similar manner to audible sound, it has a much shorter wavelength. This means it can be reflected off very small surfaces such as defects inside materials. It is this property that makes ultrasound useful for nondestructive testing of materials.

The Acoustic Spectrum in below figure classifies sound into 3 ranges of frequencies. The Ultrasonic Range is classified further into 3 sub sections.

All the units are expressed in Cycles or Hertz
All the units are expressed in Cycles/sec or Hertz

1.2 Wave Propagation and Particle Motion
The most common methods of ultrasonic examination utilize either longitudinal waves or shear waves. Other forms of sound propagation exist, including surface waves and Lamb waves.

  • The longitudinal wave is a compressional wave in which the particle motion is in the same direction as the propagation of the wave.
  • The shear wave is a wave motion in which the particle motion is perpendicular to the direction of the propagation.
  • Surface (Rayleigh) waves have an elliptical particle motion and travel across the surface of a material. Their velocity is approximately 90% of the shear wave velocity of the material and their depth of penetration is approximately equal to one wavelength.
  • Plate (Lamb) waves have a complex vibration occurring in materials where thickness is less than the wavelength of ultrasound introduced into it.

Below figure provides an illustration of the particle motion versus the direction of wave propagation for longitudinal waves and shear waves.

particle motion versus the direction of wave propagation for longitudinal waves and shear waves.

1.3 Ultrasound Technique
Ultrasonics represents a special branch of general acoustics, the science of mechanical oscillations of solids, liquids and gaseous media. With reference to the properties of the human ear, high frequency inaudible oscillations are defined as ultrasonic or supersonic. In other words, while the normal range of human hearing is between 20 Hz and 20 kHz, ultrasonic frequencies lie between 20 kHz and 500 MHz.

1.4 Ultrasonic Behavior
Expressed in physical terms, sound is produced by mechanical oscillation of elastic media. The occurrence of sound presupposes the existence of material; it can present itself in solid, liquid and/or gaseous bodies. Airborne sound is the phenomenon most frequently met during our daily life. It can be directly initiated by excitation of solid bodies, which begin to oscillate and in turn cause the ambient air to vibrate. If the airborne vibrations reach the ear, they are perceived as sound. Air particles being excited to vibrate will in turn excite the adjacent particles, etc., thus causing a periodic series of high pressure and low-pressure regions, called condensation and rarefactions, traveling through air in the form of waves.

1.5 Ultrasonic Phenomenon in Liquid Medium
Ultrasonic cavitations are defined as the growth and collapse of bubbles in liquids, and can be induced under a variety of physical conditions in water, organic solvents, and biological systems. In laboratory systems, bubble clouds are induced by ultrasonic irradiation.

Acoustic cavitations are induced by ultrasonic waves, which impose a sinusoidal pressure variation on the transmitting medium, alternately compressing the liquid molecules or pulling them apart by overcoming intermolecular forces. At an ultrasonic frequency of 20 kHz, the liquid will undergo 2 x 104 compression and rarefaction cycles each second. Microscopic bubbles grow in size during the “rarefaction” half-cycle of the sound wave, and collapse violently during the compression half-cycle. The bubbles occur in clouds within the solution, although the lifetime of a single bubble is on the order of microseconds and its radius is on the order of micrometers.

1.6 Ultrasonic Washing Process
The use of ultrasonic energy for washing textiles has been tried several times without achieving practical development. In fact, the flexibility of the fibers makes the cavitations to produce small erosion effect and the reticulate structure of the fabric favors the formation of air bubble layers which obstruct wave penetration. It was found out that by diminishing the amount of dissolved air in the wash liquor the application of ultrasonic energy improved wash results in comparison to conventional methods. Nevertheless, practical requirements hindered the commercial development of the ultrasonic washing system. Specifically, the requirements of high-water level and small wash load needed to ensure efficiency and homogeneity in the wash performance. To overcome these problems for industrial applications, a new process was developed in which textiles are exposed to the ultrasonic field in a flat format and within a thin layer of liquid. The textile items are transported in a continuous way passing them underneath the radiators of specially designed power ultrasonic transducers. A series of devices select and adjust different parameters of the process.

Power Ultrasonics Group, Instituto de Acustica
Power Ultrasonics Group, Instituto de Acustica

The new washing procedure is based on the application of the ultrasonic energy to the textiles to be washed by means of special vibrating plate radiators that are in direct contact or very close to them. The textiles are submerged in a shallow layer of liquid and conveyed in a flat format through the ultrasonic radiator by means of a roller-type system. The plate radiator is designed to vibrate with one of its simpler flexural vibration modes to avoid as much as possible great differences in the vibration amplitudes.

The cleaning effect is produced by the intense cavitations field generated by the plate radiator in the thin layer of liquid. Such liquid layer is very favorable to produce high cavitations effect and is very convenient for the low consumption of washing liquor required. The homogeneity in the washing effect is achieved by moving the fabrics along the plate surface in such a way that all parts of them are exposed during the same time to the areas of intense acoustic field. The high intensity radiation directed over the surface of the textiles help to remove the big bubbles by the action of the radiation force and the requirement of degassing the liquid is not necessary in this process.

ultrasonic washing

The ultrasonic washing process is essentially mechanical, by ultrasonic vibration and cavitations, via a transducer at 20-40 kHz in contact or very near to the textile. It has the following main advantages with respect to a conventional washing process.

  • Deeper and quicker cleaning effect
  • Low energy consumption
  • Reduced water expense.
  • Reduced detergent and other accessories expense.
  • It does not damage the fabric.

1.7 Ultrasonic Machine
High-power ultrasonic dyeing unit for aqueous solutions was used for all the experiments conducted. The technical details of the ultrasonic equipment are given as under;

Ultrasonic Machine
Fig: Ultrasonic Machine (Sonorex RK 255 CH)

1.7.1 Features

  • built-in heating 30 – 80oC
  • 280 W thermostatically adjustable
  • Tank: stainless steel AISI 316 Ti
  • Outlet: ball valve G ¼, right side
  • Housing: stainless steel AISI 304 drip-proof
  • Protection grade: IP 32
  • Handles: on sides
  • Timer: 1 – 15 min and ∞

1.7.2 Technical data

  • Transducers: 3 PZT large area transducers
  • HF generator: overload protected, constant power
  • Operating mode: double half-wave
  • Frequency: 35 kHz automatic frequency control
  • Ultrasonic peak output: 720 W
  • HF power: 180 Weff
  • Current consumption 230 V: 2.0 A or, 115 V: 4.0 A
  • Mains connection: 230 V~ 50/60 Hz or, 115 V~ 50/60 Hz
  • Leakage current: < 0.5 mA
  • Fixed power cable, 2 m

1.8 Aims of the Project:
The main cynosure of this project is as under;

  • Color yield of different classes of Reactive dyes with and without ultrasonic energy.
  • Effect of time variation on Reactive dyeing.
  • Effect of temperature variation on Reactive dyeing.
  • Effect of chemical concentration variation on Reactive dyeing.
  • Effect of dye concentration variation on Reactive dyeing.
  • Effect of direct exposure of ultrasound.
  • Effect of ultrasonic energy during batching period.
  • Effect of ultrasound on knitted fabric dyed with Reactive dyestuff.
  • Color yield of different processes of VAT dyestuff with and without ultrasonic energy.
  • Color yield of Sulphur dyestuff with and without ultrasonic energy.
  • Color yield of Acid dyestuff on woolen yarns and silk fabric with and without ultrasonic energy.
  • Color yield of different classes of Disperse dyestuff with and without ultrasonic energy.
  • Color yield of Cationic or Basic dyestuff on acrylic fabric with and without ultrasonic energy.
  • Effect of ultrasonic energy on textile washing.
  • Machine modification

CHAPTER 2: CLASS OF DYESTUFF

2.1 Reactive Dyes

2.1.1 Reactive K Type dyes
Reactive K type dyes, which are relatively more reactive dyes, were dyed on cotton fabrics with and without ultrasound energy, under varying different dyeing attributes.

2.1.1.1 Effect of Dyeing Time Variation
The basic purpose of this experiment was to check the percentage yield by varying the dyeing time.

2.1.1.1.1 Methodology

2.1.1.1.1.1 Experiment Title:
Comparative study of Reactive Dyes K (Drimarene K) between CONTROL PROCESS (a), and EXPOSURE OF ULTRASOUND (b) by varying the fixation time, on 100% Cotton special weave (22 x 22 / 60 x 60) by Exhaust Process.

2.1.1.1.1.2 Recipes Followed:………………… (a)……….. (b)

  • Drimarene K (%) ………………………………….1.0 ……………..1.0
  • Drimagen E2R (g/l) …………………………….2.0 ……………..2.0
  • Glauber’s salt (g/l) …………………………….40 ………………..40
  • Soda Ash (%) 4.0 4.0
  • Ultrasound Energy ~ 35 kHz …………..- ………………….25 – 35 – 50 min
  • L:R …………………………………………………..1:20 …………………1:20

2.1.1.1.1.3 Procedure:

  • Beaker (a) was set in the standard dye bath at 60oC with salt and leveling agent, then stirred about 10 mins, while beaker (b) was set in ultrasonic dye bath at 60oC with salt and leveling agent, then stirred about 10 mins.
  • Then 5 ml dye was poured in beakers (a) and (b), after that 5-gm fabric was added to both of the beakers.
  • Liquor in all the beakers (a) and (b) was continuously stirred at 60oC for about 20 mins more under respective conditions.
  • After that required quantities of alkali (Soda Ash) was added in the beakers (a) and (b).
  • After adding alkali to the baths, two samples were drawn out after 5 min and 15 min from the baths (a) and (b).
  • Then last sample was drawn at 30 min from both of the baths.
  • At last the liquor of both the beakers was drained and the sample was washed with standard method.

2.1.1.1.1.4 Results:
Following are the CIE color lab (CMC tests) conducted on data color;

Name of dye Process Control Ultrasound
Drimarene K Blue Exhaustion 20 min, Fixation 05 min 100 % 120.46%
Drimarene K Blue Exhaustion 20 min, Fixation 15 min 100 % 113.38%
Drimarene K Blue Exhaustion 20 min, Fixation 30 min 100 % 99.16%

2.1.1.1.1.5 Conclusions

  • It is concluded from the above results that lower fixation time gives higher color yields.
  • It appears that the dye already fixed on the fibers is removed on exposure to high energy of the ultrasound.
  • The dyes detached from the fibers are then converted into hydrolyzed dyes.

Drimarene K Blue

Reactive K Dyeing Time Variation

2.1.1.2 Effect of Dyeing Temperature Variation
The basic purpose of this experiment was to check the yield of dye by varying the dyeing temperature.

2.1.1.2.1 Methodology

2.1.1.2.1.1 Experiment Title:
Comparative study of Reactive Dyes K (Drimarene K) between CONTROL PROCESS (a), and EXPOSURE OF ULTRASOUND (b) by varying the temperature, on 100% Cotton special weave (22 x 22 / 60 x 60) by Exhaust Process.

2.1.1.2.1.2 Recipes Followed: …………………(a)………….. (b)

  • Drimarene K Turquoise (%) …………………..1.0…………… 1.0
  • Drimagen E2R (g/l) …………………………………2.0 ……………2.0
  • Glauber’s salt (g/l) ………………………………….40 ……………..40
  • Soda Ash (%) ……………………………………………3.5 …………..3.5
  • Ultrasound Energy (35 kHz) …………………..- ………………60 min
  • Temperature (oC) …………………………………60 ……………….40
  • L: R …………………………………………………….1:20 ……………..1:20

2.1.1.2.1.3 Procedure:

  • Beaker (a) was set in the standard dye bath at 60oC with salt and leveling agent, then stirred about 10 mins, while beaker (b) was set in ultrasonic dye bath at 40oC with salt and leveling agent, then stirred about 10 mins.
  • Then 5 ml dye was poured in beakers (a) and (b), after that 5-gm fabric was added to both of the beakers.
  • Liquor in beakers (a) was continuously stirred at 60oC for about 20 mins while beaker (b) was stirred for 20 mins at 400C.
  • After that required quantities of alkali (Soda Ash) was added in the beakers (a) and (b).
  • Dyeing was continued for 30 mins at respective temperature.
  • At last the liquor of both the beakers was drained and the sample was washed with standard method.

2.1.1.2.1.4 Results:
Following are the CIE color lab (CMC tests) conducted on data color;

Name of dye Control Ultrasound
Drimarene K Turquoise 100 % 103.81 %

2.1.1.2.1.5 Conclusions
In spite of the low temperature, the color yield is higher on dyeing with ultrasound. The result however, is not significant.

Drimarene K TurquoiseDrimarene K Turquoise 2

2.1.1.3 Effect of Chemical Variation
Assuming that the ultrasound energy may reduce the consumption of chemicals and auxiliaries in the dyeing process of textile substrates, following experiment was carried out;

2.1.1.3.1 Methodology

2.1.1.3.1.1 Experiment Title:
Comparative study of Reactive Dyes K (Drimarene K) between CONTROL PROCESS (a), and EXPOSURE OF ULTRASOUND (b), by varying the quantities of different chemicals used on 100% Cotton special weave (22 x 22 / 60 x 60) by Exhaust Process.

2.1.1.3.1.2 CONTROL BATHS (a)
Recipes Followed: ………………………………Bath I ………..Bath II………. Bath III ………..Bath IV

  • Drimarene K (%) ………………………1.0 ……………….1.0 …………….1.0 ………………..1.0
  • Drimagen E2R (g/l) …………………..2.0 ……………..2.0 ……………2.0 ……………….2.0
  • Glauber’s salt (g/l) …………………..40 ……………….40…………….. 20 ………………30
  • Soda Ash (%) …………………………..2.0 ………………3.0 …………….4.0 …………….4.0
  • L:R …………………………………………..1:20 ……………..1:20 ………….1:20 ………….1:20

ULTRASONIC BATHS (b)

Recipes Followed: ……………………..Bath I ……Bath II………..Bath III ……Bath IV

  • Drimarene K (%) ………………..1.0 ……………1.0 ………………..1.0 ………………1.0
  • Drimagen E2R (g/l) …………..2.0 …………….2.0 ……………….2.0 ……………..2.0
  • Glauber’s salt (g/l) …………….40 ……………..40 ………………..20 ……………..30
  • Soda Ash (%) ……………………..2.0 ……………3.0 ……………..4.0 ……………..4.0
  • Ultrasound Energy (35 kHz) ..60 ………….60 ………………60……………… 60
  • L: R ………………………………………….1:20 ……….1:20 …………….1:20 …………1:20

2.1.1.3.1.3 Procedure:

  • All the above-mentioned control baths (a) were set in standard dye bath at 60oC with salt and leveling agent, then stirred about 10 mins, while ultrasonic baths (b) were set in ultrasonic dye bath at 60oC with salt and leveling agent, then stirred about 10 mins.
  • Then 5 ml dye was poured in all beakers (a) and (b), after that 5-gm fabric was added in all of the beakers.
  • Liquor in all the beakers (a) and (b) was continuously stirred at 60oC for about 30 mins more under respective conditions.
  • After that required quantities of alkali (Soda Ash) was added in all the beakers (a) and (b).
  • Liquor in all the beakers (a) and (b) was continuously stirred at 60oC for about 30 mins.
  • At last the liquor of both the beakers was drained and the sample was washed with standard method.

2.1.1.3.1.4 Results
Following are the CIE color lab (CMC tests) conducted on data color;

Name of dye % of Soda Ash % Dye uptake
Reactive K Blue 50 91.94%
Reactive K Blue 75 107.20%
Name of dye % of Salt % Dye uptake
Reactive K Blue 50 94.18 %
Reactive K Blue 75 80.25 %

2.1.1.3.1.5 Conclusions:

  • Results clear that even low quantity of alkali, ultrasonic sample still have darker shade when compared with the control sample. This could be due to diffusion of dye particle in to the fiber was escalated by the ultrasonic waves.
  • While when salt quantities were varied, ultrasonic samples were lighter than the control samples, both the ultrasonic samples tend to come close with control samples.

Drimarene K Blue1

ULTRASOUND

2.1.1.4 Effect of Shade Variation
Keeping in view that ultrasound energy escalates the penetration of dyestuff into the core of textile substrates, following experiment was carried out;

2.1.1.4.1 Methodology

2.1.1.4.1.1 Experiment Title:
Comparative study of Reactive Dyes K (Drimarene K) between CONTROL PROCESS (a), and EXPOSURE OF ULTRASOUND (b) on 100% Cotton plain weave by Exhaust Process.

2.1.1.4.1.2 Recipes Followed: ……………(a) ……….(b)

  • Drimarene K (%) …………………………..1.0 …………….1.0
  • Drimagen E2R (g/l) ………………………2.0 …………….2.0
  • Glauber’s salt (g/l) ………………………40 ………………40
  • Soda Ash (%) ……………………………..4.0 ……………….4.0
  • Ultrasound Energy (35 kHz) ……..- ……………….60 min
  • L:R ………………………………………………1:20 ……………..1:20

2.1.1.4.1.3 Procedure:

  • Beaker (a) was set in the standard dye bath at 60oC with salt and leveling agent, then stirred about 10 mins, while beaker (b) was set in ultrasonic dye bath at 60oC with salt and leveling agent, then stirred about 10 mins.
  • Then 5 ml dye was poured in beakers (a) and (b), after that 5-gm fabric was added to both of the beakers.
  • Liquor in all the beakers (a) and (b) was continuously stirred at 60oC for about 30 mins more under respective conditions.
  • After that required quantities of alkali (Soda Ash) was added in the beakers (a) and (b).
  • Liquor in all the beakers (a) and (b) was continuously stirred at 60oC for about 30 mins.
  • At last the liquor of both the beakers was drained and the sample was washed with standard method.

2.1.1.4.1.4 Results
Following are the CIE color lab (CMC tests) conducted on data color;

Name of dye Control Ultrasound
Reactive K Red 100 % 96.62%
Reactive K Violet 100 % 97.34%
Reactive K Turquoise 100 % 119.10%

2.1.1.4.1.5 Conclusions:

  • It is concluded from the above results that the phenomenon of ultrasound as a mechanical catalyst during the dyeing with K type dyes of Reactive group didn’t showed any positive sign except for Turquoise dyestuff, further it was inferred that the ultrasound energy doesn’t enhance the dyeing process of highly substantive reactive dyes (like K type).
  • In the case of Turquoise dyestuff, its molecule is considerably large than the other shades of the same K class dyes so ultrasound actually speeds up the process of penetration of large dyestuff molecules into the swelled structure of the fiber core.

Drimarene K

Reactive K Red

2.1.1.5 Effect of Direct Exposure
With a view that processes which is exposed directly to the ultrasonic waves will benefit more, rather than carrying out in any ultrasonic conductive bath (like steel, metal or glass beakers). An experiment was carried out to verify the validation of above-mentioned idea in which all parameters and process variables were kept constant of both control and ultrasonic baths.

2.1.1.5.1 Methodology

2.1.1.5.1.1 Experiment Title:
Comparative study of Reactive Dyes K (Drimarene K) between CONTROL PROCESS (a), and EXPOSURE OF ULTRASOUND (b), on 100% Cotton special weave (22 x 22 / 60 x 60) by Exhaust Process.

2.1.1.5.1.2 Recipes Followed: ………………(a) …………(b)

  • Drimarene K (%) ……………………………..1.0 ……………….1.0
  • Drimagen E2R (g/l) ………………………..2.0 ……………….2.0
  • Glauber’s salt (g/l) …………………………..40 ………………..40
  • Soda Ash (%) ……………………………………3.5 ……………….3.5
  • Ultrasound Energy ~ 35 kHz………… – ……………….60 min
  • L:R ……………………………………………………1:20 ……………..1:20

2.1.1.5.1.3 Procedure:

  • Beaker (a) was set in the standard dye bath at 60oC with salt and leveling agent, and then stirred about 10 mins, while ultrasonic dye bath (b) was set at 60oC with salt and leveling agent, then stirred about 10 mins.
  • Then 5 ml dye was poured in beakers (a) along with 5 gm of fabric, after that 50 ml dye was poured into ultrasonic dye bath (b) along with 50 gm fabrics.
  • Liquor in both the beakers (a) and (b) was continuously stirred at 60oC for about 30 mins more under respective conditions.
  • After that required quantities of alkali (Soda Ash) was added in the beakers (a) and (b).
  • After adding alkali to the baths, stirring was continuously done for about 30 mins.
  • At last the liquor of both the beakers was drained and the sample was washed with below mentioned steps.

2.1.1.5.1.4 Results
Following are the CIE color lab (CMC tests) conducted on data color;

Name of dye Control Ultrasound
Reactive K Blue 100 % 94.73%

2.1.1.5.1.5 Conclusions
Results shows no positive signs, as the strength of the ultrasonic dyed sample was less than the control one.

Reactive K

Reactive K Blue

2.1.2 Reactive Cl Type dyes
Reactive Cl type dyes which are relatively less reactive dyes than the K type dyes were compared with and without ultrasound experiments, varying time variation, shade variation and chemicals variations.

2.1.2.1 Effect of Dyeing Time Variation
The purpose of this experiment was to check the effect of ultrasonic waves on textile substrate which ultimately reduces the dyeing time.

2.1.2.1.1 Methodology

2.1.2.1.1.1 Experiment Title:
Comparative study of Reactive Dyes Cl (Drimarene Cl) between CONTROL PROCESS (a), and EXPOSURE OF ULTRASOUND (b) by varying the fixation time, on 100% Cotton special weave (22 x 22 / 60 x 60) by Exhaust Process.

2.1.2.1.1.2 Recipes Followed: …………………(a) ……………(b)

  • Drimarene Cl Blue (%) …………………………1.0 ……………….1.0
  • Drimagen E2R (g/l) ……………………………..2.0 ……………….2.0
  • Glauber’s salt (g/l) ……………………………….40 ……………….40
  • Soda Ash (g/l) ………………………………………10 ………………..10
  • Caustic Soda 36 oBe’ (ml/l)………………. 0.5 ……………….0.5
  • Ultrasound Energy ~ 35 kHz ……………- ………….40 – 45 – 60 min
  • Temperature (oC) ……………………………..60 ……………….60
  • L: R …………………………………………………….1:20 …………..1:20

2.1.2.1.1.3 Procedure:

  • Beaker (a) was set in the standard dye bath at 60oC with salt and leveling agent, then stirred about 10 mins, while beaker (b) was set in ultrasonic dye bath at 60oC with salt and leveling agent, then stirred about 10 mins.
  • Then 5 ml dye was poured in beakers (a) and (b), after that 5-gm fabric was added to both of the beakers.
  • Liquor in all the beakers (a) and (b) was continuously stirred at 60oC for about 20 mins more under respective conditions.
  • After that required quantities of alkali (Soda Ash) was added in the beakers (a) and (b).
  • After adding alkali to the baths, two samples were drawn out after 10 min and 15 min from the baths (a) and (b).
  • Then last sample was drawn at 30 min from both of the baths.
  • At last the liquor of both the beakers was drained and the sample was washed with standard method.

2.1.2.1.1.4 Results
Following are the CIE color lab (CMC tests) results conducted on data color:

Name of dye Process Control Ultrasound
Drimarene Cl Blue Exhaustion 30 min & Fixation 10 min 100 % 88.25 %
Drimarene Cl Blue Exhaustion 30 min & Fixation 15 min 100 % 106.77 %
Drimarene Cl Blue Exhaustion 30 min & Fixation 30 min 100 % 108.01 %

2.1.2.1.1.5 Conclusions
Results shows that Reactive Cl dyeing when exposed to ultrasonic waves dyed deeper even giving half of the fixation time, thus saving the dyeing time.

Drimarene Cl Blue

Exhaustion 30 min

2.1.2.2 Effect of Shade Variation
Keeping in a view that ultrasound energy escalates the penetration of dyestuff into the core of textile substrates, following experiment was carried out;

2.1.2.2.1 Methodology

2.1.2.2.1.1 Experiment Title:
Comparative study of Reactive Dyes Cl (Drimarene Cl) between CONTROL PROCESS (a) and EXPOSURE OF ULTRASOUND (b) on 100% Cotton plain weave by Exhaust Process.

2.1.2.2.1.2 Recipes Followed: ………………(a)…………….. (b)

  • Drimarene Cl (%) ………………………………1.0 ……………….1.0
  • Drimagen E2R (g/l) ………………………..2.0 ………………….2.0
  • Glauber’s salt (g/l) ………………………….60 ………………….60
  • Soda Ash (%) …………………………………3.5 ………………….3.5
  • Caustic Soda 36 oBe’ (ml/l)………….. 0.5……………… 0.5
  • Ultrasound Energy ~ 35 kHz …………- ……………..60 min
  • Temperature (oC) ………………………..60 …………………..60
  • L: R ……………………………………………….1:20 …………………1:20

2.1.2.2.1.3 Procedure:

  • Beaker (a) was set in the standard dye bath at 60oC with salt and leveling agent, then stirred about 10 mins, while beaker (b) was set in ultrasonic dye bath at 60oC with salt and leveling agent, then stirred about 10 mins.
  • Then 5 ml dye was poured in beakers (a) and (b), after that 5-gm fabric was added to both of the beakers.
  • Liquor in all the beakers (a) and (b) was continuously stirred at 60oC for about 20 mins more under respective conditions.
  • After that required quantities of alkali (Soda Ash) was added in the beakers (a) and (b).
  • Liquor in all the beakers (a) and (b) was continuously stirred at 60oC for about 30 mins.
  • At last the liquor of both the beakers was drained and the sample was washed with standard method.

2.1.2.2.1.4 Results
Following are the CIE color lab (CMC tests) results conducted on data color;

Name of dye Control Ultrasound
Reactive Cl Red 100 % 96.62%
Reactive Cl Blue 100 % 97.34%
Reactive Cl Yellow 100 % 119.10%

2.1.2.2.1.5 Conclusions
Reactive Cl dyes when dyed with the exposure of ultrasonic waves didn’t show any positive sign except the Yellow dyestuff.

Reactive Cl Shade Variation

Reactive Cl Yellow

2.1.2.3 Effect of Dyeing Temperature Variation
Keeping in a view that ultrasonic waves reduce the consumption of energy; following. experiment was carried out;

2.1.2.3.1 Methodology

2.1.2.3.1.1 Experiment Title:
Comparative study of Reactive Dyes Cl (Drimarene Cl) between CONTROL PROCESS (a) and EXPOSURE OF ULTRASOUND (b), by varying the temperature on 100% Cotton special weave (22 x 22 / 60 x 60) by Exhaust Process.

2.1.2.3.1.2 Recipes Followed: ……………………(a)…………………. (b)

  • Drimarene Cl Blue (%) ……………………………1.0 ……………………….1.0
  • Drimagen E2R (g/l) …………………………………2.0 ……………………..2.0
  • Glauber’s salt (g/l) …………………………………..60 ……………………….60
  • Soda Ash (%) …………………………………………3.5 ……………………….3.5
  • Caustic Soda 36o Be’ (ml/l) ………………….0.5 ……………………….0.5
  • Ultrasound Energy ~ 35 kHz …………………- ……………………….60 min
  • Temperature (oC) ………………………………….60 …………………………40
  • L: R ………………………………………………………..1:20 …………………….1:20

2.1.2.3.1.3 Procedure:

  • Beaker (a) was set in the standard dye bath at 60oC with salt and leveling agent, then stirred about 10 mins, while beaker (b) was set in ultrasonic dye bath at 40oC with salt and leveling agent, then stirred about 10 mins.
  • Then 5 ml dye was poured in beakers (a) and (b), after that 5-gm fabric was added to both of the beakers.
  • Liquor in beakers (a) was continuously stirred at 60oC for about 20 mins while beaker (b) was stirred for 20 mins at 400C.
  • After that required quantities of alkali (Soda Ash) was added in the beakers (a) and (b).
  • Dyeing was continued for 30 mins at respective temperature.
  • At last the liquor of both the beakers was drained and the sample was washed with standard method.

2.1.2.3.1.4 Results
Following are the CIE color lab (CMC tests) results conducted on data color;

Name of dye Control Ultrasound
Reactive Cl Blue 100 % 116.72 %

2.1.2.3.1.5 Conclusions
In spite of the low temperature, the color yield is higher on dyeing with ultrasound. It shows that energy can be saved when dyeing with ultrasonic waves exposure.

Reactive Cl Temperature Variation

Control temperature

2.1.2.4 Pad-Batch Process
Although conventional Pad-Batch process consumes a lot of time (dyestuff manufacturers recommends from 12 to 24 hours depending upon the shade depth) for a single batch. Keeping in a view that ultrasound energy consumes less time for batching, following experiment was carried out;

2.1.2.4.1 Methodology

2.1.2.4.1.1 Experiment Title:
Comparative study of Reactive Dyes Cl (Drimarene Cl) between CONTROL PROCESS (a) and EXPOSURE OF ULTRASOUND (b), by varying the batching time on 100% Cotton special weave (22 x 22 / 60 x 60) by Pad-Batch Process.

2.1.2.4.1.2 Padding Liquor:

  • Drimarene Cl (g/l) ………………………….9.0
  • Sodium Silicate 48o Be’ (g/l) ………..65
  • Caustic Soda 36o Be’ (ml/l) …………..15
  • Padding Pressure (bar) ………………….2.0

2.1.2.4.1.3 Procedure:

  • First, a large piece of fabric was padded with the above-mentioned padding liquor.
  • Then the previously padded fabric was cut into fifteen strips.
  • All the strips were wrapped on glass tube; the wrapped fabric was covered with plastic sheet.
  • Nine samples were labeled as control and were padded at normal condition for following periods; 15 min, 30 min, 1 hr, 2 hr, 3 hr, 4 hr, 5 hr, 6 hr and 24 hrs.
  • Similarly, six samples were labeled as ultrasound and were padded in ultrasonic bath for following periods; 15 min, 30 min, 1 hr, 2 hr, 3 hr, 4 hr.
  • After that padded samples were washed with standard method.

2.1.2.4.1.4 Results
Following are the CIE color lab (CMC tests) results conducted on data color;

Name of dye Batching Time (Control) Batching Time (Ultrasound) Control Ultrasound
Drimarene Cl Blue 15 min 15 min 100 % 117.05 %
Drimarene Cl Blue 30 min 30 min 100 % 113.95 %
Drimarene Cl Blue 1 hr 1 hr 100 % 324.27 %
Drimarene Cl Blue 2 hr 2 hr 100 % 239.00 %
Drimarene Cl Blue 3 hr 3 hr 100 % 258.48 %
Drimarene Cl Blue 4 hr 4 hr 100 % 237.01 %
Drimarene Cl Blue 5 hr 4 hr 100 % 221.38 %
Drimarene Cl Blue 6 hr 4 hr 100 % 99.95 %
Drimarene Cl Blue 24 hr 1 hr 100 % 142.42 %
Drimarene Cl Blue 24 hr 4 hr 100 % 179.53 %

2.1.2.4.1.5 Conclusions

Pad Batch experiments concluded with interesting results,

  • The percentage dye uptake of similar batching time when compared showed much high depth than the control samples.
  • When 24 hr of control sample was compared with 1 hr ultrasound sample, the percentage dye uptake is still significantly higher, and the shade was brighter than the control sample.
  • This concludes that with ultrasonic energy we can substantially reduce the batching time, which ultimately reduces processing time and cost.

Drimarene Cl Blue1

ultrasound sample

2.1.2.5 Effect of Dye Concentration Variation
The purpose of this experiment was to check the effect of ultrasonic waves on reducing the consumption of dyestuff used for the dyeing of textile substrate with reactive Cl dyes;

2.1.2.5.1 Methodology

2.1.2.5.1.1 Experiment Title:
Comparative study of Reactive Dyes Cl (Drimarene Cl) between CONTROL PROCESS (a), and EXPOSURE OF ULTRASOUND (b) by varying the dye concentration, on 100% Cotton special weave (22 x 22 / 60 x 60) by Exhaust Process.

2.1.2.5.1.2 Recipes Followed: ……………(a)…………… (b) …………(c)

  • Drimarene Cl Blue (%) …………………..1.0 ………………..0.5………….. 0.75
  • Drimagen E2R (g/l) ………………………2.0 …………………2.0 ……………2.0
  • Glauber’s salt (g/l) ………………………..60 ………………….60 …………..60
  • Soda Ash (g/l) ……………………………….3.5 ………………..3.5 …………3.5
  • Caustic Soda 36o Be’ (ml/l) ………..0.5 ………………..0.5 ………..0.5
  • Ultrasound Energy ~ 35 kHz ………- ………………60 min ………60 min
  • Temperature (oC) ………………………..60 ………………..60 …………….60
  • L:R …………………………………………….1:20 ………………..1:20 ………….1:20

2.1.2.5.1.3 Procedure:

  • Beaker (a) was set in the standard dye bath at 60oC with salt and leveling agent, then stirred about 10 mins, while beaker (b) was set in ultrasonic dye bath at 60oC with salt and leveling agent, then stirred about 10 mins.
  • Then 5 ml dye was poured in beaker (a) and in beaker (b & c) required amount of dye was poured, after that 5 gm fabric was added to both of the beakers.
  • Liquor in all the beakers (a) and (b) was continuously stirred at 60oC for about 20 mins more under respective conditions.
  • After that required quantities of alkali (Soda Ash & Caustic Soda) was added in the beakers (a, b & c).
  • Dyeing was continued with constant stirring and sample was drawn after 30 min from all the baths.
  • At last the liquor of all the beakers was drained and the samples were washed with standard method.

2.1.2.5.1.4 Results
Following are the CIE color lab (CMC tests) results conducted on data color;

Name of dye Process Control Ultrasound
Drimarene Cl Blue Control 1.0 % & Ultrasound 0.5 % 100 % 70.98 %
Drimarene Cl Blue Control 1.0 % & Ultrasound 0.75 % 100 % 84.20 %

2.1.5.5.1.5 Conclusions

Results show that even with low dye concentration of ultrasonic samples the percentage dye uptake are very near to the control percentage yield.

Reactive Cl Dye Concentration

Ultrasound1

2.1.2.6 Effect of Chemical Variation
Assuming that the ultrasound energy may reduce the consumption of chemicals and auxiliaries in the dyeing process of textile substrates, following experiment was carried out;

2.1.2.6.1 Methodology

2.1.2.6.1.1 Experiment Title:
Comparative study of Reactive Dyes Cl (Drimarene Cl) between CONTROL PROCESS (a), and EXPOSURE OF ULTRASOUND (b), by varying the quantities of different chemicals used on 100% Cotton special weave (22 x 22 / 60 x 60) by Exhaust Process.

2.1.2.6.1.2 CONTROL BATH (a)
Recipes Followed: ………………………………….Bath I

  • Drimarene Cl (%) …………………………..1.0
  • Drimagen E2R (g/l) ……………………….2.0
  • Glauber’s salt (g/l)………………………… 60
  • Soda Ash (%) …………………………………3.5
  • Caustic Soda 36o Be’ (ml/l) ……….0.5
  • Temperature (oC) …………………………60
  • L: R ……………………………………………….1:20

ULTRASONIC BATHS (b)
…………………………………………Bath I …………Bath II ………….Bath III …………Bath IV

  • Drimarene Cl (%) …………1.0 …………..1.0 ……………….1.0 …………………..1.0
  • Drimagen E2R (g/l) ………2.0 …………..2.0 ………………..2.0 ………………..2.0
  • Glauber’s salt (g/l)………… 30 …………..45 …………………60 ……………….60
  • Soda Ash (%) ………………….3.5 ………….3.5 ………………1.75 ……………2.62
  • Caustic Soda 36o Be’ (ml/l).. 0.5 ……..0.5 …………….0.5……………….. 0.5
  • Temperature (oC) ………………….60……….. 60……………. 60 …………….60
  • Ultrasound Energy (35 kHz) ….60 …………60 …………..60 …………….60
  • L: R…………………………………………… 1:20 ………1:20 …………1:20……….. 1:20

2.1.2.6.1.3 Procedure:

  • Above mentioned control bath (a) was set in standard dye bath at 60oC with salt and leveling agent, then stirred about 10 mins, while ultrasonic baths (b) were set in ultrasonic dye bath at 60oC with required quantities of salt and leveling agent, then stirred about 10 mins.
  • Then 5 ml dye was poured in all beakers (a) and (b), after that 5-gm fabric was added in all of the beakers.
  • Liquor in all the beakers (a) and (b) was continuously stirred at 60oC for about 20 mins more under respective conditions.
  • After that required quantities of alkali (Soda Ash & Caustic Soda) was added in all the beakers (a) and (b).
  • Liquor in all the beakers (a) and (b) was continuously stirred at 60oC for about 30 mins.
  • At last the liquor of both the beakers was drained and the sample was washed with standard method.

2.1.2.6.1.4 Results
Following are the CIE color lab (CMC tests) conducted on data color;

Name of dye % of Salt Control Ultrasound
Reactive Cl Blue 50 100 % 94.39%
Reactive Cl Blue 75 100 % 104.49%
Name of dye % of Alkali Control Ultrasound
Reactive Cl Blue 50 100 % 114.50 %
Reactive ClBlue 75 100 % 112.87 %

2.1.2.6.1.5 Conclusions:
It is concluded that,

  • Even low dosing of salt in ultrasonic baths, the comparative percentage yield of ultrasonic samples approaches to the control samples.
  • When low dosing of alkali in ultrasonic baths were checked, the comparative percentage yield of ultrasonic samples are still higher than the control samples.
  • Experiments show that quantities of chemicals can be saved when ultrasonic aided dyeing is carried out.

Reactive Cl Chemical Variation

Ultrasound shade

2.1.2.7 Effect on Knitted Fabric
The basic purpose of this experiment was to check the effect of ultrasonic energy on knitted substrate;

2.1.2.7.1 Methodology

2.1.2.7.1.1 Experiment Title:
Comparative study of Reactive Dyes Cl (Drimarene Cl) between CONTROL PROCESS (a), and EXPOSURE OF ULTRASOUND (b), on 100% Knitted fabric by Exhaust Process.

2.1.2.7.1.2 Recipes Followed: …………..(a)…….. (b)

  • Drimarene Cl (%) ……………………………1.0 ………..1.0
  • Drimagen E2R (g/l) ……………………….2.0 ………….2.0
  • Glauber’s salt (g/l) ………………………..60 ……………60
  • Soda Ash (%) …………………………………3.5 …………..3.5
  • Caustic Soda 36 oBe’ (ml/l) ………..0.5 ……………0.5
  • Ultrasound Energy (35 kHz) ……….- ………………60 min
  • Temperature (oC) ……………………….60 ……………..60
  • L: R ……………………………………………..1:20 ……………1:20

2.1.2.7.1.3 Procedure:

  • Beaker (a) was set in the standard dye bath at 60oC with salt and leveling agent, then stirred about 10 mins, while beaker (b) was set in ultrasonic dye bath at 60oC with salt and leveling agent, then stirred about 10 mins.
  • Then 5 ml dye was poured in both the beakers (a & b), after that 5-gm fabric was added to both the beakers.
  • Liquor in all the beakers (a) and (b) was continuously stirred at 60oC for about 20 mins more under respective conditions.
  • After that required quantities of alkali (Soda Ash & Caustic Soda) was added in the beakers (a & b).
  • Dyeing was continued with constant stirring and sample was drawn after 30 min from all the baths.
  • At last the liquor of all the beakers was drained and the samples were washed with standard method.

2.1.2.7.1.4 Results
Following are the CIE color lab (CMC tests) conducted on data color;

Name of dye Control Ultrasound
Reactive Cl Blue 100 % 100.39%

2.1.2.7.1.5 Conclusions:
It is concluded that,

  • Results didn’t show any positive signs, the comparative percentage dye uptake is somewhat same.

Reactive Cl on Knitted Fabric

knitted fabric shade

2.1.3 Reactive HF Type dyes
Reactive HF type dyes which are relatively moderate reactive dyes were compared with and without ultrasound experiments, varying time, shade and chemicals consumption.

2.1.3.1 Effect of Dyeing Time Variation
The purpose of this experiment was to check the effect of ultrasonic waves on reducing the time required for the dyeing of textile substrate with reactive HF dyes;

2.1.3.1.1 Methodology

2.1.3.1.1.1 Experiment Title:
Comparative study of Reactive Dyes HF (Drimarene HF) between CONTROL PROCESS (a), and EXPOSURE OF ULTRASOUND (b) by varying the fixation time, on 100% Cotton special weave (22 x 22 / 60 x 60) by Exhaust Process.

2.1.3.1.1.2 Recipes Followed: ……………(a) ………..(b)

  • Drimarene HF Blue (%) …………………1.0 ………….1.0
  • Drimagen E2R (g/l) ………………………..2.0 ………….2.0
  • Glauber’s salt (g/l) …………………………60 ……………60
  • Soda Ash (g/l) …………………………………7.0 …………7.0
  • Ultrasound Energy ~ 35 kHz……….. – ………..50 – 60 – 70 – 80 min
  • Temperature (oC) ………………………….60 ……………60
  • L: R ……………………………………………….1:20 ……………1:20

2.1.3.1.1.3 Procedure:

  • Beaker (a) was set in the standard dye bath at 60oC with salt and leveling agent, then stirred about 10 mins, while beaker (b) was set in ultrasonic dye bath at 60oC with salt and leveling agent, then stirred about 10 mins.
  • Then 5 ml dye was poured in beakers (a) and (b), after that 5-gm fabric was added to both of the beakers.
  • Liquor in all the beakers (a) and (b) was continuously stirred at 60oC for about 30 mins more under respective conditions.
  • After that required quantities of alkali (Soda Ash) was added in the beakers (a) and (b).
  • After adding alkali to the baths, samples were drawn out after 10, 20 and 30 min from the baths (a) and (b).
  • Then last sample was drawn at 40 min from both of the baths.
  • At last the liquor of both the beakers was drained and the sample was washed with standard method.

2.1.3.1.1.4 Results
Following are the CIE color lab (CMC tests) results conducted on data color;

Name of dye Process Control Ultrasound
Drimarene HF Blue Exhaustion 40 min & Fixation 10 min 100 % 123.63 %
Drimarene HF Blue Exhaustion 40 min & Fixation 20 min 100 % 99.81 %
Drimarene HF Blue Exhaustion 40 min & Fixation 30 min 100 % 100.16 %
Drimarene HF Blue Exhaustion 40 min & Fixation 40 min 100 % 103.19 %

2.1.3.1.1.5 Conclusions
It is concluded that;

  • As exhaustion time kept constant and fixation time was varied, lower fixation time yield is better, while higher fixation time didn’t show any positive sign.

Reactive HF BlueReactive HF Blue

2.1.3.1.2 Methodology

2.1.3.1.2.1 Experiment Title:
Comparative study of Reactive Dyes HF (Drimarene HF) between CONTROL PROCESS (a), and EXPOSURE OF ULTRASOUND (b) by varying the fixation time, on 100% Cotton special weave (22 x 22 / 60 x 60) by Exhaust Process.

2.1.3.1.2.2 Recipes Followed: …………….(a) …………(b)

  • Drimarene HF Blue (%) …………………….1.0…………… 1.0
  • Drimagen E2R (g/l) ………………………….2.0 ………………2.0
  • Glauber’s salt (g/l) …………………………….60 ……………..60
  • Soda Ash (g/l) ……………………………………7.0 ……………..7.0
  • Ultrasound Energy ~ 35 kHz …………..- …………..40 – 50 – 60 – 70 min
  • Temperature (oC) ……………………………..60 ……………..60
  • L:R ……………………………………………………1:20 …………..1:20

2.1.3.1.2.3 Procedure:

  • Beaker (a) was set in the standard dye bath at 60oC with salt and leveling agent, then stirred about 10 mins, while beaker (b) was set in ultrasonic dye bath at 60oC with salt and leveling agent, then stirred about 10 mins.
  • Then 5 ml dye was poured in beakers (a) and (b), after that 5 gm fabric was added to both of the beakers.
  • Liquor in all the beakers (a) and (b) was continuously stirred at 60oC for about 20 mins more under respective conditions.
  • After that required quantities of alkali (Soda Ash) was added in the beakers (a) and (b).
  • After adding alkali to the baths, samples were drawn out after 10, 20 and 30 min from the baths (a) and (b).
  • Then last sample was drawn at 40 min from both of the baths.
  • At last the liquor of both the beakers was drained and the sample was washed with standard method.

2.1.3.1.2.4 Results
Following are the CIE color lab (CMC tests) results conducted on data color;

Name of dye Process Control Ultrasound
Drimarene HF Blue Exhaustion 30 min & Fixation 10 min 100 % 153.33 %
Drimarene HF Blue Exhaustion 30 min & Fixation 20 min 100 % 136.25 %
Drimarene HF Blue Exhaustion 30 min & Fixation 30 min 100 % 123.92 %
Drimarene HF Blue Exhaustion 30 min & Fixation 40 min 100 % 112.10 %

2.1.3.1.2.5 Conclusions
It is concluded that;

  • As the exhaustion time was kept less than the normal and fixation time was varied, same trend was observed that lower fixation time gives higher yield but, in this case, last result of ultrasonic sample is still significantly better than control samples
  • On this basis dyeing time can be saved when ultrasonic aided dyeing is carried out on Reactive HF dyes.

Reactive HF Dyeing TimeExhaustion 30 min

2.1.3.2 Effect of Dye Concentration Variation
The purpose of this experiment was to check the effect of ultrasonic waves on reducing the consumption of dyestuff used for the dyeing of textile substrate with reactive HF dyes;

2.1.3.2.1 Methodology

2.1.3.2.1.1 Experiment Title:
Comparative study of Reactive Dyes HF (Drimarene HF) between CONTROL PROCESS (a), and EXPOSURE OF ULTRASOUND (b) by varying the dye concentration, on 100% Cotton special weave (22 x 22 / 60 x 60) by Exhaust Process.

2.1.3.2.1.2 Recipes Followed: ………………(a) …………..(b)

  • Drimarene HF Blue (%) …………………..0.5 ………………0.5
  • Drimagen E2R (g/l) …………………………2.0 ………………2.0
  • Glauber’s salt (g/l) …………………………60 ……………….60
  • Soda Ash (g/l) ………………………………7.0 ……………..7.0
  • Ultrasound Energy ~ 35 kHz …….- …………….80 min
  • Temperature (oC) ……………………..60 ……………60
  • L:R ……………………………………………..1:20 ………..1:20

2.1.3.2.1.3 Procedure:

  • Beaker (a) was set in the standard dye bath at 60oC with salt and leveling agent, then stirred about 10 mins, while beaker (b) was set in ultrasonic dye bath at 60oC with salt and leveling agent, then stirred about 10 mins.
  • Then 2.5 ml dye was poured in beakers (a) and (b), after that 5-gm fabric was added to both of the beakers.
  • Liquor in all the beakers (a) and (b) was continuously stirred at 60oC for about 30 mins more under respective conditions.
  • After that required quantities of alkali (Soda Ash) was added in the beakers (a) and (b).
  • Dyeing was continued with constant stirring and sample was drawn at 40 min from both the baths.
  • At last the liquor of both the beakers was drained and the sample was washed with standard method.

2.1.3.2.1.4 Results
Following are the CIE color lab (CMC tests) results conducted on data color;

Name of dye Process Control Ultrasound
Drimarene HF Blue Shade depth 0.5 % 100 % 108.87 %
Drimarene HF Blue Shade depth 1.0 % 100 % 112.10%

2.1.3.2.1.5 Conclusions

  • When low dye concentration of ultrasonic and control samples was compared, the percentage dye uptake of ultrasonic sample was significantly higher.

Reactive HF Dye ConcentrationShade depth

2.1.3.3 Effect of Dyeing Temperature Variation
Keeping in a view that ultrasound reduces the consumption of energy; following experiment was carried out;

2.1.3.3.1 Methodology

2.1.3.3.1.1 Experiment Title:
Comparative study of Reactive Dyes HF (Drimarene HF) between CONTROL PROCESS (a) and EXPOSURE OF ULTRASOUND (b), by varying the temperature on 100% Cotton special weave (22 x 22 / 60 x 60) by Exhaust Process.

2.1.3.3.1.2 Recipes Followed: ……………(a) ……………(b)

  • Drimarene HF Red (%) …………………….1.0 ……………..1.0
  • Drimagen E2R (g/l) …………………………..2.0 ………………2.0
  • Glauber’s salt (g/l) …………………………….60 ……………….60
  • Soda Ash (%) ……………………………………..7.0 ……………..7.0
  • Ultrasound Energy ~ 35 kHz ……………- ………………80 min
  • Temperature (oC) …………………………..60 …………………40
  • L: R …………………………………………………1:20 …………….1:20

2.1.3.3.1.3 Procedure:

  • Beaker (a) was set in the standard dye bath at 60oC with salt and leveling agent, then stirred about 10 mins, while beaker (b) was set in ultrasonic dye bath at 40oC with salt and leveling agent, then stirred about 10 mins.
  • Then 5 ml dye was poured in beakers (a) and (b), after that 5-gm fabric was added to both of the beakers.
  • Liquor in beakers (a) was continuously stirred at 60oC for about 30 mins while beaker (b) was stirred for 30 mins at 400C.
  • After that required quantities of alkali (Soda Ash) was added in the beakers (a) and (b).
  • Dyeing was continued for 40 mins at respective temperature.
  • At last the liquor of both the beakers was drained and the sample was washed with standard method.

2.1.3.3.1.4 Results
Following are the CIE color lab (CMC tests) results conducted on data color;

Name of dye Control Ultrasound
Reactive HF Blue 100 % 94.00%

2.1.3.3.1.5 Conclusions

  • When ultrasonic sample was dyed lower than the control sample, the result didn’t show any positive sign.

Reactive HF RedControl temperature

2.2 VAT DYES
Vat dyes are very important class of dyes for cellulosic fibers because the dyeing produced with these have the highest overall fastness properties. All of these dyes have good fastness against wet treatments and crocking and most have light fastness. Ultrasound energy enhances the vatting rate by disintegrating the dispersed water-insoluble dyestuff aggregates into smaller particles. Owing to the increase of the dyestuff surface, in addition to the simultaneous shortening of the diffusion path, the probability for collisions between molecules of the reducing agent and the dye molecules increases and finally the reaction rate will be faster.

Application of vat dyes of cellulosics material is occurred in five steps.

  • Aqueous dispersion
  • Vatting
  • Absorption of dye molecule by the fiber
  • Re oxidation of dye molecule within the fiber
  • Soaping off

2.2.1 Classification:
Ciba vat dyes are classified as:

  1. CIBANON CI TYPE
  2. CIBANON CII TYPE

2.2.2 Application method:

  1. LONG LIQUOR METHOD
  2. STOCK VAT METHOD

2.2.2.1 Long Liquor Method
In this method reduction of vat dyes is carried out during process in a single dye bath.

2.2.2.1.1 Methodology

2.2.2.1.1.1 Experiment Title:
Comparative study of Vat dyes (Cibanon Blue CI) between NORMAL PROCESS (CONTROL) (a), and EXPOSURE OF ULTRASOUND (b), on 100% Cotton special weave (22 x 22 / 60 x 60) by Exhaust Process.

2.2.2.1.1.2 Recipes Followed:……………… (a)………………. (b)

  • Cibanon Blue (%) ……………………………..4.0 ……………………4.0
  • Irgasol Vat 10 % (g/l) ……………………….2.0 ……………………2.0
  • Invadine 10 % (g/l) ………………………….2.0 ……………………..2.0
  • Ultrasound Energy (35 kHz) …………..- ……………………….90 min
  • Temperature (oC) ……………………………60 ……………………..60
  • L:R …………………………………………………….1:20 ………………….1:20

2.2.2.1.1.3 Procedure:

  • Control (a) and Ultrasound (b) dye baths were set at 30oC with the above-mentioned chemicals.
  • After 10 mins, following chemicals were added in both control (a) and ultrasound (b) baths;

Albatex (g/l) ……………………………….2.0 …………….2.0
Caustic Soda 36o Be (ml/l) ………18 ……………18
Sodium Hydrosulphite (g/l) …….4.0 …………..4.0

After addition of all the chemicals the temperature of both the baths temperature were raised to 60oC in 30 mins with continuous stirring.

  • Then dyeing was continued for 45 mins at 60oC.
  • Then liquor of both the baths was drained, samples were rinsed with cold water and oxidized with following chemicals;

Hydrogen Peroxide 35 % (ml/l) …….3.0 ………3.0
Temperature (oC) …………………………….50 ……….50
Time (min) ……………………………………….10 ………..10

2.2.2.1.1.4 Results:
Following are the CIE color lab (CMC tests) conducted on data color;

Name of dye Process Control Ultrasound
Cibanon Blue Long Liquor (CI) 100 % 138.26 %

2.2.2.1.1.5 Conclusions

  • The reducing ability of ultrasonic energy increases the dye uptake as compared with the conventional process. Long liquor method gives more yield due to long exposure of ultrasonic energy on the dyestuff as compared with the stock vat method.
  • Hence ultrasonic aided dyeing of vat dyes gives higher yield keeping all attributes constant.

Cibanon vat dye

Cibanon blue shade

2.2.2.2 Stock Vat Method
In this method reduction of vat dyes is carried out in separate dye bath.

2.2.2.2.1 Methodology

2.2.2.2.1.1 Experiment Title:
Comparative study of Vat dyes (Cibanon Blue CI) between NORMAL PROCESS (CONTROL) (a), and EXPOSURE OF ULTRASOUND (b), on 100% Cotton special weave (22 x 22 / 60 x 60) by Exhaust Process.

2.2.2.2.1.2 Recipes Followed:……………… (a) …………….(b)

  • Cibanon Blue (%) ……………………………..4.0 …………………4.0
  • Irgasol Vat 10 % (g/l) ……………………….2.0………………. 2.0
  • Invadine 10 % (g/l) ………………………….2.0 ……………….2.0
  • Ultrasound Energy (35 kHz) …………..- ……………….90 min
  • Temperature (oC) ……………………………60 ……………….60
  • L:R …………………………………………………….1:20 ……………1:20
  • Caustic Soda (ml/l) (80% of total amount)…18.0 ……18.0
  • Sodium Hydrosulphite (g/l) (80% of total amount) 4.0 ….4.0
  • Albatex (g/l) ……………………………………………………………..2.0 ……….2.0

2.2.2.2.1.3 Procedure:

  • Control (a) and Ultrasound (b) dye baths were set at 30oC with the above-mentioned chemicals.
  • After 10 mins, following chemicals were added in both control (a) and ultrasound (b) baths, which were prepared in separate dyebath at room temperature.

Caustic Soda 36o Be (ml/l) (20% of total amount) 18 18
Sodium Hydrosulphite (g/l) (20% of total amount) 4.0 4.0

After addition of all the chemicals the temperature of both the baths temperature were raised to 60oC in 30 mins with continuous stirring.

  • Then dyeing was continued for 45 mins at 60oC.
  • Then liquor of both the baths was drained, samples were rinsed with cold water and oxidized with following chemicals;

Hydrogen Peroxide 35 % (ml/l) ……..3.0 ……..3.0
Temperature (oC) ……………………………..50 ……….50
Time (min) …………………………………………10 ……….10

2.2.2.1.4 Results:
Following are the CIE color lab (CMC tests) conducted on data color;

Name of dye Process Control Ultrasound
Cibanon Blue Stock Vat (CI) 100 % 123.32 %

2.2.2.2.1.5 Conclusions

  • The reducing ability of ultrasonic energy increases the dye uptake as compared with the conventional process.
  • Hence ultrasonic aided dyeing of vat dyes gives higher yield keeping all attributes constant.

Cibanon stock vat CI

Cibanon blue stock vat CI shade

2.2.2.3 Effect of Ultrasound on Reduction of Vat dyes
Ultrasound reduces the average size of the dye particles of vat dyes, when vat dye samples were treated with ultrasound the large particles were completely eliminated. Without ultrasound vat dyes may contain particles larger than 14 microns, but when vat dyes are treated with ultrasound the largest dye particles are smaller than 2 microns. So, an experiment was conducted in which reduction of vat dyes were checked without the addition of reducing agent.

2.2.2.3.1 Methodology

2.2.2.3.1.1 Experiment Title:
Comparative study of Vat dyes (Cibanon Blue CI) in EXPOSURE OF ULTRASOUND, between reduction of vat dyes with Sodium hudrosulphite (a) and without Sodium Hydrosulphite (b), on 100% Cotton special weave (22 x 22 / 60 x 60) by Long Liquor method.

2.2.2.3.1.2 Recipes Followed: ………….(a)………. (b)

  • Cibanon Blue (%) ………………………….4.0……….. 4.0
  • Irgasol Vat 10 % (g/l) ……………………2.0 ………..2.0
  • Invadine 10 % (g/l) ……………………….2.0 ………..2.0
  • Ultrasound Energy (35 kHz) ………..- ………….90 min
  • Temperature (oC) ………………………..60 …………60
  • L:R ………………………………………………..1:20……… 1:20

2.2.2.3.1.3 Procedure:

  • Dye baths (a & b) were set at 30oC with the above-mentioned chemicals in an ultrasonic bath.
  • After 10 mins, following chemicals were added in both (a) and (b) baths;

……………………………………………………………(a)………. (b)

Albatex (g/l) ……………………………………..2.0 ……….2.0
Caustic Soda 36o Be (ml/l) ……………..18 ………..18
Sodium Hydrosulphite (g/l) …………….4.0 ………..-

After addition of all the chemicals the temperature of both the baths temperature were raised to 60oC in 30 mins with continuous stirring.

  • Then dyeing was continued for 45 mins at 60oC.
  • Then liquor of both the baths was drained, samples were rinsed with cold water and oxidized with following chemicals;

Hydrogen Peroxide 35 % (ml/l) 3.0
Temperature (oC) 50
Time (min) 10

2.2.2.3.1.4 Results:
Following are the CIE color lab (CMC tests) conducted on data color;

Name of dye Process Ultrasound exposure without Na2S2O4 Ultrasound exposure with Na2S2O4
Cibanon Blue Long Liquor (CI) 100 % 137.16 %

2.2.2.3.1.5 Conclusions

  • The comparative percentage yield of Ultrasonic exposure with hydro is substantially deeper than the Ultrasonic exposure without hydro.
  • It is clear from the results that Ultrasonic energy also escalates the reduction of Vat dyes.

Cibanon long liquor CI

Cibanon blue long liquor CI

2.3 SULPHUR DYES
Among the dye-classes applicable to the cellulosic fibers, sulphur dyes are relatively less expensive and are quite easy to apply but produce dull shades as compared with the reactive, the vat and even the direct classes of dyes. These are available in a fairly large range of shade.

2.3.1 Methodology

2.3.1.1 Experiment Title:
Comparative study of Sulphur dyes (Sulphur black) between CONTROL PROCESS (a), and EXPOSURE OF ULTRASOUND (b), on 100% Cotton special weave (22 x 22 / 60 x 60) by Exhaust Process.

CONTROL BATHS (a)
2.3.1.2 Recipes Followed:            Bath I ……….Bath II

  • Sulphur black (%) ……………………8.0…………….. 4.0
  • Sodium Sulphide (%) ……………..16 ……………..8.0
  • Soda ash (g/l) …………………………2.0 ……………..1.0
  • Glauber’s salt (g/l) …………………10 ………………5.0
  • Temperature (oC) ………………….80 ………………80
  • L:R …………………………………………..1:20 …………..1:20

ULTRASOUND BATHS (b)
…………………………………………………….Bath I …………Bath II

  • Sulphur black (%) …………………….8.0 ………………..4.0
  • Sodium Sulphide (%) ………………16 ………………..8.0
  • Soda ash (g/l) …………………………..2.0 ……………….1.0
  • Glauber’s salt (g/l) …………………..10 …………………5.0
  • Ultrasound Energy (35 kHz) …..80 min ………80 min
  • Temperature (oC) …………………..80 ……………….80
  • L:R …………………………………………..1:20 ……………….1:20

2.3.1.3 Procedure:

  • Control (a) and Ultrasound (b) dye baths were set at 50oC with the above-mentioned chemicals.
  • After 10 mins, previously dissolved dyestuff was poured into each respective baths.
  • Then temperature of the both the dye baths were raised to 80oC in 20 mins.
  • After that required amount of salt was added in all baths, then dyeing was continued for 60 mins at 80oC.
  • After completion dye baths was cooled and the liquor was drained.

Then the fabrics were cold washed and oxidized with following chemical;

Hydrogen Peroxide 35 % (ml/l) …..3.0
Temperature (oC) …………………………50
Time (min) ……………………………………..10

2.3.1.4 Results:
Following are the CIE color lab (CMC tests) conducted on data color;

Name of dye Shade % Control Ultrasound
Sulphur black 8.0 100 % 142.05 %
Sulphur black 4.0 100 % 125.63 %

2.3.1.5 Conclusions

  • Results show that Sulphur dyeing when carried out with an exposure of ultrasonic waves, the comparative percentage dye uptake has drastically increased which ultimately saves energy, cost and chemical consumptions.

Sulphur dyes shade

Sulphur dyes black 8.0%

Sulphur dyes black 4.0%

2.4 ACID DYES
The acid dyestuffs are so called because, in the first place, the original members of the class were applied in a bath containing mineral or organic acid, and secondly because they were nearly all sodium salts of organic acids and the anion is the active colored component, most of the acid dyes are sulphonic acid salts, but there are a few containing carboxyl groups.

2.4.1 Effect of Ultrasound on Wool Dyeing
The purpose of this experiment was to check the effect of ultrasonic waves on woolen substrate, following experiment was carried out;

2.4.1.1 Methodology

2.4.1.1.1 Experiment Title:
Comparative study of Acid dyes between CONTROL PROCESS (a), and EXPOSURE OF ULTRASOUND (b), on 100% Woolen yarns by Exhaust Process.

2.4.1.1.2 Recipes Followed: …………….(a)……. (b)

  • Lanasan Blue CF-B (%) …………………1.0 ………..1.0
  • Sandogen NH (%) …………………………1.0 ……….1.0
  • Sodium Acetate (g/l) ……………………..2.0 ………2.0
  • Acetic Acid (pH) ……………………………..5.0 ………5.0
  • Temperature (oC) ……………………………80 ……….80
  • Ultrasound Energy ~ 35 kHz ………..- …………60 min
  • L: R ………………………………………………….1:20 ……..1:20

2.4.1.1.3 Procedure:

  • Beaker (a) was set in the standard dye bath at 50oC with Sandogen NH and Sodium Acetate, while beaker (b) was set in ultrasonic dye bath at 50oC with Sandogen NH and Sodium Acetate then pH of the baths was adjusted and stirred for 10 mins.
  • Then 5 ml dye was poured in beakers (a) and (b), after that 5-gm woolen yarn was added to both of the beakers.
  • Temperature of the dye bath was raised to 80oC and dyeing was carried out for 60 mins with continuous stirring.
  • At last the liquor of both the beakers was drained and the sample was washed with standard method.

2.4.1.1.4 Results:
Following are the CIE color lab (CMC tests) conducted on data color;

Name of dye Control Ultrasound
Lanasan Blue CF-B 100 % 107.51 %

2.4.1.1.5 Conclusions:

  • Woolen yarns when dyed with ultrasound energy gives high yield but the percentage yield in however is not much significant.

Acid dyes on wool

Acid dye shade

2.4.2 Effect of Ultrasound on Silk Dyeing
The purpose of this experiment was to check the effect of ultrasonic waves on silk substrate, following experiment was carried out;

2.4.2.1 Methodology

2.4.2.1.1 Experiment Title:
Comparative study of Acid dyes between CONTROL PROCESS (a), and EXPOSURE OF ULTRASOUND (b), on 100% Silk fabric by Exhaust Process.

2.4.2.1.2 Recipes Followed: ……………(a) ……….(b)

  • Lanasan Blue CF-B (%) ………………..1.0 ……….1.0
  • Sandogen NH (%) …………………………1.0 ……….1.0
  • Sodium Acetate (g/l) ……………………2.0 …………2.0
  • Acetic Acid (pH) ……………………………5.0 ………….5.0
  • Temperature (oC) …………………………..80 ………….80
  • Ultrasound Energy ~ 35 kHz ………..- …………60 min
  • L: R …………………………………………………..1:20 ……..1:20

2.4.2.1.3 Procedure:

  • Beaker (a) was set in the standard dye bath at 50oC with Sandogen NH and Sodium Acetate, while beaker (b) was set in ultrasonic dye bath at 50oC with Sandogen NH and Sodium Acetate then pH of the baths was adjusted and stirred for 10 mins.
  • Then 5 ml dye was poured in beakers (a) and (b), after that 5-gm silk fabric was added to both of the beakers.
  • Temperature of the dye bath was raised to 80oC and dyeing was carried out for 60 mins with continuous stirring.
  • At last the liquor of both the beakers was drained and the sample was washed with standard method.

2.4.2.1.4 Results:
Following are the CIE color lab (CMC tests) conducted on data color;

Name of dye Control Ultrasound
Lanasan Blue CF-B 100 % 104.46 %

2.4.2.1.5 Conclusions

  • Silk fabric when dyed with ultrasound energy gives high yield but the percentage yield in however in not much significant.

acid dyesacid dyes

2.5 DISPERSE DYES
Disperse dyes are developed with the aim of solving the problems related to fiber irregularities during dyeing of polymers. Such dyes are non-ionic, carry no reactive or polar groups, and are intended to combine the favorable characteristics of disperse and reactive dyes.

2.5.1 Disperse RD Type dyes

2.5.1.1 Dyeing with Carriers

2.5.1.1.1 Methodology

2.5.1.1.1.1 Experiment Title:
Comparative study of Disperse Dyes (Foron Blue RD GLN) between CONTROL PROCESS (a), and EXPOSURE OF ULTRASOUND (b) using carriers, on 100% Polyester special twill weave by Exhaust Process.

2.5.1.1.1.2 Recipes Followed:……………….. (a)…………….. (b)

  • Foron Blue RD GLN (%) ……………………….1.0 ……………….1.0
  • Lyocol RDN (g/l) …………………………………..2.0 ………………..2.0
  • Ramol R (Carriers) (g/l) ………………………5.0 ………………..5.0
  • Ammonium Sulphate (g/l) …………………2.0 ……………….2.0
  • Acetic Acid (for pH) ……………………….5.0 – 5.5 ……….5.0 – 5.5
  • Ultrasound Energy ~ 35 kHz ……………- ………………60 mins
  • Liquor Ratio …………………………………..1:20 ……………1:20
  • Temperature (oC) ……………………………90 ………………..80

2.5.1.1.1.3 Procedure:

  • Control beaker (a) was set in the standard dye bath at 60oC with required quantities of leveling, dispersing agents, carriers and ammonium sulphate, then stirred about 10 mins, after that pH of the bath was adjusted to 5.0 – 5.5.
  • While ultrasonic beaker (b) was set at 60oC with required quantities of leveling, dispersing agents, carriers and ammonium sulphate, then stirred about 10 mins, after that pH of the bath was adjusted to 5.0 – 5.5.
  • Then dyestuff and fabric were added into both the beakers (a & b), and temperature of the baths were gradually raised to Control 90oC and Ultrasonic 80oC.
  • Dyeing was continued for about 60 mins along with the constant stirring.
  • Then the liquor was drained and fabric was washed with the standard process.

2.5.1.1.1.4 Results:

Name of dyes Process Control Ultrasound
Foron Blue RD GLN with carriers 100 % 86.18 %

2.5.1.1.1.4 Conclusion:

  • Dyeing of polyester substrate with carriers and ultrasonic exposure however showed no encourage able sign.

Disperse dyes RD with carriers

Disperse dyes foron blue 1

2.5.1.2 Dyeing Without Carriers

2.5.1.2.1 Methodology

2.5.1.2.1.1 Experiment Title:
Comparative study of Disperse Dyes (Foron Blue RD GLN) between CONTROL PROCESS (a), and EXPOSURE OF ULTRASOUND (b) without using carriers, on 100% Polyester special twill weave by Exhaust Process.

2.5.1.2.1.2 Recipes Followed: ……………(a) ………….(b)

  • Foron Blue RD GLN (%) …………………1.0 …………..1.0
  • Lyocol RDN (g/l) …………………………….2.0 ……………2.0
  • Ammonium Sulphate (g/l)…………… 2.0 ……………2.0
  • Acetic Acid (for pH) …………………5.0 – 5.5 ………..5.0 – 5.5
  • Ultrasound Energy ~ 35 kHz……….. – …………….60 mins
  • Liquor Ratio …………………………….1:20 …………….1:20
  • Temperature (oC)……………………. 90 ………………..80

2.5.1.2.1.3 Procedure:

  • Control beaker (a) was set in the standard dye bath at 60oC with required quantities of leveling, dispersing agents and ammonium sulphate, then stirred about 10 mins, after that pH of the bath was adjusted to 5.0 – 5.5.
  • While ultrasonic beaker (b) was set at 60oC with required quantities of leveling, dispersing agents and ammonium sulphate, then stirred about 10 mins, after that pH of the bath was adjusted to 5.0 – 5.5.
  • Then dyestuff and fabric were added into both the beakers (a & b), and temperature of the baths were gradually raised to Control 90oC and Ultrasonic 80oC.
  • Dyeing was continued for about 60 mins along with the constant stirring.
  • Then the liquor was drained and fabric was washed with the standard process.

2.5.1.2.1.4 Results:

Name of dyes Process Control Ultrasound
Foron Blue RD GLN without carriers 100 % 90.12 %

2.5.1.2.1.5 Conclusions:

Dyeing of polyester substrate without carriers and ultrasonic exposure however showed no encourage able sign.Disperse dyes RD without carriersDisperse dye Foron Blue RD GLN2.5.2 Disperse SE Type dyes

2.5.2.1 Dyeing with Carriers

2.5.2.1.1 Methodology

2.5.2.1.1.1 Experiment Title:
Comparative study of Disperse Dyes (Foron Blue SE) between CONTROL PROCESS (a), and EXPOSURE OF ULTRASOUND (b) using carriers, on 100% Polyester special twill weave by Exhaust Process.

2.5.2.1.1.2 Recipes Followed: …………………(a)………….. (b)

  • Foron Blue SE (%) …………………………………1.0 ………………1.0
  • Lyocol RDN (g/l) ………………………………..2.0 …………………2.0
  • Ramol R (Carriers) (g/l) ……………………5.0 ………………….5.0
  • Ammonium Sulphate (g/l) …………….2.0 ……………………2.0
  • Acetic Acid (for pH) ……………………..5.0 – 5.5 …………….5.0 – 5.5
  • Ultrasound Energy ~ 35 kHz………….. – ……………………60 mins
  • Liquor Ratio …………………………………1:20 …………………1:20
  • Temperature (oC) ………………………80 ……………………80

2.5.2.1.1.3 Procedure:

  • Control beaker (a) was set in the standard dye bath at 60oC with required quantities of leveling, dispersing agents, carriers and ammonium sulphate, then stirred about 10 mins, after that pH of the bath was adjusted to 5.0 – 5.5.
  • While ultrasonic beaker (b) was set at 60oC with required quantities of leveling, dispersing agents, carriers and ammonium sulphate, then stirred about 10 mins, after that pH of the bath was adjusted to 5.0 – 5.5.
  • Then dyestuff and fabric was added into both the beakers (a & b), and temperature of both the baths were gradually raised to 80oC.
  • Dyeing was continued for about 60 mins along with the constant stirring.
  • Then the liquor was drained and fabric was washed with the standard process.

2.5.2.1.1.4 Results:

Name of dyes Process Control Ultrasound
Foron Blue SE with carriers 100 % 125.87 %

2.5.2.1.1.5 Conclusions:

  • Disperse SE type dyes when dyed with carriers and ultrasonic exposure, the comparative percentage yield of ultrasonic sample was significantly higher than control one.
  • Hence with the same amount of dyes and chemicals, deeper shades can be dyed with ultrasonic energy.

Disperse SE dyeing with carriers

Disperse dye Foron SE Blue2.5.2.2 Dyeing Without Carriers

2.5.2.2.1 Methodology

2.5.2.2.1.1 Experiment Title:
Comparative study of Disperse Dyes (Foron Blue SE) between CONTROL PROCESS (a), and EXPOSURE OF ULTRASOUND (b) without using carriers, on 100% Polyester special twill weave by Exhaust Process.

2.5.2.2.1.2 Recipes Followed: ……………….(a) …………..(b)

  • Foron Blue SE (%) ………………………………..1.0………………. 1.0
  • Lyocol RDN (g/l) …………………………………2.0 ………………….2.0
  • Ammonium Sulphate (g/l) ………………..2.0 ……………………2.0
  • Acetic Acid (for pH) ………………………..5.0 – 5.5 ……………..5.0 – 5.5
  • Ultrasound Energy ~ 35 kHz ……………..-……………………… 60 mins
  • Liquor Ratio ………………………………………..1:20 ………………….1:20
  • Temperature (oC) ………………………………80 ……………………80

2.5.2.2.1.3 Procedure:

  • Control beaker (a) was set in the standard dye bath at 60oC with required quantities of leveling, dispersing agents and ammonium sulphate, then stirred about 10 mins, after that pH of the bath was adjusted to 5.0 – 5.5.
  • While ultrasonic beaker (b) was set at 60oC with required quantities of leveling, dispersing agents and ammonium sulphate, then stirred about 10 mins, after that pH of the bath was adjusted to 5.0 – 5.5.
  • Then dyestuff and fabric were added into both the beakers (a & b), and temperature of both the baths were gradually raised to 80oC.
  • Dyeing was continued for about 60 mins along with the constant stirring.
  • Then the liquor was drained and fabric was washed with the standard process.

2.5.2.2.1.4 Results:

Name of dyes Process Control Ultrasound
Foron Blue SE without carriers 100 % 123.66 %

2.5.2.2.1.5 Conclusions:

  • Disperse SE type dyes when dyed without carriers and ultrasonic exposure, the comparative percentage yield of ultrasonic sample was significantly higher than control one.
  • Hence with the same amount of dyes and chemicals, deeper shades can be dyed with ultrasonic energy. With no much difference between this and last results, consumption of carriers can be saved or either added little to be on safe side.

Disperse dyes SE without carriers

Disperse Foron SE Blue shade 12.5.3 Disperse S Type dyes

2.5.3.1 Dyeing with Carriers

2.5.3.1.1 Methodology

2.5.3.1.1.1 Experiment Title:
Comparative study of Disperse Dyes (Foron Turquoise S GB) between CONTROL PROCESS (a), and EXPOSURE OF ULTRASOUND (b) using carriers, on 100% Polyester special twill weave by Exhaust Process.

2.5.3.1.1.2 Recipes Followed:………… (a)……… (b)

  • Foron Turquoise S GB (%) …………..1.0 ………..1.0
  • Lyocol RDN (g/l) ……………………………2.0 ……….2.0
  • Ramol R (Carriers) (g/l)………………… 5.0 ……….5.0
  • Ammonium Sulphate (g/l) ………….2.0 …………..2.0
  • Acetic Acid (for pH) …………………..5.0 – 5.5 …….5.0 – 5.5
  • Ultrasound Energy ~ 35 kHz ……….- ……………….60 mins
  • Weight of fabric (gm) ……………….5.0 ………………….5.0
  • Liquor Ratio ……………………………….1:20 ……………..1:20
  • Temperature (oC) ………………………80 …………………..80

2.5.3.1.1.3 Procedure:

  • Control beaker (a) was set in the standard dye bath at 60oC with required quantities of leveling, dispersing agents, carriers and ammonium sulphate, then stirred about 10 mins, after that pH of the bath was adjusted to 5.0 – 5.5.
  • While ultrasonic beaker (b) was set at 60oC with required quantities of leveling, dispersing agents, carriers and ammonium sulphate, then stirred about 10 mins, after that pH of the bath was adjusted to 5.0 – 5.5.
  • Then dyestuff and fabric were added into both the beakers (a & b), and temperature of both the baths were gradually raised to 80oC.
  • Dyeing was continued for about 60 mins along with the constant stirring.
  • Then the liquor was drained and fabric was washed with the standard process.

2.5.3.1.1.4 Results:
Following are the CIE color lab (CMC tests) conducted on data color;

Name of dyes Process Control % Dye uptake
Foron Turquoise S GB with carriers 100 % 87.88 %

2.5.3.1.1.5 Conclusions:

Dyeing of polyester substrate with carriers and ultrasonic exposure however showed no encourage able sign.

Disperse S dyes with carriersForon turquoise S GB

2.5.3.2 Dyeing Without Carriers

2.5.3.2.1 Methodology

2.5.3.2.1.1 Experiment Title:
Comparative study of Disperse Dyes (Foron Turquoise S GB) between CONTROL PROCESS (a), and EXPOSURE OF ULTRASOUND (b) without using carriers, on 100% Polyester special twill weave by Exhaust Process.

2.5.3.2.1.2 Recipes Followed: …………….(a)………… (b)

  • Foron Turquoise S GB (%) ………………1.0 ………….1.0
  • Lyocol RDN (g/l) ………………………………..2.0 …………2.0
  • Ammonium Sulphate (g/l) ………………2.0 …………2.0
  • Acetic Acid (for pH) …………………….5.0 – 5.5 ……5.0 – 5.5
  • Ultrasound Energy ~ 35 kHz …………- ………….60 mins
  • Liquor Ratio …………………………………1:20 …………..1:20
  • Temperature (oC) ………………………….80 …………….80

2.5.3.2.1.3 Procedure:

  • Control beaker (a) was set in the standard dye bath at 60oC with required quantities of leveling, dispersing agents and ammonium sulphate, then stirred about 10 mins, after that pH of the bath was adjusted to 5.0 – 5.5.
  • While ultrasonic beaker (b) was set at 60oC with required quantities of leveling, dispersing agents and ammonium sulphate, then stirred about 10 mins, after that pH of the bath was adjusted to 5.0 – 5.5.
  • Then dyestuff and fabric were added into both the beakers (a & b), and temperature of both the baths were gradually raised to 80oC.
  • Dyeing was continued for about 60 mins along with the constant stirring.
  • Then the liquor was drained and fabric was washed with the below mentioned steps.

2.5.3.2.1.4 Results:
Following are the CIE color lab (CMC tests) conducted on data color;

Name of dyes Process Control Ultrasound
Foron Turquoise S GB without carriers 100 % 124.33 %

2.5.3.2.1.5 Conclusions:

  • Result concludes that, dyeing on polyester fabric exposed by ultrasonic energy without carriers gives considerably more yield if compared with conventional dyeing process keeping all parameters constant.
  • Actually, ultrasonic energy swells the compact structure of polyester without the presence of carriers and penetration of dyestuff became much easier.
  • Hence with the same amount of dyes and chemicals, deeper shades can be dyed with ultrasonic energy.

Disperse S dyes without carriersDisperse dye Foron S Blue

2.6 CATIONIC OR BASIC DYES
Basic dye is a class of dyes, usually synthetic, that act as bases, and which are actually aniline dyes. Their color base is not water soluble but can be made so by converting the base into a salt. The outstanding characteristic of the basic dyes is the brilliance and intensity of their colors. Some of the shades are of such clarity of hue that no other class can compare with them.

2.6.1 Dyeing on Acrylic

2.6.1.1 Methodology

2.6.1.1.1 Experiment Title:
Comparative study of Cationic or Basic dyes between CONTROL PROCESS (a), and EXPOSURE OF ULTRASOUND (b), on Acrylic fabric by Exhaust Process.

2.6.1.1.2 Recipes Followed: …………….(a)……….. (b)

  • Sandocryl (%) …………………………………1.0 ………….1.0
  • Glauber’s salt (%) …………………………..15 …………..15
  • Acetic acid (ml) …………………………….1.0 …………….1.0
  • pH ………………………………………………..4-4.5 ………….4-4.5
  • Ultrasound Energy ~ 35 kHz ………..-……………. 60 mins
  • Liquor Ratio…………………………………. 1:20 ………….1:20
  • Temperature (oC) …………………………80 ……………..80

2.6.1.1.3 Procedure:

  • Control beaker (a) was set in the standard dye bath at 60oC with required quantities of leveling, dispersing agents, carriers and ammonium sulphate, then stirred about 10 mins, after that pH of the bath was adjusted to 5.0 – 5.5.
  • While ultrasonic beaker (b) was set at 60oC with required quantities of leveling, dispersing agents, carriers and ammonium sulphate, then stirred about 10 mins, after that pH of the bath was adjusted to 5.0 – 5.5.
  • Then dyestuff and fabric were added into both the beakers (a & b), and temperature of the baths were gradually raised to Control 90oC and Ultrasonic 80oC.
  • Dyeing was continued for about 60 mins along with constant stirring.
  • Then the liquor was drained and fabric was washed with the standard process.

2.6.1.1.4 Results:
Following are the CIE color lab (CMC tests) conducted on data color;

Name of dyes Control Ultrasound
Sandocryl 100 % 114.24 %

2.6.1.1.5 Conclusions:

  • Result shows that, dyeing on acrylic fabric by cationic or basic dyestuff with ultrasonic energy gives more yield if compared with conventional dyeing process keeping all parameters constant.
  • Hence, consumption of dyes and chemicals can be substantially reduced.

Cationic dyes

Cationic dyes shade

2.7 ULTRASONIC WASHING PROCESS

2.7.1 Discontinuous washing
Assuming that ultrasonic energy creates agitation in the fluid, which causes efficient washing of textiles, following experiments was conducted;

2.7.1.1 Methodology

2.7.1.1.1 Experiment Title:
Comparative study of Discontinuous washing between CONTROL PROCESS (a), and EXPOSURE OF ULTRASOUND (b) using 100% cotton woven and knitted fabrics.

2.7.1.1.2 Process 1 …………………..(a) ………………(b)

  • Cold rinsing (min) ……………….5.0 …………………5.0
  • Hot rinsing (min) ………………5.0 ………………….5.0
  • Soaping (min) ……………………5.0 …………………5.0
  • Hot rinsing (min) ………………..5.0 ………………..5.0
  • Ultrasound Energy ………………-………………… 35 kHz
  • Temperature (oC) ……………..60 ………………….60
  • Soaping was carried out in both the baths with 2 g/l Sandipur RSK and 2 g/l Soda Ash.

2.7.1.1.3 Procedure:

  • Dyed + stained and bleached + stained samples for control (a) & ultrasound (b) was thoroughly rinsed with cold water for 5 minutes.
  • After rinsing both the samples were cut into two parts for control (a) & ultrasound (b).
  • One portion of the sample was hot rinsed at 60oC in control process (a) for 5 minutes while the other piece of sample was hot rinsed at 60oC in ultrasound exposure (b) for 5 minutes.
  • Then both the samples (a & b) were soaped at 60oC for 5 minutes in control process (a) & ultrasound exposure (b) respectively.
  • After soaping the samples were again hot rinsed at 60oC for 5 minutes in control process (a) & ultrasound exposure (b) respectively.
  • Finally, both samples of (a & b) are rinsed thoroughly with cold water.

2.7.1.1.4 Process 2 ………………(a) ……………….(b)

  • Cold rinsing (min) ……………10 ………………………10
  • Hot rinsing (min) …………….10 …………………….10
  • Soaping (min)………………….. 10 …………………….10
  • Hot rinsing (min)…………….. 10 ………………………10
  • Ultrasound Energy …………..- ………………………35 kHz
  • Temperature (oC) …………….60 ……………………60
  • Soaping was carried out in both the baths with 2 g/l Sandipur RSK and 2 g/l Soda Ash.

2.7.1.1.5 Procedure:

  • Dyed + stained and bleached + stained samples for control (a) & ultrasound (b) was thoroughly rinsed with cold water for 10 minutes.
  • After rinsing both the samples were cut into two parts for control (a) & ultrasound (b).
  • One portion of the sample was hot rinsed at 60oC in control process (a) for 10 minutes while the other piece of sample was hot rinsed at 60oC in ultrasound exposure (b) for 10 minutes.
  • Then both the samples (a & b) were soaped at 60oC for 10 minutes in control process (a) & ultrasound exposure (b) respectively.
  • After soaping the samples were again hot rinsed at 60oC for 10 minutes in control process (a) & ultrasound exposure (b) respectively.
  • Finally, both samples of (a & b) are rinsed thoroughly with cold water.

2.7.1.1.6 Results:

Samples Process 1 Process 2
Status Control process(a) Ultrasound exposure(b) Control process(a) Ultrasound exposure(b)
Dyed + stain sample Light spots of stain No spots of stain Stains are removed Stains are removed
Less removal of unfixed dyestuff Better removal of unfixed dyestuff Better removal of unfixed dyestuff Good removal of unfixed dyestuff
Knitted bleached + stain & yellowish Less removal of stains Better removal of stains Few spots of stains No stains
Light yellowish No yellowish, it becomes white Less yellowish No yellowish, it is perfect white
Woven bleached + stain & yellowish Very Less removal of stains Less removal of stains Light stain spots were removed but heavy spots still remain No stains
It remains yellowish No yellowish, it becomes white Less yellowish No yellowish, it is perfect white

2.7.1.1.8 Conclusion:
Results clear that

  • Ultrasonic energy escalates the washing efficiency of dyed or stained either knitted or woven fabrics.
  • Agitation provided by the ultrasonic waves in fluid fastens the process of removal of stains and unfixed dyestuff.
  • Thus, in the way detergents, energy and time all can be saved through ultrasonic aided washing.

CHAPTER 3: MACHINE MODIFICATION

3.1 ULTRASONIC TRANSDUCER
A transducer is any device that converts one form of energy to another. An ultrasonic transducer converts electrical energy to mechanical energy, in the form of sound, and vice versa. The main components are the active element, backing, and wear plate.

ULTRASONIC TRANSDUCER

3.2 THE ACTIVE ELEMENT
The active element, which is piezo or ferroelectric material, converts electrical energy such as an excitation pulse from a flaw detector into ultrasonic energy. The most commonly used materials are polarized ceramics which can be cut in a variety of manners to produce different wave modes. New materials such as piezo polymers and composites are also being employed for applications where they provide benefit to transducer and system performance.

3.3 BACKING
The backing is usually a highly attenuative, high density material that is used to control the vibration of the transducer by absorbing the energy radiating from the back face of the active element. When the acoustic impedance of the backing matches the acoustic impedance of the active element, the result will be a heavily damped transducer that displays good range resolution but may be lower in signal amplitude. If there is a mismatch in acoustic impedance between the element and the backing, more sound energy will be reflected forward into the test material. The end result is a transducer that is lower in resolution due to longer waveform duration, but may be higher in signal amplitude or greater in sensitivity.

3.4 PIEZOCOMPOSITE MATERIALS FOR ULTRASONIC TRANSDUCERS
For more than thirty years, the design of ultrasonic transducers for has incorporated commercially available monolithic piezoelectric materials, such as lead zirconate titanate (PZT). These materials typically have high acoustic impedances and a limited range of electrical properties. More recently, piezocomposite technology has overcome these deficiencies and offered the transducer designer a greater range of acoustic and piezoelectric properties for optimum transducer performance.

Piezocomposite is simply a combination of piezoelectric ceramic and other materials, usually polymers, which yields new piezoelectric properties. The most common fabrication method for piezocomposite material, often referred to as “dice and fill”, is illustrated in Figure 1. This method produces a matrix of ceramic posts surrounded by polymer filler (Figures 2 and 3). These ceramic posts can be smaller than 0.05 mm in width, with kerfs separating them by less than 0.025 mm.

PIEZOCOMPOSITE MATERIALS FOR ULTRASONIC TRANSDUCERS

3.5 DIRECT OR THROUGH TRANSMISSION
Ultrasound transmission from a transmitting transducer is received by a receiving transducer on the opposite side of the other with a test material between the two. Fig. 2 shows how ultrasound travels in this mode through a solid material along with location and significance of various peaks corresponding to the material. By utilizing this technique materials can be analyzed for thickness and velocity measurements and for defect detection. Fig. 3 shows velocity-density relationship for green alumina. By utilizing this technique materials can also be analyzed for anisotropy, shear wave, elastic properties, etc., by oblique incidence and reception of ultrasound.

mode of ultrasound propagation in direct transmissionvelocity density relationship for green alumina

3.6 ULTRASONIC TEXTILE WASHING RANGE
The ultrasonic treatment may advantageously be carried out during the continuous passage of the fabric along a guided path, with the fabric immersed in at least one section of its travel.

The ultrasonic emission along the path may be carried out successively on both sides of the fabric, repeatedly if required.

The installation comprises at least one power generator and an ultrasonic transducer capable of emitting ultrasonic waves into the liquid. The installation may be of the continuously operating type and may comprise means of feeding, guiding and withdrawing the full-width fabric along a path, with the fabric immersed in at least one section of its travel. Ultrasonic generators are already known for other washing installations, used in sectors other than that in which a generator of this type is used according to the invention, for washing and treating fabrics, in other words for wet treatments and dyeing. The ultrasonic generator according to the invention can be used principal in machines of the continuous cycle type, but also in those of the discontinuous type, for washing in the full-width and/or twisted state, in order to carry out, possibly with a single pass, multiple operations such as those of desizing, shrinking and compacting the fabric. One of the advantages of the invention is that it considerably reduces the consumption of water and chemical products, with a favorable effect on the operating costs and environmental impact, since there is less effluent and therefore less pollution. The ultrasonic generators may be immersed inside the washing vessels or may be applied to the outside of their walls. The ultrasonic transducer is activated by a generator, which is a set of electrical circuits capable of producing electrical energy at high frequency. Under the effect of the emissions of the generator, the transducer generates an ultrasonic wave which is propagated in the liquid. The emission of acoustic pressure waves at the ultrasonic level in the liquid or washing solution creates an infinite quantity of micro bubbles, owing to the phenomenon of cavitations. When the micro bubbles implode on the fabric to be washed, which is immersed in the liquid, they return the energy by which they were created, in the form of mechanical energy. This energy, added to any chemical action of the washing solution, enables very efficient washing to be achieved. The mechanical action generated by the impact of the micro bubbles penetrates into the structure of the fabric, proceeding to act between the fibers and extracting the impurities by their implosion. Another advantageous phenomenon of the mechanical action of the micro bubbles on the fabric is that it provides a compaction and regularization of the fabric, caused by the tightening of the warp and weft threads.

3.7 EXISTING DYEING MACHINE MODIFICATIONS
At present, ultrasonic aided dyeing is only viable by Exhaust and Semi Continuous (Pad-Batch) process, research is going on to make this process viable for fully Continuous Process.

There are number of Exhaust machines presently being industrialized in Textile Industry, following are the schematic diagrams of well known exhaust machines on which we put forth an idea that how could these machines can be converted to Ultrasound capable dyeing machines.

beck dyeing machine chartbeck dyeing machine (end view)

 

jig dyeing machine chartjig dyeing machine (side view)

 

jet dyeing machine chartjet dyeing machine (side view)

 

paddle dyeing machine chartpaddle dyeing machine side view

 

paddle dyeing machine chart 2paddle dyeing machine side view 2

 

denim wet processing machine

modification dyes and chemical dosing section on continuous dyeing machine

vat dyes reduction chamber

pad steam modified continuous dyeing machine

3.8 SEE ULTRASONIC DYEING
CHARLOTTE, N.C. – According to Dr. Timothy G. Clapp, assistant professor at the College of Textiles, N.C. State University;

One of the main problems in textile wet processes is formed by the relatively slow transport processes in the porous structure of the textile substrate. Due to the complex geometry of textile materials these processes are mainly diffusion controlled. It is believed that ultrasonic waves can enhance these processes. The mechanism of ultrasound waves is being investigated in terms of acoustic cavitations phenomena and acoustic streaming.

Ultrasonic dyeing, being touted as a boon to the textile industry in cost, energy and time savings, may be five to ten years away from commercial availability.

4. REFERENCES:

  1. Smith, B. (1992) Another Dimension to Pollution Prevention. Application of Ultrasound in Textile Wet Processing
  2. The Effect of Ultrasound on Fiber Reactive Dye Hydrolysis By C. BRENT SMITH and K. A. THAKORE, North Carolina State University, Raleigh
  3. Carr, Perkins, Grady, Hamouda, Hodge, Mock ELECTROTECHNOLOGY APPLICATIONS IN TEXTILE MANUFACTURING
  4. United States Environmental Protection Agency (July 1998) Preliminary Industry Characterization: Fabric Printing, Coating, and Dyeing
  5. Fundamental Investigation of Ultrasonic Effects in Textile Wet Processing, W.W. Carr, S. Michielsen, and H.W. Beckham, Georgia Institute of Technology Gary Mock and Bob McCall, North Carolina State University.
  6. J. Good, J. Zhan, D. Klutz, G. Mock, and H. W. Beckham, Fundamental Investigations of Ultrasound-Enhanced Dyeing, AATCC International Conference and Exhibition, Atlanta, GA; 8–11 October 1995.
  7. Klutz, D.S., “Ultrasound Aided Exhaustion Dyeing,” M.S. Thesis, NCSU, 1993.
  8. Klutz, D.S., Ph.D. Thesis, NCSU, 1997.
  9. Use of ultrasound in textile wet processing Kan C.W. and Yuen C.W.M. Textile Asia 2005 3615 (47-52)
  10. ENERGY CONSERVATION IN WET PROCESSING: DEVELOPMENT OF LOW ENERGY DYEING MACHINE Manisha R. Mathur, M. D. Sankhe and M. K. Bardhan, The Synthetic and Art Silk Mills’ Research Association, Worli, Mumbai – 400 030
  11. K. A. Thakore, C. B. Smith and T. G. Clapp, American Dyestuff Reporter 79 (10) 30.
  12. B. Smith, G. Mcintosh and S. Shanping, American, Dyestuff R eporter, 77 (10) (1988) 15.
  13. N. H. Rathi, G. N. Mock and R. E. McCall, Book of papers International Conference & Exhibition, AATCC, Atlanta (1997) 254.
  14. Ultrasound Research Helps Speed Cotton Processing By Amy Spillman February 4, 2003
  15. Ultrasound in textile dyeing and the decoloration/mineralization of textile dyes Simona Vajnhandl, Alenka Majcen Le Marechal University of Maribor, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Smetanova 17, 2000 Maribor, Slovenia
  16. Suslick KS. Sonochemistry. Science 1990; 247:1439-45.
  17. Suslick KS. The chemical effects of ultrasound. Scientific American 1989; 80-6.
  18. Thakore KA, Smith CB, Clapp TG. Application of ultrasound to textile wet processing. American Dyestuff Reporter 1990; 30-44.
  19. Thakore KA, Smith CB, Hite D, Carlough M. The effects of ultrasound and the diffusion coefficient of C.I.Direct Red 81 in cellulose. Textile Chemist and Colorist 1990; 22(11):21-2.

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