Impact of Different Factors on Carton Strength Test
Tashrif Ahmed1, Kazi Toriqul Islam and Asab Mahamud
Department of Textile Engineering
Northern University Bangladesh
A carton is a box or container usually made of paperboard and sometimes of corrugated fiberboard. Many types of cartons are used in packaging. Sometimes a carton is also called a box. Packaging serves a lot of purposes, and would be hard to do without. Packaging protects the goods during transport, saves costs, informs about the product, and extends its durability. A transport package is required to be strong and lightweight in order to be cost-effective. Furthermore, it should be recycled because of environmental and economic concerns. The corrugated board has all of these features. It is important to choose the right box strength for the products they will contain and the stresses the box will endure during shipping and handling. A box that is too weak may be crushed under the weight of other packages or burst at the seams or sidewalls, resulting in loss or damage to its contents. On the other hand, selecting a stronger box than is needed is a waste of money and materials. so it’s important to know carton load capacity. The object of this project is the impact of different factors on carton strength tests. show the impact of different GSM on the paper-bursting test. ISO 2758:2014 specifies a method for measuring the bursting strength of paper. After applied, ISO 2759:201 to find out the impact of different GSM on paper bursting strength test, impact of different types of paper on carton strength and impact of carton ply on carton strength test. First here applied ISO 536 with the help of GSM cutter after cutting the 20 pieces specimens from the paper roll and measuring by weight scale after 20 pieces specimen taken from cardboard with the help of cutter and the strength is reviewed by bursting them sequentially. Showing this project that good results are obtained using SCF paper and high GSM of paper and after all 5 ply carton combinations. In such a situation it is very important to check and select the strength of the carton box. The strength of the carton has been determined by this project so that it is possible to get relief from the complexity of delivering the product.
Chapter 1: Introduction
A carton is a box or container usually made of paperboard and sometimes of corrugated fiberboard. Many types of cartons are used in packaging. Sometimes a carton is also called a box . The history of the carton goes as far back as 1879 in a Brooklyn, New York, factory operated by Robert Gair. A die-ruled, cut, and scored paperboard into a single impression of a folded carton. By 1896, the National Biscuit Company was the first to use cartons to package crackers. The next development of folded paper used to construct cartons are mentioned by Dr. Winslow of Seattle, Washington, in 1908 who claimed that paper milk containers were commercially sold in San Francisco and Los Angeles as early as 1906. The inventor of this carton was G.W. Maxwell. However, it was in 1915 that John Van Wormer of Toledo, Ohio, was granted the first patent for the first “paper bottle,” which was the first folded blank box for holding milk. He called it the “Pure-Pak” . Corrugated cartons are playing an increasingly important role in modern production. While they are commonly called cardboard boxes, most shipping cartons are made of corrugated fiberboard material.
A piece of corrugate consists of multiple layers. A central layer of fluted (rippled) paperboard material is sandwiched between two layers of flat linerboard. Corrugated boxes can be single-walled (with one layer of fluting and two layers of linerboard), double-walled (two layers of fluting and three layers of linerboard) or even triple-walled (three layers of fluting with four layers of linerboard) . In terms of transportation, cardboard is also very durable making it the best packaging material for business. It helps to prevent moisture from infiltrating the product; this is an essential factor for products that need to withstand long transportation times, as well as protecting food products . It is important to choose the right box strength for the products they will contain and the stresses the box will endure during shipping and handling. A box that is too weak may be crushed under the weight of other packages or burst at the seams or sidewalls, resulting in loss or damage to its contents. On the other hand, selecting a stronger box than is needed is a waste of money and materials .
1.2 Objectives of the project:
- To find out the impact of different GSM on paper bursting strength test.
- To find out the impact of different types of paper on carton bursting strength test.
- To find out the impact of different types of carton ply on carton bursting strength test.
Chapter 2: Literature Review
Several experimental studies have been conducted on the compression strength of corrugated board containers . The most common failure mode for a corrugated box loaded in top-to-bottom compression is post-buckling deflection of its side panels, W L H Crease Side panel Flap H L W L W W/2 W/2 W L H Crease Side panel Flap H L W L W W/2 W/2 H L W L W W/2 W/2 4 followed by biaxial compressive failure of the board in the highly stressed corner regions of the box. Local instabilities of the liners and fluting may also interact with the failure progression . A detailed finite element analysis of a corrugated board panel has shown that local buckling of one of the liners may occur before actual material failure . This can also be observed visually just prior to compression failure of panels and boxes . However, for shallow boxes and boxes with high board bending stiffness in comparison to the box perimeter, failure is often caused by crushing of the creased board at the loaded edges instead of collapse during buckling . When considering the compression of panels in a box it is recognised that the flaps, attached to the panels through the creases at top and bottom edges, introduce an eccentricity in the loading . Furthermore, the top and bottom edges normally have a much lower stiffness than the interior of the panel due to the creases. It has been concluded that the low stiffness prevents a redistribution of the stresses to the corners of the box and consequently reduces the box compression strength. Several previous investigations have involved finite element analysis of corrugated board. Peterson  developed a finite element model to study the stress fields developed in a corrugated board beam under three point loading. Pommier and Poustius studied bending stiffnesses of corrugated board using a linear elastic finite element code . Pommier and Poustius also developed a linear elastic finite element model for prediction of compression strength of boxes .
Likewise a linear elastic finite element model of a corrugated board panel for prediction of compression strength was developed by Rahman . Patel developed a linear elastic finite element model in a study of biaxial failure of corrugated board . The model was used to predict buckling patterns of a circular tube subjected to different loading conditions. In an investigation by Nyman, local buckling of corrugated board facings was studied numerically through finite element calculations . Little published work is available on the use of non-linear constitutive models for prediction of strength of corrugated board structures. However, a non-linear model of corrugated board was developed by Gilchrist, Suhling and Urbanik . In their model, both material and geometrical non-linearities were included, in-plane and transverse loadings of corrugated board were examined. Bronkhorst and Riedemann and Nordstrand and Hagglund have developed non-linear finite element models for corrugated board configurations.
2.2 Paper for Carton:
Despite cardboards’ widespread use, there are 2 main types of paper that are generally used for the liners. These are known as Kraft and Test liners. Kraft paper is manufactured from softwood trees. Due to the “virgin” fibers, it is both the strongest type of paper and also the easiest to print on .
2.2.1 Kraft Liner:
Kraft Liner is defined as one of the types of packaging paper or paperboard whose fiber content has no less than 80% Virgin fibers obtained by the chemical sulfa or soda processes .
18.104.22.168 Advantages of Kraft Liner:
Made from virgin fiber, it is noted for its high resistance to tearing, stress and punching. These properties make it an ideal paper for manufacturing packaging with complex structures and when higher levels of resistance are required. It is also particularly well suited for moist environments.
22.214.171.124 Types of Kraft Liners:
a) White top kraft liner – It is a two ply product. The top ply consists of pure bleached hardwood kraft fibers and the base ply is made of unbleached softwood kraft fibers. white top kraft Liner offers excellent printability qualities.
- High quality printing.
- Industrial packaging.
- Consumer durables.
- Food & beverages.
b) Brown Kraft Liner – It is again a two-ply product. The top ply consists of pure unbleached softwood fibers and the base ply is made of mixture of unbleached softwood fibers and high quality recycled fibers. Brown Kraft liner offers great strength and very good printability.
c) Virgin Kraft Liner Paper – It is a single ply product made from virgin wood fibers. Known for its greater strength, high resistance to tearing, stress, punching and moisture. It is typically used as top and bottom liner for corrugated boxes with single or more flutes .
2.2.2 Test Liner:
The term test liner refers to papers of different bursting strengths. Since some grades of test liner have lower burst factors due to containing high amounts of recycled fibres, the lower grades of test liner are often associated with recycled fibres. Test liner is a recycled base liner board for container board. The products consist of three layers. It is used for the inner and outer layers (face paper) of carton boxes, and is divided into three quality grades: LH, LE, LF. Test liner is ideal for use in corrugated boards as the top and bottom layers and can also have a white top (White Top Test liner). We offer Test liner from Europe and Russia in 90-250gsm. Test liner is produced from 100% recycled fibres. Colouring agents give it a stable optical colour. Addition of starch guarantees the strength of Test liner and a surface treatment, involving the addition of synthetic adhesives optimizing the printability of paper. Test liner also comes with white top which is often called white top test liner and is a two ply product. The top ply is made of high quality bleached fibers which provides excellent printability characteristics and the base comes with 100% recycled fibers with different bursting strength .
Test liner paper can be used for the production of:
- Food packaging
- Packaging for consumer durables
- Corrugated cardboard tray packaging
2.2.3 (SCF) Semi Chemical Fluting Paper:
A semi chemical fluting is a paper predominantly made from semi chemical primary fiber pulp. Semi Chemical 1 has generally a content of more than 80% semi chemical primary fiber .
2.2.4 Corrugating Medium Paper:
Corrugating medium paper is a critical component of corrugated board production and is mostly used as the corrugated core (middle) layer of corrugated boards functioning as a shockproof and pressure resistant layer, or can also be used as packing paper for fragile items. Corrugating medium paper has been the Company’s principal product since its inception. The primary raw material to produce corrugating medium paper is recycled paper board, and the major specification for the Company’s corrugating medium paper is 60-250 gram per square meter.
2.3 Paper’s Quality Standard:
Table 2.1 Paper’s Quality Standard
2.4 Definition of Carton:
A carton is a box or container usually made of paperboard and sometimes of corrugated fiberboard. Many types of cartons are used in packaging. Sometimes a carton is also called a box . A box made from thick cardboard, for storing goods, or a container made from cardboard or plastic, in which milk or fruit juice, etc .
2.5 Definition of Corrugated:
Corrugated material is made up different layers of material, forming a structurally sound building material that, unlike cardboard, can take weight and protect against impact. The three layers are: an inside liner, and outside liner and a fluting layer. Usually the fluting is between the inside and outside layer, but you can also find corrugated that has fluting on the outside .
2.5.1 Brief Description:
Performance of corrugated boxes is the center of this study. Hence it is important to know the details of it. Corrugated boxes have all positive features for transporting and storage. It can protect the products from dirt, shock, vibration and humidity. It can also be used as a communication tool, maintaining the integrity of a product with its strong durable characteristic. In year 2015, the global packaging market had an estimated value of $839 billion, with paper and board materials take 31.11% of material in values, the highest among others. Because of its lightweight characteristic and the ability to be recycled, corrugated box is considered as cost effective and environmentally friendly material However, current trend in packaging industry shows that the industry’s increasing demand for cheaper alternatives, hence, the amount of materials used to make corrugated box were also reduced. According to report by FEFCO (2013), the grammage of corrugated board has been reduced and the proportion of recycled fibers is also quite high in corrugated board .
2.5.2 Problem faced:
Globally, the main problem faced by companies in regards to the corrugated box would be the lack of uniformed performance standards and guidelines that are available for generalist and specialist. This might happen due to the varying performance of corrugated cardboard, depending on which part of the world it is bought. They might have similar nominal quality but the performance varies locally. Hence, industry might find it difficult to establish a global standard for corrugated cardboard box performance. The weakness of the corrugated box would be moisture exposure and the ability to absorb water. This can reduce the strength and stiffness of the corrugated board. However, this can be overcome by making it both water and grease proof. The strength of the corrugated box varies significantly depending on the age. Corrugated box commonly suffer from core structure damage during manufacturing, converting and printing process. During this process, pressures are applied and it can cause thickness reductions up to 20%. Thus, this reduce the mechanical performance of cardboard box. Shock and vibrations during transport and handling are also a problem for corrugated box. Variation in logistic activities and climate is hard to be tackled in any other ways than through the use of safety factor. However, lacking of test method for performance during distribution leading to the use of large safety factors and this safety factors are used in many different ways, which create uncertainty .
2.6 Functions of Carton Packaging:
2.6.1 Corrugated box protection function: The primary function of beer corrugated box is to protect the inner beer. Therefore, beer production enterprises according to the corrugated box bearing weight, Corrugated Paper Box stacking height of different, the development of corrugated carton physical strength indicators, including corrugated box edge pressure strength, bursting strength, puncture strength, adhesion strength, the strength of the empty box. Beer Corrugated box to meet these physical strength requirements, to achieve its protection function.
2.6.2 Corrugated box sales function: Exquisite printing patterns in the current competitive terminal market channels to play a huge role in attracting consumers eyeball, product brand reputation and promotion has a good role in promoting. Today, more consumers like the whole box to buy beer or as gifts, exquisite corrugated carton packaging to become a silent salesman, beer corrugated box is not only a product of transport packaging, Corrugated Paper Box is now slowly to the sale of packaging infiltration.
2.6.3 Corrugated box Use function: In the carton structure design aspect, especially in the container packing transportation, the shelf storage aspect, the reasonable size, the modelling and the matching material not only can save the cost, provides the best packing solution, but also can guarantee the product in the long-term cargo process obtains the most effective protection. In this case, the corrugated box structure and size design is also increasingly important.
2.6.4 Corrugated box environmental protection function: Corrugated box belongs to the Green environmental protection products; it is conducive to environmental protection, Corrugated Paper Box conducive to loading and unloading transport .
2.7 Understanding Corrugated Material:
While they are commonly called cardboard boxes, most shipping cartons are made of corrugated fiberboard material. A piece of corrugate consists of multiple layers. A central layer of fluted (rippled) paperboard material is sandwiched between two layers of flat linerboard. Corrugated boxes can be single-walled (with one layer of fluting and two layers of linerboard), double-walled (two layers of fluting and three layers of linerboard) or even triple-walled (three layers of fluting with four layers of linerboard). You can think of them like single, double or triple hamburgers, with layers of meat (fluting) in between layers of bun (linerboard) .
2.8 The strength of a cardboard box depends on several factors:
- The fluting profile (there are several styles of fluting)
- The type of paper used in the linerboard (Kraft vs. Test)
- The weight or thickness of the base paper used in the fluting and linerboard (the more raw material used per square foot of corrugated, the stronger the box) .
2.9 Types of Liner:
The two most common types of liner for corrugated are Kraft paper and test paper. Kraft paper – what you know of as the brown paper that often lines basic corrugated boxes – is made from softwood pulp, making it very strong and very easy to print on. Test paper is made from recycled material and for this reason is not as strong but is cheaper than Kraft. You’ll often see test paper used on the inside of a box and Kraft paper on the outside, though other configurations exist, as well as other paper types. The weight of paper is identified using GSM, or grams per square meter. An 80 GSM paper means that if you weighed a square meter of it, it would weigh 80 grams. So a liner that is 125gsm Kraft paper, would be written as 125K, while 125gsm test paper, would be denoted as 125T .
The thing that makes corrugated different from cardboard is the fluting layer. Fluting is literally “corrugated,” meaning it is made in grooves that give it structural stability. These fluting layers come in different sizes and are measured by grooves per foot .
2.10.1 Flutes sizes:
Common flutes sizes are A, B, C, E, and F. A flutes are wider and stronger, while E and F flutes are smaller and not as strong. E and F flutes, however, provide a better surface for printing .
2.10.2 Common flute sizes including liners:
- A flute: 5mm
- B flute: 3mm
- C flute: 5mm
- E flute: 1.5mm
- F flute: 1.2mm 
2.10.3 Single- to Triple-Wall:
Corrugated is generally named by its thickness according to the number of walls that it contains. Single wall corrugated has only one layer of fluting, double-wall has two, and triple-wall corrugated has three. Double wall corrugated is the most common, as it is used in most consumer corrugated applications like shipping boxes and moving boxes. It is generally said that a well-constructed double-wall corrugated box could hold material up to 30kgs, if it was handled properly. Triple-wall corrugated, on the other hand, can hold weights of up to 50kgs. We often use triple wall corrugated on wooden bases because the strength that corrugated provides is similar to wood, and yet it contributes less to the overall weight. For this reason, triple-wall corrugated is one of the most common corrugated materials used in the industrial packaging industry.
2.11 Choosing the Right Corrugated Box Material:
It is important to choose the right box strength for the products they will contain and the stresses the box will endure during shipping and handling. A box that is too weak may be crushed under the weight of other packages or burst at the seams or sidewalls, resulting in loss or damage to its contents. On the other hand, selecting a stronger box than is needed is a waste of money and materials. Maximum recommended weights depend on rating of the corrugated material (see chart below). This is the maximum weight of the final carton, including contents, box and any void fill materials. There are also maximum recommended carton sizes for the different types of corrugated materials. The most commonly used corrugated shipping box material today is 32 ECT. These standard single-wall corrugated boxes are versatile, economical and appropriate for most light- or medium-weight products. For heavier items such as larger boxes of books or tiles, you will want to select a stronger material, either a heavier-weight single wall with a higher ECT or Mullen Test rating or a double- or triple-wall corrugated box .
2.12 Why It’s Important to Use a Corrugated Packaging Box:
Most relocating business owners often find some of their fragile possessions turn into fragments upon arriving at their new destination. This can be avoided by using the appropriate packaging material that not only provides the suitable protection against humps and bumps along the way but also provides the needed defense against the carelessness of some moving companies. When your business is moving to a new location, looking for the right material for product packaging in Toronto, Ontario is not as hard as you think it is. One thing you have to consider is the appropriate size and width of the box that will ensure protection against any problem that may occur along the way .
2.13 Corrugated Cartons Appropriate for Fragile Items:
Corrugated boxes are used more importantly for fragile supplies because they provide the needed protection when moving to another place. When used with the appropriate cushioning components, bracing, and blocking supplies, they can provide impervious protection against outside factors. A corrugated packaging box is popularly used when shipping fragile items because of several factors that make them an effective choice of packaging material. For the most part, the outside of the box and its thickness provides the needed strength to keep the materials inside tight and secure. They are crush resistant and can be stacked inside a warehouse without incurring physical damages inside and out. Corrugated boxes are also made of a dense carton structure which makes them durable. This can be effective especially if you are shipping items that are out of shape. They can also be extremely lightweight as compared to other shipping materials like wood or crate. Their size and weight can sometimes add to the difficulty of shipping items .
2.14 GSM Test on Paper:
GSM Value is the unit to measure the weight of the paper. It stands for grams per square meter. It is a very simple test to Perform and tells a lot about the basic properties of paper, It is also used for calculating the weight of, corrugated fiber board, foils etc. For instance, the heavier a corrugated fiber board is, the better is the quality of the box made from it. Grammage and thickness are the two most fundamental properties of the corrugated fiberboards that determine the quality of the box. There is no “best” grammage or thickness mentioned in corrugated boxes specifications and it is completely based on your requirements. When more padding is required, a box with a higher thickness is used. The flutes of the corrugated board are larger and pack more air in them. Thin boards with dense flutes have a high grammage. Such boxes are needed when the packaging should be more compact and rigid.
2.15 GSM Formula:
Grams per square meter = (Weight of sample in grams X 1000)/ Area of sample in cm2
2.16 Board – Determination of Bursting Strength:
The bursting strength of paper or paperboard is a composite strength property that is affected by various other properties of the sheet, principally tensile strength and stretch. Generally, bursting strength depends upon the kind, proportion, and amount of fibers present in the sheet, their method of preparation, their degree of beating and refining, upon sheet formation, and the use of additives. Bursting strength is measured by means of a Mullen tester. The test specimen, held between annular clamps, is subjected to an increasing pressure by a rubber diaphragm, which is expanded by hydraulic pressure at a controlled rate, until the test specimen ruptures. The pressure reading at the instant of rupture is recorded as the bursting strength. The units of expression are pounds per square inch or “points”. The measurement is variously termed the “Mullen”, “pop test”, or simply the “burst”. The burst test for paperboard differs from that of lighter papers in that a heavier Mullen tester is used with a larger diaphragm opening.
The Mullen Test or Bursting Strength Test checks the toughness of the walls of the corrugated board when subjected to force or pressure. In this testing procedure, a rubber diaphragm is used to apply pressure to the walls of the corrugated box until it bursts. The diaphragm is expanded using hydraulics and as the diaphragm expands, the corrugated board bursts under pressure. We measure the bursting strength in Kilograms per square centimeter. The Bursting factor is given as a thousand times the bursting strength, divided by the grammage of the board .
2.17 Calculating the Bursting Strength of a Corrugated Sheet:
The bursting strength of a corrugated sheet can be easily calculated by performing the bursting strength test or the Mullen test. This is the most efficient testing procedure that is designed for testing the bursting strength of variety of materials such as paper, cardboards, corrugated sheets and fabrics. In this way, they can easily assess the quality and strength of the containers made by using these materials as well. The Mullen test is efficient in giving the exact value of force that is required to burst a sheet of material. This value in turn helps in exact assessment of the endurance and strength of the materials and also helps in calculation of the burst factor and bursting index of that material as well. However, the value obtained from Mullen test is not the indicator of how much product or weight per inch of the box can be fit. This type of assessment will require more tests such as edge crush, ring crush, box compression test and so forth.
2.18 Bursting Strength test and Bursting strength formula:
When the Mullen test is performed, it gives the bursting strength of the specimen is given. This bursting strength can be very helpful, not only in calculation of the strength of the specimen but is also very helpful in determining the bursting factor for the specimen which is also an important quantity that can give critical data about the endurance of the specimen. The bursting factor can be calculated using a mathematical formula that involves bursting strength and GSM of the specimen.
2.19 Bursting Factor Formula for Corrugated Box:
Once the Mullen test is performed and the bursting strength of the specimen is calculated, you can easily calculate the bursting factor and bursting index of the specimen with simple formulas. The formula for bursting factor is given as:
Burst factor = Burst strength (gf/cm2) / Grammage (grams/m2)
In this formula, the bursting strength is the value obtained from the Mullen test and Grammage is the GSM of the material. The formula for calculating the bursting index is similar to the bursting factor. The only difference is that the bursting index is expressed in terms of pressure or kPa and Grammage. The formula that gives bursting index is as follows:
Burst Index = Burst strength (kPa) / Grammage (Kg/m2)
In this formula, the bursting strength obtained from Mullen test is converted in kPa from gf/m2. The grammage again is the GSM of the material. GSM is given in kg/M2 and can easily be calculated with the help of a GSM cutter and a weighing scale. Once these formulas are applied and the bursting index and factor are calculated, there is very critical information about the strength of the materials can be obtained which can easily be used to optimize the performance of the materials to a great strength .
2.20 Corrugated Fiberboard-Determination of Edgewise Crush Resistance:
The edge crush test is a laboratory test method that is used to measure the cross-direction crushing of a sample of corrugated board. It gives information on the ability of a particular board construction to resist crushing. It provides some relationship with the peak top-to- bottom compression strength of empty single wall regular slotted containers in laboratory conditions. The edge crush resistance, expressed in kilonewtons per meter (kN/m) is calculated by the equation: , where is the mean value of the maximum force and is measured in newtons. Corrugated fiberboard can be evaluated by many material test methods including an edge crush test. There have been efforts to estimate the compression strength of a box (usually empty, regular single wall slotted containers, top-to-bottom) based on various board properties. Some have involved finite element analysis. One of the commonly referenced empirical estimations was published by McKee in 1963. This used the board ECT, the MD and CD flexural stiffness, the box perimeter, and the box depth. Simplifications have used a formula involving the board ECT, the board thickness, and the box perimeter. Most estimations do not relate well to other box orientations, box styles, or to filled boxes. In order to calculate the value of BCT (Box compression test), the formula of McKee would be the easiest but also the least accurate. The ratio of height to the circumference must be greater than 1:7; even then, are many reservations .
A newer standard that has achieved widespread acceptance is the Edge Crush Test (ECT). This is a true performance test and is directly related to the stacking strength of a carton. ECT is a measure of the edgewise compressive strength of corrugated board. It is measured by compressing a small segment of board on edge between two rigid platens or plates perpendicular to the direction of the flutes until a peak load is established. This is measured in pounds per lineal inch of load bearing edge (lb/in), but usually reported as an ECT value (for example, 44 ECT) .
|Minimum edge crush test||Maximum load per carton|
|Standard||32 ECT||40 lbs.|
|Heavy duty||44 ECT||65 lbs.|
|Heavy duty – double wall||48 ECT||80 lbs .|
Every side of a corrugated box is made up of sheets that have three or more layers. Generally, a thin sheet with grooves and ridges is sandwiched between two flat sheets. These grooves and ridges, also known as flutes, provide anisotropic strength to a box. This means the boxes can bear a greater amount of force from one direction. Edge crush test, right test, or flat crush test helps determine this. In the Edge Crush test, force is applied to one side of the box, perpendicular to the ridges, until the box gets crushed. In the Ring Crush test, a ring cut out from the box is used to test the same. While in the flat crush test, excessive force is applied on one side. The results of the Edge Crush test are measured in pounds per lineal inch of load-bearing edge but represented as ECT. ECT gives you an accurate idea of a box’s strength when they are stacked and shipped by pallets. Also, an ECT rated corrugated box uses less material than its equivalent Burst Test rated box, to provide an equivalent level of strength. This means it’s cheaper and less wasteful to purchase ECT rated boxes in bulk. However, it is important to know that the above results (overall strength of a box)may vary based on the makeup of each corrugated sheet. Hence, knowing the type of corrugation is important before you make a decision .
Chapter 3: Experimental Design
First here applied ISO 536 with the help of GSM cutter after cutting the 20 pieces specimens from the paper roll and measuring by weight scale. For this experiment GSM it stands for grams per square meter. It is a very simple test to Perform and it tells a lot about the basic properties of paper and finds out the impact of GSM on paper strength test to different types of paper. Secondly here applied, ISO 2758:2014 specifies a method for measuring the bursting strength of paper submitted to increasing hydraulic pressure. It is applicable to paper having bursting strengths within the range 70 kPa to 1 400 kPa. Third here applied, ISO 2759:2014 specifies a method for measuring the bursting strength of board submitted to increasing hydraulic pressure. It is applicable to all types of board (including corrugated and solid fibre board) having bursting strengths within the range 350 kPa to 5500 kPa. 20 pieces specimen taken from cardboard with the help of cutter and the strength is reviewed by bursting them sequentially. The following is presented in the form of various tables.
3.2 Liner Paper Test Data:
Table 3.1 Impact of different GSM of liner paper on the paper bursting strength test.
3.3 Medium Paper Test Data:
Table 3.2 Impact of different GSM of medium paper on the paper bursting strength test.
3.4 (SCF) Semi Chemical Fluting Paper test data:
Table 3.3 Impact of different GSM of SCF paper on the paper bursting strength test.
3.5 Carton Test Data:
Table 3.4 Impact of different numbers of ply on carton bursting strength test.
Table 3.5 Impact of different GSM & number of ply on carton bursting strength test.
Table 3.6 Impact of different types paper & number of ply on carton bursting strength test.
Table 3.7 Impact of different types of paper on carton bursting strength test.
Chapter 4: Result & Discussion
Table 4.1 Compression of bursting strength based on number of ply, ply combination and GSM.
4.2 Result Discussion:
- Comparison between (170gsm+160gsm+170gsm) 3 ply carton with (170gsm+ SCF160gsm+170gsm) 3 ply carton & it has been found that, the effect of SCF paper on three ply carton bursting strength. The results are respectively, without SCF paper BST (188.44) PSI & applied SCF paper BST (199.11) PSI. Now here showing that good results are obtained using SCF paper.
- Comparison between (170gsm+160gsm+160gsm+160gsm+170gsm) 5 ply carton with (170gsm+160gsm+170gsm) 3 ply carton & it has been found that, the effect of ply on carton bursting strength. The results are respectively, 5 ply carton BST (195.2) PSI & 3 ply carton BST (188.44) PSI. Now here showing that good results are obtained using 5 ply carton. The same differences are shown below using different types of liner paper GSM.
- Comparison between (200gsm+115gsm+115gsm+115gsm+200gsm) 5 ply carton with 3 ply carton (200gsm+115gsm+200gsm) & it has been found that, the effect of ply on carton bursting strength. The results are respectively, 5 ply carton BST (210.64) PSI & 3 ply carton BST (203.42) PSI. Now here showing that good results are obtained using 5 ply carton.
- Comparison between (170gsm+SCF120gsm+170gsm) 3 ply carton with 3 ply carton (170gsm+SCF160gsm+170gsm) & it has been found that, the effect of SCF paper GSM on 3ply carton bursting strength. The results are respectively, 120gsm SCF paper uses BST (199.11) PSI & 160gsm SCF paper uses BST (199.11) PSI. Now here showing that good results are obtained using high GSM of SCF paper.
- Comparison between (170gsm+SCF120gsm+115gsm+115gsm+170gsm) 5 ply carton with (170gsm+SCF160gsm+115gsm+115gsm+170gsm) 5 ply carton & it has been found that, the effect of SCF paper GSM on 5 ply carton bursting strength. The results are respectively, 120gsm SCF paper uses BST (207.57) PSI & 160gsm SCF paper uses BST (217.33) PSI. Now here showing that good results are obtained using high GSM of SCF paper.
Due to not having enough of various types of paper in storage, it was not possible to more deeply reviews. If there are all kinds of paper in storage, it would be possible to review it more deeply.
Chapter 5: Conclusion
It is important to choose the right box strength for the products they will contain and the stresses the box will endure during shipping and handling. A box that is too weak may be crushed under the weight of other packages or burst at the seams or sidewalls, resulting in loss or damage to its contents. On the other hand, selecting a stronger box than is needed is a waste of money and materials. In such a situation it is very important to check and select the strength of the carton box. The strength of the carton has been determined by this project so that it is possible to get relief from the complexity of delivering the product.
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