Types of Yarn | Characteristics of Yarn

Last Updated on 11/11/2021

Different Types of Yarn and Their Properties

Ramandeep Singh
B.Tech, Dept. of Textile Engineering
Giani Zail Singh Punjab Technical University Campus,
Bathinda, Punjab, India
Email: rmnsandhu3335@gmail.com

 

Textile Yarn:
A textile yarn is an assembly of substantial length and relatively small cross section of fibers and/or filaments with or without twist. The yarn which consists of staple fibres held together by twist is known as spun yarn. The yarns produced on ring spinning, open end rotor spinning and air jet spinning systems, all are the spun yarns. Yarn occurs in the following forms:

  1. A number of fibers twisted together;
  2. A number of filaments laid together without twist (a zero-twist yarn);
  3. A number of filaments laid together with a degree of twist;
  4. A single filament with or without twist (a monofilament); or
  5. A narrow strip of material, such as paper, plastic film, or metal foil, with or without twist, intended for use in a textile construction.

Spin-staple yarns consist of staple fibers assembled and bound together by various means (usually twist) to produce the required characteristics such as strength, handle and appearance.

Continuous filament yarns are produced either by combining the required number of filaments together or, more commonly, by producing the required number of filaments and thickness of filaments simultaneously in one spinning operation, as in the case of man-made fibers.

Physical properties and performance characteristics of yarn:

Yarn types General yarn properties
Staple yarns: Carded cotton, Combed cotton, Woollen, Worsted, Linen Excellent handle, good covering power, good comfort rating; reasonable strength; reasonable uniformity
Continuous filament yarns: Natural, Non-synthetic, Synthetic Excellent uniformity; excellent strength; can be very fine; fair handle; poor covering power
High bulk yarns: Staple, Continuous filament Good covering power with light weight; good loftiness of fullness
Stretch yarns: Continuous filament High stretch ability; good handle and covering power
Special end-use: Tire cord, Rubber/elastic Core yarn, Cabled, Coated Purely functional; designed to satisfy a specific set of conditions.
Novelty yarns: Fancy yarns, Metallic, Excellent decorative features or characteristics

Types of Yarn:

1. Ring Spun Yarn:
These are produced on the ring and traveler system from a wide variety of fiber types.

ring spun yarn
Fig: Ring spun yarn

2. Rotor spun Yarn:
These yarns consist of fibers bound together by twist. Rotor spun yarns are generally produced from short staple fibers.

structure of rotor spun yarn
Fig: Rotor spun yarn

3. Flat continuous filament yarn:
Man-made continuous filament yarns may be produced in either monofilament or multifilament form.

structure flat continuous filament yarn
Fig: Flat continuous filament yarn

4. Textured continuous filament yarn:
These are man-made continuous filament yarns that have been modified by subsequent processing to introduce durable crimps, coils, loops or other distortions into the filaments.

structure textured continuous filament yarn
Fig: Textured continuous filament yarn

5. Twist less yarn:
These are yarns produced from staple fibers where the consolidation of the fibers is done by means of adhesive.

structure of twist less yarn
Fig: Twist less yarn

6. Core yarn:
Core yarns are characterized by having a central core wrapped with staple fibers. These are produced in a single operation by simultaneously feeding a core filament and staple fibers through the delivery rollers of a spinning frame.

structure of core yarn
Fig: Core yarn

7. Self twist yarn:
Self-twist yarns are two-ply yarns Produced in a single operation. Each component is twisted in alternating directions in short segments. The two components are subsequently put together in such a way that they twist together (self-twist) to form final yarn.

structure of self twist yarn
Fig: Self twist yarn

8. Friction spun yarn:
These yarns are produced on spinning systems which use two rotating rollers to collect and twist individual fibers into a stable yarn structure.

structure friction spun yarn
Fig: Friction spun yarn

9. Folded or Plied yarn:
A yarn in which two or more single yarns are twisted together in a single operation, for example two-fold, three-fold, four fold.

structure of Folded or Plied Yarn
Fig: Folded or Plied Yarn

10. Cabled yarn:
A yarn in which two or more folded yarns are twisted together in one or more operations. Folded and cabled yarns can be produced from staple yarns, continuous filament yarns or a combination of both.

End-uses of plied and cabled yarns:

2 Ply 3- Ply Cabled yarn
Poplins Sewing threads Industrial yarns
Voiles Industrial yarns Electrical insulation
Gabardines Canvas Shoe laces
Crepes Filter cloths Cords
Sewing threads Conveyor belts V-belts
General purpose Embroidery Embroidery

Fancy Yarns:
A fancy yarn can be defined as one that differs from the normal construction of a single or doubled yarn by deliberately introduced irregularities in its construction.

The ‘novelty’ or ‘fancy’ yarns produce different textures and effects in the fabrics. Fancy yarns can be made from all natural fibers, all man-made fibers and their blends. They can be produced from pre-dyed or undyed fibers and yarns.

Fabrics containing fancy yarns are used for many textile purposes, for instance apparel such as dress fabrics, or home textiles such as curtains and upholstery.

Novelty yarns: 
Using one or more of the following techniques, novelty yarns may be produced.

  • Combination of different fiber types;
  • Combination of different colors of yarns;
  • Combination of different yarn linear densities;
  • Combination of different yarn lengths.

Basic fancy yarn:
Generally, fancy yarns contain two or more of the following:

  • A base or core yarn, around which the yarn intended to create the fancy effect is wrapped;
  • The effect yarn, which forms the design; and
  • The binder which holds the effect yarn in place on the base to prevent it slipping while it is being wound, knitted or woven.
structure of fancy yarn
Fig: Structure of basic fancy yarn

Gimp and Loop:
All these fancy yarns are produced by delivering the core and effect yarn at different rates.

Loop and gimp yarns
Fig: Loop and gimp yarns

Gimp is a twisted core yarn, with the effect yarn wrapped around the core producing an irregular wavy surface. The effect yarn has a regular semi-circular appearance, while in loop, the effect yarn appears as well-formed circular loops.

Snarl:
This is made in the same way as a loop yarn, but using a highly twisted effect yarn which forms snarls rather than loops.

snarl yarn
Fig: Snarl yarn

Spiral/Cork screw:
A plied yarn, in which one of the components wraps around the other, rather than the components twisting regularly together under the same tension. A spiral yarn tends to have a higher twist than a corkscrew yarn.

Cork screw yarn
Fig: Cork screw yarn

Slub:
This is composed of short, abnormally thick places at regular or irregular intervals. The slub effect is spun into the yarn.

slub yarn
Fig: Slub yarn

Cloud:
A two-color yarn, in which both yarns take it in turn to obscure or cloud the other, giving the appearance of an intermittent color change.

cloud yarn
Fig: Cloud yarn

Fleck:
Small amounts of fibers of either different colors or luster or both are introduced into the yarn. This gives it a spotted and short streaky appearance.

fleck yarn
Fig: Fleck yarn

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  3. Imperfection Index of Yarns (IPI) | Reasons for Increasing Imperfection Index of Yarn
  4. Yarn Quality Parameters and Requirements for Knitting
  5. Classification of Yarn Faults and Its Removal
  6. Melange Yarn: A Different Weaving Culture
  7. Yarn Strength | Measurement of Yarn Unevenness | Types of Yarn Irregularity
  8. Contribution to Yarn Irregularity in Spinning Operation

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