Acrylic Fiber: Properties, Production Flowchart and Application
Vyas Darshan Pankajbhai
Department of Textile Engineering,
Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda,
Baroda -390002, India
Acrylic Fiber is synthetic fiber is made of polymerization of acrylonitrile with an molecule weight above ~100000, about 1900 monomer unit. For a called as ‘Acrylic”. Typical Co-monomer are vinyl acetate or methyl acrylate. Acrylic is defined as a refers to a fiber containg at least 85% acrylonitrile monomer, while in modacrylic the percentage of acrylonitrile must be less than 85% but greater than 35%.
Features of Acrylic Fiber
- Acrylic Fiber have replaced wool as it gives same properties as wool fiber like warmth, etc..
- Acrylic monomer =(CH2=CH-CN) made by following reaction.
- Cross – Sectional Shape of acrylic fiber.
- Acrylic Fiber have replaced wool as
- It gives same properties as wool fiber like warmth, etc..
Acrylic monomer =(CH2=CH-CN) made by following reaction
CH=CH + HCN ———>-(CH2=CH-CN)
(acetylene) (Hydrogen Cyanide) (Acrylonitrile)
Properties of Acrylic Fiber:
- Structure: – Normal C/s Of dog bones.
- Density :-1.17 gm/cc ( light weight)
- Crystallinity :-65 to 85%
- Moisture Regain :- 2.5
- Tenacity :-2.0 to 3.6 Gpd
- Nature :- Thermoplastic
- Elasticity :- at 2% extension 35%
- Appearance :- Slightly wavy
- P. :- 232 to 255′ C
- Chemically: Resistance to weak alkali, less resistance to acid, no damage due to sunlight, no attraction to moth larva and microorganisms.
Major Production Of Acrylic Fiber:
Spinning of Acrylic Fiber:
(1). Solution Spinning
- Wet Spinning.
- Dry Spinning
(2). Melt Spinning
Out of above techniques wet spinning is mostly prefer for production of acrylic fiber. Above all methods like wet spinning, in this fiber make by using solvents in particular coagulation bath mix with appropriate percentage of solvent and other chemical. This process take more time to produce fiber compare to other spinning methods like, dry & melt.
Production of Acrylic Fiber:
Here shows production flow chart of acrylic fiber:
Acrylic fiber is produced by free radical suspension polymerization is used and production is carry out in Dry & Wet Spinning.
Applications of Acrylic Fiber:
Acrylic fiber is lightweight, soft, and warm, with a wool-like feel. It can also be made to mimic other fibers, such as cotton, when spun on short staple equipment. Some acrylic is used in clothing as a less expensive alternative to cashmere, due to the similar feeling of the materials. Some acrylic fabrics may fuzz or pill easily, though there are low- pilling variants. Acrylic takes color well, is washable, and is generally hypoallergenic. Acrylic fibers are used in Hand Knitting, Hosiery Garments, Upholstery, Blankets, carpet etc…
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