Specialty of Polyester Fibres | Special Properties of Polyester
Muhammad Umair Aslam Arain
Department of Textile Engineering
Balochistan University of Information Technology and Management Sciences
Polyethylene terephthalate (PET), also called polyester fiber dominates the world synthetic fibres industry. Polyester is a long-chain polymer fibre derived from coal, water and petroleum. They are inexpensive, easily produced from petrochemical sources, and have a desirable range of physical properties. They are strong, lightweight, and wrinkle-resistant, having good wash–wear properties. Polyester, produced by the condensation polymerization of a dicarboxylic acid with a diol, contains in-chain ester units as their essential polymer-forming chain linkage. The filament polyester fiber is produced by melt spinning under different conditions.
Polyester is a category of polymers which contain the ester functional group in their main chain. Although there are many polyesters, the term “polyester” as a specific material most commonly refers to polyethylene terephthalate (PET). Polyesters include naturally occurring chemicals, such as in the cutin of plant cuticles, as well as synthetics through step-growth polymerization such as polycarbonate and polybutyrate. Natural polyesters and a few synthetic ones are biodegradable, but most synthetic polyesters are not.
Polyesters as thermoplastics may change shape after the application of heat. While combustible at high temperatures, polyesters tend to shrink away from flames and self-extinguish upon ignition. Polyester fibres have high tenacity and E-modulus as well as low water absorption and minimal shrinkage in comparison with other industrial fibers.
Specialty of Polyester Fibres:
Some most specialty properties of polyester fibres are discussed blow:
1. High/Low shrink fibres:
The high shrink fibre shrinks upto 50% at 100 C while that of low shrinkage is 1%. The high shrink fibre enable fabrics with high density to be produced and is particularly used in artificial leather and high density felt. Low shrinkage fibre is recommended for air filters used in hot air, furniture, shoes etc.
2. Micro Denier:
Micro denier is available in 0.5/0.7/0.8 deniers in cutlenghts 32/38 mm. Ideal for high class shirts, suiting, ladies dress material because of its exceptional soft feel. It is also available in silicones finish for pillows. To get the best results, it is suggested that the blend be polyester rich and reed/pick of the fabric be heavy.
3. Flame Retardant:
Flame retardant has to be used by law in furnishings/curtains, etc where a large number of people gather like in cinema theatres, buses, cars etc Europe, Asia and USA. It is recommended for curtains, seat covers, car mats, automotive interior, aircrafts interior etc.
4. Cationic Dyeable:
Gives very brilliant shades with acid dyes in dyeing/printing. Ideal for ladies wear.
5. Easy Dyeable:
The easy dye able can be dyed with disperse Dyes at 98oC without need for HTHP equipment. Ideal for village handicrafts etc.
6. Low Pill:
Low pill in 2 and 3 deniers, for suiting end use and knitwear fibre with low tenacity of 3 to 3.5 gm/denier, So that pills which form during use fall away easily.
It is antibacterial throughout the wear life of the garment inspire repeated washing. Suggested uses are underwear’s, socks, sportswear, blankets and air conditioning filters.
8. Super High Tenacity:
It is above 7 g/denier and it is mainly used for sewing thread. Low dry heat shrinkage is also recommended for this purpose. Standard denier recommended is 1.2 and today 0.8 is also available.
9. Modified Cross Section:
In this there are Trilobal, Triangular, Flat, Dog Bone and Hollow Fibres with singal and multiple hollows. Trilobal fibre gives good feel. Triangle fibre gives excellent luster. Flat and dog bone fibres recommended for furnishing, while hollow fibres are used as filling fibres in pillow, quilts, bedding and padding. For pillows silicoised fibres is required. Some fibre producers offer hollow fibre with built in perfumes.
10. Conducting Fibre:
This fibre has fine powder of stainless steel in it to make fibre conductive. Recommended as carpets for computer rooms.
11. Low Melt Fibre:
It is a bi-component fibre with a modified polyester on the surface which softens at low temperature like 11oC while the core is standard polyester polymer. This fibre is used for binding non woven webs.
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Founder & Editor of Textile Learner. He is a Textile Consultant, Blogger & Entrepreneur. He is working as a textile consultant in several local and international companies. He is also a contributor of Wikipedia.