Various Fastness Methods Given to the Dyed Material

Various Color Fastness Methods Given to the Dyed Material

Nikhil Yogesh Upadhye
Department of Textiles (Textile Chemistry)
DKTE’S Textile and Engineering Institute, Ichalkaranji, India
Intern at Textile Learner
Email: nyupadhye@gmail.com

 

Abstract
Fastness is a term used in textile industry to describe the resistance of fabric against color fading from various tests like washing, rubbing, sublimation, perspiration is where fastness against human body all fastness are determined. By performing this practical’s shall be able to rate fastness properties of different dyed sample easily. We can easily find the efficiency of various dyes at different conditions.

Introduction
Coloring may likewise called as completing interaction as to acquire the assortment of shading the textures. Material materials are shaded, when color atoms enters the formless district of the polymer framework. Color atoms which are approximately held by fiber or bond by frail power, for example, hydrogen bonds, the blurring or draining of color happen during washing. Factors considered essential to and impacting wrinkle edge scraped spot and shading speed may incorporate short fiber content of the cotton. Common testing convention ordinarily endeavors to foresee shading speed execution to five home washing cycles. Which have driven clothing makers and retailers as of late, request worthy execution levels for twenty, and sometimes, thirty home washing cycles. Dyeing may also called as finishing process as to bring the variety of color in the fabrics. Textile materials are colored, when dye molecules enters the amorphous region of the polymer system. Dye molecules which are loosely held by fiber or bond by weak force such as hydrogen bonds, the fading or bleeding of dye occur during laundering.[3]

Different Types of Color Fastness Methods
Various color fastness methods are given below:

  1. Washing fastness
  2. Rubbing fastness
  3. Sublimation fastness
  4. Perspiration fastness
  5. Light fastness

1. Washing Fastness:
By color fastness is meant the resistance of the color of textile to the different agencies to which these materials may be exposed during the manufacturing and their subsequent use. This method of color fastness to washing is designed to determine the effect of washing only on the color fastness of textile. It is not intended to reflect the result of the comprehensive laundering procedure.

wash sample
Figure 1: Sample

A specimen of the textile is contact with one or two specified adjacent fabrics is mechanically agitated under specific condition of time and temperature in a soap solution, then rinsed and dried. The change in color of the specimen and staining of the adjacent fabrics is assessed with the grey scale or computer color matching system (ISO105C08/C08/C09 and AATCC61).

1.1 Apparatus and materials:
Wash wheel, standard reference detergents, multiple fabric, stainless steel balls, bleach and bleach activators, grade water, assessment facilities.

1.2 Procedure:

  • Specimen are cut in 5×10 cm for AATCC.
  • To wash liquor is prepared using grade 3 water the appropriate detergents and additives are added.
  • The composite specimen + multifibre is placed in wash wheel pot containing wash liquor with additives and steel balls as may be required and wash is then run for the appropriate time duration.
  • The specimen are then removed, rinsed and dried in steel air at temperature not exceeding 60oC. Once dry and conditioned assessment is carried out.

1.3 Assessment and result:
Color fastness to washing is assessed in 3 ways

  • Change in shade: –Loss of color or tone as compared to the original unwashed sample as given above (Figure 1)
  • Extent of staining on the multifibre sample.
  • Self-staining in it.

A standard grey scale (Figure 2) are used for assessment where grade between 1 and 5 are given in half steps. Assessment need to be done with clean grey scale and under standardized lightning conditions in dark room.

grey scale
Figure 2: Grey scale

2. Rubbing Fastness:
Rubbing fastness refers to ability to sustain original color of dyed fabric. When rubbing we check rubbing by dry and wet methods in wet rubbing we wet the rubbing cloth according to test method and give rating by comparing the staining with gray scale (Figure 2).

Color fastness to rubbing is main test which is always required for every colored fabric. Rubbing fastness depends on nature of the dye, depth of shade.[1], [3]

Test methods for rubbing fastness are as follows ISO 105X12, AATCC 08.

In ISO 105X12 the wet pick up from rubbing cloth is 100% while AATCC 08 the pickup of rubbing cloth is 65%.

2.1 Apparatus and materials:
Crock meter (Figure 3), standard bleached sample, and 5X5 cm gray scale (Figure 2), dyed sample.

Crock meter
Figure 3: Crock meter

2.2 Procedure:
Piece of fabric to be tested was taken and 2 pairs of pieces were prepared (14X5 cm) for dry and wet rubbing test.

A) Dry rubbing:

  • Test piece was taken and fixed in the rubbing device.
  • A piece of bleached undyed cloth (5X5 cm) was mounted over end of the fig. of rubbing device.
  • Bleached piece was rubbed along the track of 10 cm long piece with downward force.
  • 10 cycles in 10 sec were completed in warp and weft separately.
  • Cotton cloth mounted over finger was removed and dried at less than 60oC.
  • Staining over rubbing cloth was evaluated using gray scale.

B) Wet rubbing:

  • Test piece was taken and fixed in the rubbing device.
  • A piece of bleached undyed cloth (5X5 cm) was mounted over end of the fig. of rubbing device.
  • Bleached piece was rubbed along the track of 10 cm long piece with downward force.
  • 10 cycles in 10 sec were completed in warp and weft separately.
  • Cotton cloth mounted over finger was removed and dried at less than 60oC.
  • Staining over rubbing cloth was evaluated using gray scale.

2.3 Assessment and Result:
A standard grey scale (Figure 2) are used for assessment where grade between 1 and 5 are given in half steps. Assessment need to be done with clean grey scale and under standardized lightning conditions in dark room.

Result of rubbing samples
Figure 4: Result of rubbing samples

3. Sublimation Fastness:
Sublimation fastness also called as heat color fastness refers to the ability to keep original color of a dyed fabric under conditions of different heat. Sublimation fastness test can be done in dry tied wet environment and at different temperatures which depends on the use of textile fastness to sublimation is probably the most important requirement of dyed polyester. The poor fastness results into following problems.[1], [3]

  • Change in original shade
  • Staining in contrast dyed fabric
  • Poor color yield and fixation rate
  • Gross staining during storage.

Sublimation fastness of disperse dyes in usually tested at for staining and shade change tested at 150oC, 180oC and 210oC for 30 seconds and rating is done at on 1-5 grey scale standard test method for sublimation fastness testing (AATCC test method 117-2004, ISO 105-P01).

3.1 Apparatus and materials:
Ironing sublimation color fastness tester, polyester sample, gray scale.

3.2 Procedure:

a) Sample preparation: Dyed simple was cut in size (4X10 cm) and white bleached polyester sample is a placed over the fabric to be tested.

b) Testing:

  • Sample was laid between two metal plates on fastness tester controlled preciously by heating system heated under moderate temperature and pressure.
  • Heating plates was put down to hot press it for 15-30 sec at 150oC temperature.
  • Tested samples were taken out and gray scale was used to evaluate discoloration of original sample and staining degree of white cloth.
  • Followed above procedure at 180oC and 210oC rating was given sample.

3.3 Assessment and result:
A standard grey scale (Figure 2) are used for assessment where grade between 1 and 5 are given in half steps. Assessment need to be done with clean grey scale and under standardized lightning conditions in dark room.

Sublimation fastness result
Figure 5: Sublimation fastness result

4. Perspiration Fastness:
Sweat consists of complicate composition and its main composition is salt. It is divided into acidity and basicity due to difference of people textiles contact along with sweat impact on same days. Perspiration fasteners test is used artificial perspiration with acid and alkalis. To imitate the sweat situation when human where textile then test the textiles the machine to test perspiration person is the perspiration person is tester the color fastness to perspiration (acid and alkali) be at least level 3-4 (color change and staining). This fastness is very important in case of sportswear and heavy dresses which is used specially. The method is used to determine the resistance of the color of textile all kinds and in all homes to perspiration.[1], [3]

4.1 Apparatus and materials:
Dyed fabric, acrylic plates, acid alkali solution, grey scale, oven perspiration tester, bleached sample.

4.2 Procedure:

Part 1- Preparation of reagents

  • Acidic test- 2.65 gm NaCl and 0.75 gm Urea per liter by pH 5.5 (addition 0.1 acetic acid).
  • Alkaline test- 3 gm NaCl per liter by adjusting pH 8 with addition 0.1 N NaOH.

Part 2-Working procedure

  • Thoroughly wet one composite sample in solution of pH 8 at ML ratio 1:20 and it was allowed to remain in solution at room temperature for 30 minutes
  • After that solution was poured off and sample was placed between two acrylic plates measuring 7.5X6.5 cm under of force of 4.5 kg.
  • Other sample was treated in same way but with solution at pH 5.5.
  • Apparatus containing sample was placed in oven for 4 hours at 3712oC
  • Sample was separated from White cloth and dried apart in air at the temperature 60oC.
  • Change in color of sample and the sustaining of White cloth was assessed with grayscale. [1],[3]

3.3 Assessment and result:
A standard grey scale (Figure 2) are used for assessment where grade between 1 and 5 are given in half steps. Assessment need to be done with clean grey scale and under standardized lightning conditions in dark room.

Perspiration fastness result
Figure 6: Perspiration fastness result

5. Light Fastness:
Textiles are usually exposed to light when it is used, the light energy extinguishes the dye and leads to the familiar “fading” of colored textiles, which generally becomes lighter and darker, and some of them will also appear the color light change. If you want to know more about the light fastness test, you can check out Light Weather Fastness Tester.

5.1 Common method of light fastness test:

  1. ISO 105 test method
  2. AATCC 16 – Test Method by Light Source Type.

A. ISO 105 Test Method

Method 1: Control the exposure period by checking the blue wool reference, each sample shall be equipped with a set of blue wool reference, which is generally used in the case of a dispute.

Method 2: Control the exposure period by inspection of the blue wool references, a batch of different samples only needs one set of blue wool reference, which can save the blue wool reference.

Method 3: This method used to check whether the sample is consistent with a known performance specification. The sample only needs to be equipped with two pieces of blue wool reference according to the requirements, and the exposure cycle is also controlled by the inspection of the blue wool references.

Method 4: This method used to check whether one or more samples conformity with an agreed-upon reference sample. The basic feature is the control of the exposure period by inspection of the agreed-upon reference sample. It is permissible to expose the specimens with the reference sample only and without the presence of blue wool references.

Method 5: This method is suitable to check conformity to agreed-upon radiant energy levels. It is allowed to expose the samples alone or with blue wool references. The specimens should be exposed until the specified amount of radiant energy is reached.

B. AATCC 16 – Test Method by Light Source Type

Method 1: Xenon arc lamp, alternate light, and dark.

Method 2: Xenon arc lamp, continuous light, a black-standard thermometer.

Method 3: Xenon arc lamp, continuous light, a black-panel thermometer [2]

5.2 Assessment and result:
Evaluation is made numerically by European/American blue scale (1-8).

light fastness result
Figure 7: Light fastness result

Conclusion:
It can be concluded for the above study of fastness suitable for dyeing for cotton. By above color fastness methods washing fastness, rubbing fastness sublimation fastness, perspiration fastness, light fastness observed by above the method in fastness in cotton fabrics.

References:

[1] AATCC, www.aatcc.org.
[2] https://ordnur.com/apparel/color-fastness-to-light-test-methods-and-3-ways-to-improve/
[3] An Introduction to Textile Coloration – Principles and Practice by roger d wardman
[4] Alka Gard and S. Shinde (1991). Effect of mordant, on colour of natural dye extracted from tissue flower (Butea mongsperma). J. Colourage, XXXVIII(3):50-53.
[5] Durga Deulkar (1984). House hold textiles and Laundry Work. Published, New Delhi 1:212-213.

You may also like:

  1. How to Determine Color Fastness to Wash
  2. Light Fastness of Textiles: Factors Affecting and Control Measures
  3. Color Fastness to Laundering Test
  4. Factors Affecting the Rubbing Fastness of Textile Materials
  5. Dimensional Stability to Washing of a Dyed Fabric

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