Impact of Different Parameters on Button Pull Strength Test

Impact of Different Parameters on Button Pull Strength Test

Saran Zilani1, Abu Hena & Md. Shorawardi Shawon
Department of Textile Engineering
Northern University Bangladesh
Email: saranzilani33@gmail.com1

 

Abstract
Button strength is the strength of trimming in a garment. It is a function of the strength of the thread used for the button, different diameter of button in a garment and type of fabric used, among other factors. Failure of button can occur either by breaking of  sewing thread, tearing of the fabric, excessive yarn slippage adjacent to the stitches or a combination of the above mentioned conditions. The objective of our study is to find out the effect of different sewing thread count on braking strength and determine the button strength for assort stronger button. For this experiment one type woven fabric has been selected. Then the samples have been prepared according to sop method. After that Button strength of all the samples have been done using Button tester. For this experiment, 16 Ligne,18 Ligne, 22 Ligne and 2 hole, 4 hole Plastic button have been selected. Button strength test is very important for garments. It’s the test for puling strength and attaching security. Button Strength must be need to meet required strength, otherwise it may be issue for children safety and hampering human prestige.

CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

1.1 Introduction
Button strength is the strength of trimming in a garment. It is a function of the strength of the thread used for the Button, different diameter of button in a garment and type of fabric used, among other factors. Failure of button can occur either by breaking of sewing thread, tearing of the fabric at the seam, excessive yarn slippage adjacent to the stitches or a combination of the above mentioned conditions. The objective of our study is to find out the effect of different sewing thread count on braking strength. For this experiment three type woven fabric has been selected. Then the samples have been prepared according to sop method. After that Button strength of all the samples have been done using Button tester. For this experiment, 16 diameter, 18 diameter, 22 diameter and 2 hole, 4 hole Plastic button have been selected. Sop test method covers the measurement of button efficiency and breaking strength in woven fabrics when a force is applied perpendicular to the  Button, using a sop test. For evaluating sewing thread, refer to Test Method sop. This test method is restricted to button that are obtained from an inflatable restraint cushion. Button may include to sewn. This test method is used when the measurement of a resistance to a specified force, a breaking force and Maximum force, or a combination thereof are required to determine the Button strength, Button are important elements of apparel construction. Stitches are used to join the materials and hold the apparel together, and button give the different fashion of the apparel. This trimmings with the material properties contribute to the quality of the apparel. [1]

1.2 Objective of the Project
To determine the button strength for assort stronger button based on, 16 Ligne, 18 Ligne, 22 Ligne and 2 hole, 4 hole plastic button.

CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 Background
Buttons actually have a long history, finding their roots back in prehistoric times. Throughout history many different materials were used to create buttons, it wasn’t until the 1930s that plastic buttons became widely available. It may bring the question to mind that how to manufacture such little thing.[2] buttons boast an expansive history dating way back before 1950 when they were manufactured in Muscatine, Iowa, United States. Back then, Muscatine was referred to as the World’s Capital of Pearl Button as it was home to a whopping number of shell button factories. By 21st Century, China overtook the United States and became the center of buttons industry.[5] From the Bronze Age, individuals began to use buttons made from bronze. Before beginning the Renaissance age buttons were solely used as ornamentation purpose. However once the button hole unreal within the Renaissance Age, buttons became useful and then 1830-1850 is taken into account because of the golden age of buttons.[4]

2.2 Definition of Button
The button is a small round disc usually attached to an article of apparel or garment in order to secure an opening, or for decorative ornamentation. Buttoning is done by sliding the button through a fabric with reinforced slit called buttonhole or thread loop. Buttons are fashionable because they also decorate and enhance the look of apparel.[5]

You may also like: Different Types of Buttons Used in Garments

2.2.1 Drape ability
Buttons are not only a simple fastening device, but can also be a great accessory to enhance the aesthetic of garment. Choosing the right type of garment buttons that will fit both aesthetic and functional needs can be difficult with all the different types and options available. This is the summary of the qualities of a garments trimmings, which include style, fashion and attaching. Its extent is in accordance with trimmings type and the purpose of use.[5]

2.2.2 Structure and properties
Maximum types of button are round shape. Plastic button have a properties is hole. Hole is two types, two holes and four holes.[5]

2.2.3 Functions of a button
Button, usually dislike piece of solid material having holes or a shank through which it is sewed to one side of an article of clothing and used to fasten or close the garment by passing through a loop or hole in the other. Purely decorative, non utilitarian buttons are also frequently used on clothing.[6]

2.2.4 Techniques of button test
The snap component is gripped by the Upper Snap Clamp and the garment is fixed to the lower Fabric Clamp and by turning the top Flywheel an operator can apply a specific force and the holding force. The breaking strength can be recorded. A pull test is mandatory for any type of garment product use button.[7]

2.2.4.1 Method of button test
The physical performances of buttons can be determined in various ways, dependent on the product type and structure, which include but are not limited to the measurement of pull, fastening, unfastening, fastness, breakage strength, etc.[9] The measurement of pull strength is a critical testing procedure in the design and manufacturing of garments in the textile world. It refers to the maximum strength that clothing buttons could withstand when they are subjected to the tensile force applied, which could result in certain degree of deformation at the place where the buttons come into contact with the fabric or lead to the detachment of the buttons from the fabric.[2] All buttons used for the ready-made garments should be subjected to a pull test to ensure that they can be attached securely without coming off unexpectedly. This is critically important when it comes to the buttons designed for the infants or children who may swallow them if they fall off accidentally, leading to mechanical injury.[9]

The testing method and procedures may vary from one standard to another. And different fixtures are used based on the type of buttons, ranging from eyelets, rivets/studs, snap fasteners, snap buttons to prong snap buttons. [11]

Below are a couple of internationally acknowledged standards which most button manufacturers and testing organizations conform to.

  • ASTM D7142-2/ASTM F963/ASTM PS79-96/ASTM D1776/ASTM D4846-88
  • CFR 1500.51-53
  • EN 71-Part 1
  • GB 6675
  • ISO 8124
  • M&P P115A

Regardless of the testing standard or testing organization, the pull strength of buttons attached to the garments can be measured in terms of N/KG(1KG=9.8N). As per AATCC (American Association of Textile Chemists and Colorists), the buttons subjected to testing should withstand a minimum pull force of 7.72KG and stay secured and intact without unfastening, breakage or damage for 10s. Generally speaking, buttons intended for the child wear should withstand a minimum pull of 90N, while button products designed for the adult clothing should withstand a minimum pull of 70N. [13]

SBS is equipped with cutting-edge devices for the manufacturing and production of various button products. We implement very strict quality control procedures. Apart from the training conducted among the personnel, we carry out inspections into the button products that require strong pull strength on a regular basis to ensure that they fulfill the requirements as stipulated.

Button pull strength tester
Figure 2.1: Button pull strength tester

The pull strength of buttons, whose technical specification differs, dependent on the product type and application. We can manufacture various buttons in conformity to the different standards as specified.[9]

2.2.4.2 Direct pull strength
A force is applied diametrically until the tack button separates from the tack or the fabric is torn. The force at separation is reported as the holding strength.

Button direct pull strength tester
Figure 2.2: Button direct pull strength tester

2.2.4.3 Button pull strength test machine calibration
A specific template uses to calibrate the machine to find out the accuracy of a machine of known weight. [15]

2.2.4.4 Button pull strength test procedure
For the pull test, always need to follow the buyer requirement pulling strength. If a buyer does not give any requirement, then can follow company’s own procedure. The Standard procedure is continued pulling 10 (second) in 53 /no. weight for attaching components button. If any item fails, then that should be removed from production and separated as a reject.[14]

2.2.5 3rd Party Button Pull Strength Test
An independent test report is required on all button pulls. This will be arranged for by David Howard UK. The button pull test report is valid for one season only (6 months) (If the factory, sewing thread, button or fabric changes a new test report is required at the independent lab.) 5 garments must be send to the lab to be tested (as per BS7907:2007). Only complete garments should be sent and not mock ups, so the lab can clearly state which button has been tested on which part of the garment. [13]

2.3 History and Origin of Button
During the ancient Indus Valley civilization (circa 2800-2600 BC) and Bronze Age sites in China (circa 2000-1500BC). Beads were found to be in use to fasten body covering materials like hide etc. Beads were used as ornaments for their decorative and symbolic value rather than fasteners but gradually the use modified to fasten layers of materials.

The term is from the French word, button meaning a round object. Functional Buttons with button-holes for fastening or closing clothing appeared first in Germany in the 13the century. They soon become widespread with the rise of snug fitting garments in 13th and 14th century Europe[10]

2.3.1 Stitch type and looping
The zigzag single chain stitch is the most common (stitch type 107) for sewing buttons, but if thread tail is loose. Then this thread tail can be pulled easily resulting in loose Button. Now generally all buyers ask for lockstitch type (stitch type 209) [17].

2.3.2 Best button features [18]

  • Flat and attractive.
  • Sized according to the button size button thickness and the fabric thickness.
  • The same length and width through the area.
  • Neatly slashed and unsightly threads removed.
  • The placket should be smooth and flat; no gaping or pulling when buttons are secured in the buttonholes.
  • Buttonholes must be made before buttons are attached to the garment.
  • Always make a test on some fabric and no of layers along with interfacing if any.
  • Buttonholes are usually placed on the right bodice front for women’s garments and left front for men’s.
  • Horizontal buttonholes are the most secure and help prevent the opening from gaping.
  • Vertical buttonholes must be used when there is a center from band or placket.

2.3.2.1 Button Holes
Functional buttons are normally paired with a buttonhole. Alternately, a decorative loop of cloth or rope may replace the buttonhole. Buttonholes are made by a sewing machine. Buttonholes often have a bar at either end. The bar is a perpendicular stitch that  reinforces the ends of a buttonhole. Buttonhole size is the length of the bar to bar but the inside cut is big or too small buttonhole cut can restrict button to slide in or easily slip  out of buttonhole. Appropriate buttonhole opening will be button size (L) + button thickness.[18]

Button Holes
Figure 2.3: Button Holes

2.3.2.2 Cutting thread after sewing
The thread is cut with a shearing action by knife fixed to the sewing hook and cut the thread with a backstroke after the sewing process or either arranged below the throat plate.

2.3.3 Needle Recommendation[19]

  • Using a correct needle size and right needlepoint with the right thread is important  for trouble-free sewing process.
  • The needle must be checked frequently for their point and straightness as sometimes improper machine setting and an improperly positioned hole in the buttons can easily damage the need, causing reduced buttoning efficiency and quality.

2.3.4 Sewing Machine Recommendation [19]

  • Regular maintenance and service of the machine is a basic requirement for trouble-free sewing process.
  • The machine should be adjusted or set each time by a trained professional. General machines can accommodate button size from 8 Ligne to 32 Ligne.

2.3.5 Button Quality Recommendation [19]

  • Check for the distance of the holes are uniform for all buttons, a little difference can deflect the needle and cause faulty stitches.
  • Buttonholes must be free from sharp edges and rough surface at sides of holes as these can rub through the thread causing breakage of thread or burr to a needlepoint.

2.3.6 General causes of loose buttons [20]

  • Thread tail too short, less than 3mm
  • Number of stitch amount is too low
  • Inaccurate machine setting and incorrect thread tension
  • Wrong size of needle or thread size
  • The knot is damaged when thread tail is cut by hand while trimming process
  • Faulty and skip stitches

2.3.7 Recommendation to avoid losing the button [20]

  • Thread tall must not be less than 3mm
  • Stitch amount must be not less than 5-6 stitches
  • Machine setting must be tested and checked before bulk button sewing
  • Ensure to use correct thread and needle size as appropriate with button and fabric material
  • First output must be thoroughly checked for any type of above defects in buttoning quality.

2.3.8 Sewing Recommendations [20]

  • For buttoning choosing right sewing thread is very important
  • Fancy or decorative buttons which do not have a true function other than detail can be stitched using finer threads. If buttons are heavy use thicker sewing thread.
  • Use same quality thread which is being used for sewing garment as this reduces extra costs.
  • Fabric material thickness and product group are also important for determining thread size.

2.3.9 Button Differ in [20]

  • Size (ligne)
  • Design Form (round, oval, rectangular, triangular, square etc.)
  • The distance between holes and no. of holes
  • Thickness (height of button)
  • The way their reverse side is made (convex, concave or flat)
  • Material with which buttons are made

2.3.10 Button sizes
Button sizes are normally indicated by “Ligne” from French word meaning Line is a unit of length that was in use prior to french adaptation of the metric system in the late 1700s and still used by French and Swiss wrist watchmakers to measure the size of watch movement, and is abbreviated with the letter “L”. Ligne is the internationally recognized standard. [21]The conversion of Ligne is 0.635 for example 20 (20L) = 20×0.635 = 121.70mm. The measure indicates the distance of farthermost corners or multi-angular buttons or easy to say it is the diameter of round buttons.

Ligne Millimeters Inches
14 8.9 0.37
16 10.1 0.41
18 11.4 0.38
20 12.7 0.51
21 13.3 0.53
Ligne Millimeters Inches
22 14 0.57
23 14.6 0.59
24 15.2 0.63
27 17.1 0.67
28 17.8 0.69
30 19 0.75
32 20.3 0.83
34 21.6 0.86
36 22.9 0.88
40 25.4 1

2.4 Previous Study on Button
Buttons can be divided into two types according to the way they are attached to a garment. Shank buttons have a pierced knob or shaft on the back through which passes the sewing thread. The majority of buttons are this type. The shank can be a separate piece that is attached to the button or part of the button material itself, as in a molded button. Pierced buttons have a hole from front to back of the button so that the thread used to attach the button is visible on the face. [22]

Almost every material that has been used in the fine and decorative arts has been used historically in the production of buttons. Buttons exist in a variety of materials: metals (precious or otherwise), gemstones, ivory, horn, wood, bone, mother-of-pearl, glass, porcelain, paper, and silk. In the late nineteenth and twentieth centuries, celluloid and other artificial materials have been used to imitate natural materials. [22]

Buttons functioned as primary fastenings for men’s dress earlier than for women’s. This may be due to the fact that the women’s, from the late Middle Ages into the twentieth century, was required to be tight and smoothly fitted. Lacings and hooks are better suited to providing the strong hold and smooth appearance necessary for tight-fitting garments.

One of the earliest extant pieces of clothing to show the use of buttons as fastenings is the pour point of Charles of Blois (c. 1319-1364). This new outer garment was fitted in the body and sleeves, with buttons used to close the front and the sleeves from the elbow.

At this point, however, men’s lower garments (hose, and, later, breeches) were still fastened to their upper garments, or to an interior belt, by points (laces of ribbon or cord decorated with metal tips). These points with metal tips were often attached as purely decorative pieces to both male and female apparel. [23]

There are records of buttons in documents relating to nobility during the late Middle Ages and the Renaissance. For example, Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy (1396- 1497) ordered Venetian glass buttons decorated with pearls, and Francis I of France (1494-1547) is said to have ordered a set of black enamel buttons mounted on gold from  a Parisian goldsmith. These were obviously special buttons of the same quality as contemporary jewelry. [24] Buttons of any material were generally round in shape and made of decorated metal or covered with needlework in silk or metal threads on a wooden core. The ball-shaped toggle button is probably the type of button that replaced the fibula as a fastening for cloaks, capes, and other outer garments. A sixteenth-century example exists in Nuremberg hallmarked silver, attached to a thin bar by a flexible chain link. [24]

2.5 Important Sewing Parameters That Influence Button Quality
Many factors are involved in determining the seam quality. Basically these factors can be divided into two major groups. The first group is dependent on sewing parameters itself which include the threads used, needle size, stitch types and densities and also sewing machine settings such as speed and tension. The second group is the fabric mechanical properties. The first part of this section is concentrated on sewing parameters and, later on, the effect of fabric properties on Button quality is discussed. [24]

2.5.1 Thread
Sewing threads are special kinds of yarn. They are engineered and designed to pass through a sewing machine rapidly, to form a stitch efficiently, and to function while in a sewn product without breaking or becoming distorted for at least the useful life of the product’ (Pizzuto 2005). The mechanical properties of sewing thread play an important role in determining the quality of sewn fabric where the selection of sewing thread is based on the performance during sewing and also during wear and cleaning of the garments (Mori and Niwa 1994). Improper selection of sewing thread affects sewability. Sewability is the condition where the thread can work efficiently with the sewing machine (Kropf 1960). Improper selection of sewing threads will also lead to a poor seam performance and aesthetics value since poor seam performance can increase costs for re-stitching and other making-up processes. [25]

There are a variety of sewing threads available, varying by fibre type, construction and finishes which influence the appearance and performance of the thread. A high quality sewing thread has a uniform diameter and can be sewn on variable types of fabrics and sewing machines (Glock and Kunz 1995). Sewing threads for garments are usually made from 100% cotton, 100% spun polyester, 100% polyester core-spun, continuous-filament polyester, and also combinations of both. Table 2-1 summaries different types of thread with the description and applications for each thread (Eberle, Hermeling et al. 1996). Cotton sewing thread can be divided into groups such as: [25]

2.5.1.1 Soft cotton
These types of thread do not undergo any special finishing treatment except for bleaching and dyeing for coloring purposes. Due to this, soft cotton thread has high wet shrinkage and this can cause puckering in seams after washing. [26]

2.5.1.2 Mercerized cotton thread
This thread is treated with caustic soda to give a good lustre and higher tenacity. Higher tenacity of the thread can provide a good strength which may be up to 12% higher than the soft cotton thread (Taylor 2004). [26]

2.5.1.3 Glace cotton [26]
This thread is where the soft thread has been treated with a special surface coating. The coating gives the thread a smooth surface and provides a good abrasion resistance, but it is stiffer. Glace cotton thread is usually used for leather and heavy fabrics. Cotton thread has better resistance to heat especially when in contact with needles during sewing. The disadvantages of cotton sewing thread are that it has poor resistance to acid and is easily attacked by mildew and other bacteria. Cotton sewing thread also has low extensibility and abrasion resistance when compared with manmade fibres. Man-made fibres such as polyester, polyamide (nylon), aramid and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) are fibres which have high tenacity and good resistance to abrasion but degrade in strength if exposed too long to the sun. Polyester is the most common fibre used to produce sewing thread. Even though the strength is good, due to high extensibility of this thread, major problems of seam puckering still occur. [9] It is advised to sew at a very low speed and at the lowest tension to reduce the effect of thread extensibility which when it recovers to  its original length can cause seam puckering (Ukponmwan, Mukhopadhyay et al. 2000). Today, most of the manmade thread especially 100% spun polyester is made using high tenacity fibres which are less extensible and comparable with the cotton thread but with much stronger properties. Threads made from man-made fibres are usually coated with a special lubricant to reduce the effect of fusing due to the needle heating during sewing. If the thread is stored for a long time without correct conditions, the lubricant will lose its effect and this causes the thread coefficient of friction to increase and affects the sewability and the seam quality (Taylor 2004).

Core-spun thread where cotton or spun polyester is wrapped around either nylon or polyester filament yarn is also being widely used to reduce the fusing problem. A core- spun polyester/cotton produces a sewing thread with higher strength but with the sewability properties of cotton thread. The polyester provides high strength and the cotton fibre cover prevents the needle from overheating and protect the core from melting (Eberle, Hermeling et al. 1996). A core- spun polyester/cotton offers extensibility of up to 35% before breaking, and that is higher than normal filament polyester (Friend 1989). [9] This type of sewing thread is suitable for high speed sewing and for highly extensible seams. Usually, a spun cotton sewing thread extends 10% before breaking compared to 20% for silk and most of the synthetic continuous filaments (Laing and Webster 1998). In summary, a good thread should have properties of high strength, low elongation and low shrinkage (Ukponmwan, Mukhopadhyay et al. 2000). Table 2-2 shows typical properties of thread (Ukponmwan, Mukhopadhyay et al. 2000). The size of sewing thread is usually denoted using the ticket number. A few different systems are available for producing the ticket number but the systems are mostly based on the weight and thickness of the sewing thread. The two  most common systems are Tex and Metric. Thicker and heavier sewing threads have a higher value of Tex and smaller value of Metric number. [6]

The selection of thread size depends on a few factors which include fabric weight and thickness, stitch and seam types, and needle size (Ukponmwan, Mukhopadhyay et al. 2000). It can be summarized that thread with a good strength and elongation and good recovery behaviour combined with a correct thread size and sewing machine setting sewn to appropriate fabric can produce a good seam quality. All threads need to be twisted to ply two or more threads together. Single threads are usually twisted in ‘S’ direction and they are then plied and twisted in ‘Z’ direction. The insertion of twist in the opposite direction is to make sure the thread does not snarl during sewing at very high speed (Ukponmwan, Mukhopadhyay et al. 2000).

2.5.2 Needles
The sewing needle is one of the basic elements that directly contribute to seam  formation. The way the needle penetrates the fabric during sewing will give different effects in respect of seam strength and garment appearance (Stjepanovic and Strah 1998).

Basically, the function of the needle is:
To produce a hole in the material for the thread to pass through without damaging the fabric. To carry the needle thread through the material and form a loop which can be picked up by the hook on the bobbin case in a lockstitch machine. To pass the needle thread through the loop formed by the looper mechanism or other mechanism for machines other than lockstitch machines. Different needle sizes are available so that selection can be made based on the types of material to be sewn and on the size of  sewing thread to be used as shown in Table 2-4. It is very important to have a correct selection of needle (size and shape) and sewing thread according to the fabric characteristics so that a balanced stitch can be formed reducing stitch damage, puckering and improving seam strength (Gribaa, Amar et al. 2006).[11]

Different needle sizes have different effects on sewing performance. A bigger needle size needs more force to push the needle through fabrics. This increases the frictional force between needle and fabric, and this also increases the needle temperature. Increase in needle temperature can reduce the fabric strength especially when sewing man-made fibres. The breakage of sewing thread is also increased with the increasing value of needle temperature because the lubricant evaporates and the fibres suffer damage. Studies also show that small needle size used with coarser thread will cause the thread to have a hairy surface due to abrasion with the needle (Munshi, Pai et al. 1982). Finer thread shows less damage on the thread surface due to lower friction between thread and needle. The value of coefficient of friction between thread and a needle which is made from stainless steel should be less than 0.2 (Taylor 2004). If the coefficient value is too low, ‘run-back’ of the seam can occur where the thread is not locked in the fabric. Too high a coefficient value can decrease the sewability of the thread due to high breakage during sewing. Abrasion between thread and needle can be at the good setting by proper selection of thread in terms of fibre types and construction. [5]

2.5.3 Stitches

Two hole button:
Set zig zag stitch on your machine. The width has to be adjusted slowly in your machine, one stitch at a time. First make the stitch width zero; Leave a long tail before the first stitch. Then adjust the stitch width to 3 mm. The first stitch has to be taken with caution so that it does not hit the sides of the button. [6] When the needle enters the button hole correctly, make several stitches there (this is to anchor the thread) Then set to zig zag stitch and take a single stitch to the other hole to see which is the ideal stitch width. You will need to turn the hand wheel with your hand slowly to test it. When you get it right, make 5 or more (5 is usually enough but you can do as many as 10 to be sure) zig zag stitches from one hole to the other. Then stay at one hole. reduce stitch width to zero and make 2-3 stitches to anchor the thread. Cut off thread leaving a long tail. The long tail is important so that you can thread it in a small needle and take it to the back. Otherwise you will get unsightly cut off threads on top of the button.[6]

Four hole button:
Four hole button will have to repeat stitching the other holes the same way done the previous ones. Raise the foot and change the position of the fabric so that that other two holes are under the foot. Go slow always.[6]

2.5.4 Button Stitching Machine
This machine is applied to the industries of clothing in attaching buttons. Specially used for attaching the polo shirt and woven shirt buttons.[6]

The general parts of this type of machine is listed below: [6]

  • Pulley
  • Button clamp
  • Operation panel
  • SD card slot
  • Control box
  • Work clamp
  • Power switch
  • Eye guard
  • Side cover
  • Cone stand
  • Thread take up cover
  • Finger guard

The features of buttons machine is specified here shortly:

  • It is a simple automatic m/c.
  • Button positioning can be automatic.
  • Sewing is according to the hole in button & may be cross or parallel.
  • Automatic feeding of the shirt buttons
  • Stitch type: lock stitch or chain stitch may used.
Button Attaching machine
Figure 2.4: Button Attaching Machine

CHAPTER 3
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN

3.1 Methodology
At first for this experiment has been selected one type of woven fabric. Then attach the button on it if it is passing then attach the button on the fabric. Then the samples have been prepared according to sop method. After that button strength of all the samples have been done using button tester. For this experiment, 16 Ligne, 18 Ligne, 22 Ligne and 2 hole, 4 hole plastic button have been selected. Maintain button pull test required is 50/n that means 5.1 kg. Then spent 10 to 15 second for button pull test. If normal button is 4 eye then the pull test presser need 90/n if it is two button then pull test presser need 50n (that means 5.10kg). Now we are doing hourly button pull test and keep the record pass or fail and concern people put the signature on it. Finally, the button strength reports are collected from the Lab.

Table no 3.1: Report no-1

TEST PROPERTY S.L Maximum Force Time (S) Observations
USE & ABUSE (SMALL PART): TENSION TEST 1 53.5 10SEC Stitch Breakdown
USE & ABUSE (SMALL PART): TENSION TEST 2 52.5 10SEC Stitch Breakdown
USE & ABUSE (SMALL PART): TENSION TEST 3 53 10SEC Stitch Breakdown
USE & ABUSE (SMALL PART): TENSION TEST 4 53.5 10SEC Stitch Breakdown
USE & ABUSE (SMALL PART): TENSION TEST 5 52.5 10SEC Stitch Breakdown
Mean 53 N 10SEC
Button
Figure 3.1: Button
Chart of report no-1
Figure 3.2: Chart of report no-1

Table no 3.2: Report no 2

TEST PROPERTY S.L Maximum Force Time(S) Observations
USE & ABUSE (SMALL PART): TENSION TEST 1 52.5 10SEC Stitch Breakdown
USE & ABUSE (SMALL PART): TENSION TEST 2 52 10SEC Stitch Breakdown
USE & ABUSE (SMALL PART): TENSION TEST 3 51.5 10SEC Stitch Breakdown
USE & ABUSE (SMALL PART): TENSION TEST 4 52.5 10SEC Stitch Breakdown
USE & ABUSE (SMALL PART): TENSION TEST 5 51.5 10SEC Stitch Breakdown
Mean 52 N 10SEC
Chart of report no -2
Figure 3.3: Chart of report no -2

Table no 3.3: Report no-3

TEST PROPERTY S.L Maximum Force Time(S) Observations
USE & ABUSE (SMALL PART): TENSION TEST 1 53 10SEC Stitch Breakdown
USE & ABUSE (SMALL PART): TENSION TEST 2 52.5 10SEC Stitch Breakdown
USE & ABUSE (SMALL PART): TENSION TEST 3 53 10SEC Stitch Breakdown
USE & ABUSE (SMALL PART): TENSION TEST 4 53.5 10SEC Stitch Breakdown
USE & ABUSE (SMALL PART): TENSION TEST 5 52 10SEC Stitch Breakdown
Mean 52.8 N 10SEC
Chart of report no -3
Figure 3.4: Chart of report no -3

Table no 3.4: Report no-4

TEST PROPERTY S.L Maximum Force Time(S) Observations
USE & ABUSE (SMALL PART): TENSION TEST 1 53.5 10SEC Stitch Breakdown
USE & ABUSE (SMALL PART): TENSION TEST 2 52.5 10SEC Stitch Breakdown
USE & ABUSE (SMALL PART): TENSION TEST 3 53 10SEC Stitch Breakdown
USE & ABUSE (SMALL PART): TENSION TEST 4 53.5 10SEC Stitch Breakdown
USE & ABUSE (SMALL PART): TENSION TEST 5 52.5 10SEC Stitch Breakdown
Mean 53 N 10SEC
Chart of report no -4
Figure 3.5: Chart of report no -4

Table no 3.5: Report no-5

TEST PROPERTY S.L Maximum Force Time(S) Observations
USE & ABUSE (SMALL PART): TENSION TEST 1 52.5 10SEC Stitch Breakdown
USE & ABUSE (SMALL PART): TENSION TEST 2 52 10SEC Stitch Breakdown
USE & ABUSE (SMALL PART): TENSION TEST 3 53 10SEC Stitch Breakdown
USE & ABUSE (SMALL PART): TENSION TEST 4 51.5 10SEC Stitch Breakdown
USE & ABUSE (SMALL PART): TENSION TEST 5 52 10SEC Stitch Breakdown
Mean 52.2 N 10SEC
Chart of report no -5
Figure 3.6: Chart of report no -5

Table no 3.6: Report no-6

TEST PROPERTY S.L Maximum Force Time(S) Observations
USE & ABUSE (SMALL PART): TENSION TEST 1 53 10SEC Stitch Breakdown
USE & ABUSE (SMALL PART): TENSION TEST 2 52.5 10SEC Stitch Breakdown
USE & ABUSE (SMALL PART): TENSION TEST 3 53 10SEC Stitch Breakdown
USE & ABUSE (SMALL PART): TENSION TEST 4 53 10SEC Stitch Breakdown
USE & ABUSE (SMALL PART): TENSION TEST 5 52.5 10SEC Stitch Breakdown
Mean 53 N 10SEC
Chart of report no -6
Figure 3.7: Chart of report no -6

Table no 3.7: Report no-7

TEST PROPERTY S.L Maximum Force Time(S) Observations
USE & ABUSE (SMALL PART): TENSION TEST 1 53 10SEC Stitch Breakdown
USE & ABUSE (SMALL PART): TENSION TEST 2 52.5 10SEC Stitch Breakdown
USE & ABUSE (SMALL PART): TENSION TEST 3 53 10SEC Stitch Breakdown
USE & ABUSE (SMALL PART): TENSION TEST 4 53 10SEC Stitch Breakdown
USE & ABUSE (SMALL PART): TENSION TEST 5 52 10SEC Stitch Breakdown
Mean 52.7 N 10SEC
Chart of report no -7
Figure 3.8: Chart of report no -7

Table no 3.8: Report no-8

TEST PROPERTY S.L Maximum Force Time(S) Observations
USE & ABUSE (SMALL PART): TENSION TEST 1 53.5 10SEC Stitch Breakdown
USE & ABUSE (SMALL PART): TENSION TEST 2 52.5 10SEC Stitch Breakdown
USE & ABUSE (SMALL PART): TENSION TEST 3 53 10SEC Stitch Breakdown
USE & ABUSE (SMALL PART): TENSION TEST 4 53 10SEC Stitch Breakdown
USE & ABUSE (SMALL PART): TENSION TEST 5 52.5 10SEC Stitch Breakdown
Mean 52.9 N 10SEC
Chart of report no -8
Figure 3.9: Chart of report no -8

Table no 3.9: Report no-9

TEST PROPERTY S.L Maximum Force Time(S) Observations
USE & ABUSE (SMALL PART): TENSION TEST 1 53 10SEC Stitch Breakdown
USE & ABUSE (SMALL PART): TENSION TEST 2 52.5 10SEC Stitch Breakdown
USE & ABUSE (SMALL PART): TENSION TEST 3 53 10SEC Stitch Breakdown
USE & ABUSE (SMALL PART): TENSION TEST 4 53.5 10SEC Stitch Breakdown
USE & ABUSE (SMALL PART): TENSION TEST 5 52.5 10SEC Stitch Breakdown
Mean 52.9 N 10SEC
Chart of report no -9
Figure 3.10: Chart of report no -9

CHAPTER 4
RESULT AND DISCUSSION

4.1 Result
Shown below the result of this project determine button strength. Table 4.1 summarized the average result of button strength.

Table 4.1 Study on Button strength

Ligne of Button type Maximum Force (2Hole) Maximum Force (4Hole) Mean Time (S)
16ligne 53 53 10
18ligne 52 52.2 10
22ligne 52.8 53 10
Summarized the average result
Figure 4.1: Summarized the average result

4.2 Result discussion
Table 4.1 Illustrate study on Button strength based on button ligne and button hole. button strength value of 16 ligne in 2hole Breaking strength force 53 N, 18 ligne 52 N, 22 ligne 52.8 N and button strength value of 16 ligne in 4hole Breaking strength force 53 N, 18 ligne 52.2N, 22 ligne 53 N. Average button strength value of 16 ligne 52.9 N, 18 ligne 52.6 N, 22 ligne 52.9 N. We see that the strength of 4hole button better than 2 hole button.

CHAPTER 5
CONCLUSION

5.1 Conclusion
Button strength test is very important for garments. It’s the test for puling strength and attaching security. Button Strength must be need to meet required strength, otherwise it may be issue for children safety and hampering human prestige. Button strength is a critical issue for garments buying sealing and wearing period. It used to determine the holding or breaking strength Fasteners onto garments to ensure button sewing in the product properly. The pull test is the mandatory for any type of garments product for use button. Finally as button types & selection of sewing thread has a great impact on button strength, so suitable sewing thread & stitch must be chosen to ensure better quality garment or end product. So, the button strength must be tested to guarantee that they meet the NBS/ISO/ASTM standards before entering the international market to enable consumers to choose the garment as per their desired quality.

5.2 References

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  2. “A Day in the Neolithic: A Walk Through 5,000-year-old Scotland at the Tomb of the Eagles”. Senior Hiker Magazine. 2018-08-27. Retrieved 2020-10-24.
  3. Mamwell, Caroline Jane (2018). ‘It Rained a Lot and Nothing Much Happened’: Settlement and Society in Bronze Age Orkney. University of p. 146.
  4. Hedges, John (1998-04-21). Tomb of the Eagles: Death and Life in a Stone Age Tribe. New Amsterdam Books. p. 152. ISBN 978-1-4617-3268-6.
  5. Jump up to:a b Hesse, Rayner & Hesse (Jr.), Rayner W. (2007). Jewelrymaking Through History: An Encyclopedia. Greenwood Publishing Group. 35. ISBN 0-313- 33507-9.
  6. McNeil, Ian (1990). An encyclopaedia of the history of technology. Taylor & Francis. 852. ISBN 0-415-01306-2.
  7. Klimczak, Natalia. “Changing Beauty: The Use of Elaborate Wigs in Ancient Egypt”. www.ancient-origins.net. Retrieved 2020-11-14.
  8. “Viking Boot: History of York”. www.historyofyork.org.uk. Retrieved 2020-11-14.
  9. “The Westward Journeys of Buttons – AramcoWorld”. www.aramcoworld.com. Retrieved 2020-11-28.
  10. Lynn White: “The Act of Invention: Causes, Contexts, Continuities and Consequences”, Technology and Culture, 3, No. 4 (Autumn, 1962), pp. 486–500 (497f. & 500)
  11. Dahl, Liz (June 5, 2008). “For a collector hooked on history, every button tells a story”. The Oregonian: Homes & Gardens. Oregon, USA: Oregon Live Retrieved 11 March2010.
  12. Australian Government (12 November 2009). “heroin concealed in dress buttons”. Australia: Customs and Border Protection Communication and Media. Retrieved 11
  13. (Luscomb 2003, p. 126)
  14. Peach State Button Club (2010). “Studios (Section 23-11)”. Button Country. Georgia, USA: Peach State Button Club. Archived from the original on 6 June 2010. Retrieved 11 June
  15. The United States Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, Paper and Stationery Trade of the World, Government Printing Office, 1918
  16. “A look at China’s “Button Town””. cbsnews.com.
  17. “Chinese ‘Button Town’ Struggles with Success”. NPR.org.
  18. (Luscomb 2003, p. 53)
  19. Victoria and Albert museum. “Man’s suit, Coat and breeches”. London, UK: V&A Images. Retrieved 10 March
  20. Victoria and Albert Museum. “Elements of a German filigree button, made ca 1880”. V&A Jewellery London, UK: V&A Images. Retrieved 10 March 2010.
  21. (Luscomb 2003, p. 104)
  22. (Luscomb 2003, pp. 123–124)
  23. Victoria & Albert “Jacket from bridegroom’s outfit”. V&A Jewellery collection. London, UK: V&A Images. Retrieved 10 March 2010.
  24. “Coat – Victoria & Albert museum”. London, UK: V&A Images. Retrieved 10 March
  25. Button Country (2010). “Back Types/Shanks (23-3)”. GA, USA: Peach State Button Club. Archived from the original on 17 June 2010. Retrieved 11 March
  26. Colton, Virginia, (1978). Complete Guide to Sewing. Reader’s Digest. p. 352. ISBN 0-89577-026-1.

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