Ultra-fine Fiber: Types, Characteristics and Uses

Last Updated on 26/01/2021

Ultra-fine Fiber:

The definition of ultra-fine fiber has varied according to the convention Employed. For instance, the Textile Committee, Germany, defines a micro-denier fiber as a fiber finer than 1.2 dtex for polyester and finer than 1.0 dtex for polyamide. Although a rather thick (1 denier or more) fiber is sometimes claimed as an ultra-fine fiber commercially, an ultra-fine fiber should preferably be specified as a fiber of less than 0.5 d. A fiber of less than 0.1 d is sometimes referred to as a super ultra-fine fiber. It is a short version of microfiber.

ultra-fine fiber cloth
Fig: Ultrafine fibers cloth

Types of Ultrafine Fiber:
Ultra fine fibers are classified into two types:

  1. A continuous-filament type and
  2. A random (staple) type.

Since recent developments in the field of ultra-fine fibers have focused on the continuous-filament type, as exemplified particularly by suede-like artificial leather or shingosen.

Characteristics of Ultra-fine Fiber:
Different ultra-fine fibers are designed to provide the following characteristics:

  1. Softness, flexibility and smoothness.
  2. Fine textile structure.
  3. Micro-pockets in fabrics.
  4. High filament density at the textile surface.
  5. Large surface area per unit weight, and a characteristic interfacial property.
  6. Small radius of curvature (resulting in luster and characteristic color)
  7. Large aspect ratio (the ratio of length to diameter) and easy entanglement.
  8. Good interpenetrating capacity in other materials.
  9. Quick stress relief.
  10. Low resistance to bending.
  11. Bio-singularity relative to living tissues and fluids.
  12. Fine, sharp edges.

Uses of Ultrafine Fibers:
Ultrafine fibers have the potential to be used as solid dispersions to improve the dissolution profiles of poorly water-soluble drugs or as oral fast disintegrating drug delivery systems. It is also used for cleaning sensitive surfaces. Ultrafine fibers can be used in face mask. Filters composed of ultrafine fibers with diameter down to tens of nanometers have the potential to physically block viruses. With adjustable composition and nanostructures, the electrospun ultrafine fiber filter is possible to achieve other necessary functions beyond virus blocking, such as antiviral, transparent, and degradable, making it an important part of fighting the epidemic.

Cleaning by Ultrafine Fibers
Fig: Cleaning by Ultrafine Fibers

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