Different Types of Textile Raw Material and Its Importance in Textile Manufacturing

Last Updated on 21/06/2021

Nowadays textiles not only fulfill the basic human need for clothing but are also a fashion statement. The rising income levels have started fast fashion trend which has tremendously increased per capita consumption of textiles in past few decades. It is estimated that the global textile & apparel industry including textile, clothing, footwear & luxury fashion is currently worth nearly $3000 trillion. Contribution of the textile industry to the GDP and economy of many countries is substantial. However, it is a highly input-intensive industry. Textile fibers, the raw material used for making textiles whether natural or man-made, have their own environmental impact. These are then converted into yarns and fabric which are subjected to wet processing to impart aesthetic & functional values. Textile materials are treated with a number of dyes, finishing chemicals and auxiliaries in the process, and as the name suggests, water is used as carrier which gets discharged at the end of the process.

Textile Raw Material:
A textile is a material made of thin fibers or filaments spun into yarn and woven into fabric. Raw material is a unique substance in any production oriented textile industry. It plays a vital role in continuous production and for high quality fabric. Raw material for textile industry is cotton, jute, wool raw silk and synthetic goods. Textile raw materials are selected as per the manufacturing policy of the company i.e. whether a composite mill or only a spinning, weaving or dyeing / finishing.

Types of Textile Raw Materials:

  1. Fiber
  2. Fabric
  3. Dye stuff
  4. Chemical and auxiliaries

1. Fiber:
Nature presents a large variety of fibers. Beside this it is possible today to produce a number of different types of man made fibers but only a relatively small amount of this is actually used in textile industry.

textile fiber
Fig: Textile fiber (Photo: Getty Images)

Fiber is a matter which includes flexibility, fineness and a high ratio of length to thickness. It is necessary at least length to diameter ratio is 1000 to consider a fiber.

Some additional characteristics are the required for textile fibers, such as stability at high temperature, a certain minimum strength and extensibility.

Name and Source:

2. Fabric:
Fabric is a planar textile structure produces by interlacing yarns, fibers, or filaments. It may be woven, knitted and nonwoven. The fabric is the main element of the garment.

fabric rolls
Fig: Fabric rolls (Photo: Shutterstock)

Name and Source:

  • 100 % Cotton fabric
  • CVC fabric
  • PC fabric
  • 2*2 Lycra rib fabric
  • Lycra single jersey fabric
  • Viscose Lycra
  • Double lacoste
  • Plain Interlock
  • 100% Polyester fabric
  • Grey mélange etc.

3. Dyes:
A dye is a colored substance that has an affinity to the substrate to which it is being applied. The dye is generally applied in an aqueous solution, and requires a mordant to improve the fastness of the dye on the fiber.

The following dyes are used:

4. Chemical and Auxiliaries:
Dyeing auxiliaries mean a chemical or formulated chemical product which enables a processing operation in preparation, dyeing, printing or finishing to be carried out more effectively, or which is essential if a given effect is to be obtained.

  • Sequestering agent.
  • Lubricants / Anticreasant.
  • Pretreatment Chemicals
  • Levelling and Dispersing Agent.
  • Sequestering, Dispersing and Levelling Agent for Reactive dyeing.
  • Antifoam.
  • pH Control and buffer system.
  • Desizing Agent
  • Yarn Lubricant
  • Mercerising agent
  • Dyefixing agent
  • Optical Brightener
  • Soaping Agent / Washing off Agent.

Importance of Raw Material in Textile Manufacturing:
Raw material represents about 50 to 70% of the production cost of a short-staple yarn. This fact is sufficient to indicate the significance of the raw material for the yarn producer. It is not possible to use a problem free raw material always, because cotton is a natural fiber and there are many properties which will affect the performance. If all the properties have to be good for the cotton, the raw material would be too expensive. To produce a good yarn with this difficulties, an intimate knowledge of the raw material and its behavior in processing is a must.

Raw material cost is the major cost component of garment manufacturing costs. The fabric cost constitutes 60 to 70 percent of the total garment making cost. In the garment industry, the quality of the finished product is directly related to the quality of the fabric when it is received as a roll. So importance of raw materials in textile and apparel industry is undeniable.

You may also like:

  1. Different Types of Man Made Fibers with Their Application
  2. Difference between Natural Fiber and Man Made Fiber
  3. What Types of Fabrics Used for Men’s Shirt
  4. Types of Fabric Mostly Used for Garments
  5. List of Chemicals and Auxiliaries Used in Textile Wet Processing

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