Difference between Natural Fiber and Man Made Fiber

Last Updated on 29/12/2020

Difference between Natural Fiber and Man Made Fiber

Rana Sohel
Executive Engineer
Sunman Textile Mills Ltd. Chittagong
Email: rsohel07tex@gmail.com


Textile fiber is an individual, fine, hair-like substance, which forms the fundamental components of all textiles. There are mainly two types of fiber. One is natural fiber and another is synthetic or man made fiber. Natural fibers are extracted from plants and animals. Manmade fiber are polyester, rayon, viscose staple fiber. Its is a process of wood pulp chemically treated and processed to make a fiber equal to natural fiber with same qualities.

Classification chart of textile fibers
Fig-1: Classification chart of textile fibers

Natural fibers:
Natural fibers are those provided by Nature in ready-made form and need only to be extracted. Natural fibers are divided into three main classes according to the nature of source (origin), i. e. vegetable fibers, animal fibers, and mineral fibers as shown in Fig-2. Natural fibers such as cotton fiber, jute fiber, wool fiber, hemp, kenaf, jute, sisal fiber, banana, flax, oil palm, etc. have been in considerable demand in recent years due to their eco-friendly and renewable nature. In addition, the natural fibers have low density, better mechanical and thermal properties and are biodegradable.

natural fiber classification
Fig-2: Natural fiber classification

Man Made fibers:
Man-made fibers are classified into synthetic and regenerated fibers as shown in Fig-3. The polymers used for the spinning of synthetic fibers are chemical based, while regenerated fibers are derived from a natural polymer, most commonly cellulose. Plyester, nylon, viscose, acetate, acrylic, carbon, aramid, high performance fibers etc manmade fiber.

classification of man made fiber
Fig: Classification of man made fiber

Difference between Natural Fiber and Manmade Fiber:

natural fiber vs man made fiber
Fig-4: Natural fiber vs man made fiber
SL/No Natural Fiber Man Made Fiber
1 The fibers which we get from nature re called natural fiber. The fibers which are developed by man re called man-made fiber.
2 Generally fibers are hydrophilic. Generally fibers are hydrophobic
3 No. of molecule controlled by nature. No. of molecule controlled by man.
4 Length of the fiber is nature given. Length of the fiber is controlled by man.
5 We get fibres as staple or filament. No question about short or long staple fiber. It depends on man will.
6 Less strength and durability. More strength and durability.
7 No need to spinneret for spinning process. Spinneret is essential for filament production.
8 The fabric made from natural fiber is comfortable and good for health. Man made fiber is not comfortable and not good for health.
9 Natural fiber is not favorable for finishing. Manmade fibers are favorable for finishing.
10 Comparatively less durable than synthetic fiber. Manmade fibers are more durable than natural fiber.
11 Fineness varies from one fiber to another fiber. Fineness depends on the manufacturers
12 Natural fiber has a great demand as humans wear. Synthetic fiber is widely used in every day life except humans wear.
13 Natural fiber is called environment friendly. Manmade fibers are not environment friendly. Some fibers are harmful for the environment like: Polypropylene.
14 Natural fibers needs to scouring and bleaching process before wet processing. Scouring and bleaching is done in very few cases
15 It is not possible to change in fiber structure. It is easy to change in fiber structure.
16 It is expensive. It is cheaper.
17 Bears crimp naturally. We have to give crimp manually.
18 It grows with its natural color. Colors are added in the solution bath as required.
19 It is easy to dye the fiber. Coloration is not so easy as natural fiber.
20 Dust and impurities could be in natural fiber. No dust or impurities contain in synthetic fiber.
21 The use of natural fibers are limited than manmade fiber. Manmade fibers are used in multi task than natural fiber.

You may also like:

  1. Physical and Chemical Properties of Wool Fiber
  2. Application of High Performance Fibers for Special Purposes
  3. Technical Properties of Cotton Fiber
  4. Different Types of Man Made Fibers with Their Application

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