Identification of Textile Fiber | Identification of Thermoplastic Fiber | Fibre Identification

Last Updated on 12/04/2021

Name of the Experiment:
Identification of given textile fiber sample.

Introduction:
The properties of the yarn and fabric are directly influenced by the properties of fiber from which yarn and fabric are made. There are different methods of fibre identification for characterization of the structural, physical, and chemical properties of fibers. Various methods are used for identification of textile fiber like microscopic methods, solubility, heating and burning method, density, and staining etc. In this experiment I will discuss identification of thermoplastic and non-thermoplastic textile fiber.

Identification of Textile Fiber

Objectives:

  1. To know about the physical properties of textile fiber sample.
  2. To know about the chemical properties of textile fiber sample.
  3. To identify the type of sample fiber.

Sample_01

Visual properties:

  • Color: White
  • Handle: Harsh

Physical test:

Preliminary sorting test by heating:

We took small tuft of fibers hold in forceps and brought it slowly up to but not into a small non-luminous flame. Then observe the condition:

Obs. no. Behavior Remark
1 Does not shrink from flame or melt Non-thermoplastic

For non- thermoplastic fiber:
Bring a small tuft of fibers into a small non-luminous flame –

Obs. no. Behavior Remark
1 Burn with irregular spurting flame, leaving a black inflated, easily powdered residue & emits a smell of burnt hair. Protein (Silk & Wool)

Chemical test:

Obs. no. Chemical Behavior Remark
Cold Hot
1. Phenol Unchanged Unchanged
2. Dimethyl formamide Unchanged Unchanged
3. Sulphuric acid Unchanged Dissolve May be silk
4. Sodium hydroxide Unchanged Dissolve May be wool

Confirmation test:

Obs. no. Chemical Behavior Result
Cold Hot
1. Sodium hydroxide Unchanged Dissolve Wool

Sample_02

Visual properties:

  • Color: White
  • Handle: Soft handle

Physical test:

Preliminary sorting test by heating:

We took small tuft of fibers hold in forceps and brought it slowly up to but not into a small non-luminous flame. Then observe the condition:

Obs. no. Behavior Remark
1. Does not shrink from flame or melt Non-thermoplastic

For non- thermoplastic fiber:
Bring a small tuft of fibers into a small non-luminous flame –

Obs. no. Behavior Remark
1. Burns readily and without melting, emitting a smell of burnt paper & leaving a small amount of ash. Cellulose & Regenerated Cellulose

Chemical test:

Obs. no. Chemical Behavior Remark
Cold Hot
1. Phenol Unchanged Unchanged
2. Acetic acid Unchanged Unchanged
3. Nitric acid Unchanged Dissolve
4. Sulphuric acid Unchanged Dissolve May be cotton

Confirmation test:

Obs. no. Chemical Behavior Result
Cold Hot
1. Sulphuric acid Unchanged Dissolve Cotton

Sample_03

Visual properties:

  • Color: White
  • Handle: Soft.

Physical test:

Preliminary sorting test by heating:

We took small tuft of fibers hold in forceps and brought it slowly up to but not into a small non-luminous flame. Then observe the condition:

Obs. no. Behavior Remark
1. Shrink from flame or melts with the formation of bead Thermoplastic

For thermoplastic fiber:

Bring a small tuft of fibers into a small non-luminous flame –

Obs. no. Behavior Odor Residue Remark
1. Melts then burns (smoky flame) Aromatic Glossy brown bead (not crushable) May be Polyester

Chemical test:

Obs. no. Chemical Behavior Remark
Cold Hot
1. Sulphuric acid Unchange Unchange
2. Dimethyl formamide Unchange Unchange
3. Phenol Unchange Dissolve May be Polyester
4. Sodium hydroxide Unchange Unchange

Confirmation test:

Obs. no. Chemical Behavior Result
Cold Hot
1. Phenol Unchange Dissolve Polyester

Sample_04

Visual properties:

  • Color: Bluish white
  • Handle: Soft

Physical test:

Preliminary sorting test by heating:

We took small tuft of fibers hold in forceps and brought it slowly up to but not into a small non-luminous flame. Then observe the condition:

Obs. no. Behavior Remark
1 Shrink from flame or melts with the formation of bead Thermoplastic

For non- thermoplastic fiber:
Bring a small tuft of fibers into a small non-luminous flame –

Obs. no. Behavior Odor Residue Remark
1 Fuses then burns (smoky flame) Sweetish Dark color

Hard bead but brittle

May be Acrylic

Chemical test:

Obs. no. Chemical Behavior Remark
Cold Hot
1. Phenol Unchanged Color change
2. Dimethyl formamide Unchanged Dissolve May be acrylic
3. Nitric acid Unchanged Unchanged
4. Sulphuric acid Unchanged Dissolve May be acrylic

Confirmation test:

Obs. no. Chemical Behavior Result
Cold Hot
1. Dimethyl formamide Unchanged Dissolve Acrylic

Conclusion:
I would like to thank our respected teacher for the important instructions. I am also grateful to our lab assistants for their kind help. This experiment helps me to know about the physical and chemical properties of textile fiber that is very important for textile testing. I think this will be very helpful in my future life.

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