Effects of Mosquito Repellent Finishes by Conventional and Herbal Method on Textiles

Last Updated on 15/09/2021

Effects of Mosquito Repellent Finishes by Conventional and Herbal Method on Textiles

Banupriya.J1 (M.Phil Scholar), Maheshwari.V2 (Associate Professor)
1(Costume Design & Fashion, PSG College of Arts & Science/Bharathiar University, India)
2(Costume Design & Fashion, PSG College of Arts & Science/Bharathiar University, India)
Email: banupriyamphil.cdf@gmail.com1


Textiles have always played a central role in the evolution of human culture by being at the forefront of both technological and artistic developments. Herbs can be defined generally in commerce as a plant, plant part, or extract therefore used for flavor, fragrance, or medicinal purpose. An insect repellent help prevent and control the outbreak of insect-borne diseases such as malaria, dengue fever. Most plants contain compounds that they use in preventing attack from phytophagous insects. These chemicals fall in to several categories, including repellents, feeding deterrents, toxins, and growth regulators “Natural” smelling repellents are preferred because plants are perceived as a safe and trusted means of mosquito bite prevention. Plant-based repellents have been used for generations in traditional practice as a personal protection measure against host-seeking mosquitoes.

Keywords: Eco-friendly fabrics, Herbs, Mosquito Repellent, Textiles

Cotton is the natural vegetable fiber of great economic importance as a raw material for cloth. Cotton is a fabric that breathes even as it drapes the wearer in cool comfort. Organic cotton is cotton that is grown using methods and materials that have a low impact on the environment. Organic production systems replenish and maintain soil fertility, reduce the toxic and persistent pesticides and fertilizer and build biological diverse agriculture. Textile finishing usually includes treatments such as scouring, bleaching and dyeing. Medicinal plants are the gift of nature to cure limitless number of diseases among human beings. The abundance of plants on the earth surface has led to an increasing interest in the investigation of different extracts obtained from the traditional medicinal plants as potential sources of new Mosquito Repellent agents.

Materials and Methods
In this study, 50’s combed cotton and organic cotton yarn was used for the study. The wet processing techniques used here were scouring, bleaching and dyeing. Then the yarn was dyed in package form using reactive dye. The dyed yarn was woven using dobby loom along with plain weave structure. Then Mosquito Repellent finish is applied on the fabric by herbal and conventional process.

Mosquito Repellent Finish on Textiles by Conventional Method
Mosquitoes are incredibly unsafe insects and are responsible for propagating ailments like malaria, encephalitis (inflammation of brain) and dengue fever. At present, there are very few durable repellents that can be applied to clothing and almost all the repellents are designed to be applied directly on the skin.


  • Chemical – Tolumide Complex
  • Solubility – Soluble in water
  • Ionic – Non-ionic
  • pH  –  6.0 ± 1.0

By Pad, Dry and Cure Method

  • Dosage – 40-60 g/l
  • pH – 5.0-6.0
  • Drying temp – 130ºC
  • Curing – 160oC for 15 Minutes
  • Temperature – 25 minutes.

The fabric was padded in the Toluamide complex at the room temperature for 25 minutes and tested for Mosquito repellency.

Mosquito Repellent Finish on Textiles by Herbal Method

Selection of the Medicinal Valuable Herbs
The herbal plant were identified and collected from the natural resources in a pure form. The following plant was chosen for the study Rosemary. The procedure begins with the selection of natural herb, which was screened and identified. The extract was tested for its Mosquito Repellent which was done by Excito chamber method.

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Rosemary has been around for a long time, and therefore has a long list of claims regarding its medicinal uses, including use as a tonic, a digestive aid, to treat depression, headache, and muscle spam, and as an expectorant, promoter of menstrual flow, and stimulant for production of bile.

Assessment of the Mosquito Repellent Effect of Herbal Extract
Plant-based repellents have been used for generations in traditional practice as a personal protection measure against host-seeking mosquitoes. Knowledge on traditional repellent plants obtained through ethnobotanical studies is a valuable resource for the development of new natural products.


Extraction from the Herb

Fresh leaves

Shadow dried

Ground the leaves

The selected sources were cleanly and safely collected from both living area and the forest area that were grown under optimal environmental condition that is free from disease and contamination.

Required amount of dry powder is mixed with methanol; the container was closed and kept overnight. After overnight incubation, the extract was filtered through filter paper.

Evaporation / Condensation:
After filtering the herb extract, methanolic solvents were evaporated and the herb extract were condensed.

Evaluation of the Highest Mosquito Repellency Effect Using Excito Repellency Chamber by Conventional and Herbal Methods
Specially designed two excito-repellency test chambers were used to evaluate the efficiency of repellency activity. The wooden outer chamber of excito-repellency testing device measures 34cm × 32cm × 32cm and faces the front panel with the single escape portal. The box is composed of a rear door cover, an inner Plexiglas glass panel with a rubber latex-sealed door, a Plexiglas holding frame, a screened inner chamber, an outer chamber, a front door, and an exit portal slot. Mosquitoes were deprived of all nutrition and water for a minimum of 4 hours before exposure. Laboratory tests were performed during daylight hours only and each test was replicated four times. Observations were taken at one-minute interval for 30 minutes. After each test was completed, the number of Escaped specimens and those remaining inside the chamber was recorded separately for each exposure chamber, external holding cage, and paired control chamber. Escaped specimens and those remaining inside the chamber, for the treated samples, were held separately in small holding containers with food and water.

Excito chamber used for mosquito repellency testing for both Herbal and Conventional methods
Figure 1: Excito chamber used for mosquito repellency testing for both Herbal and Conventional methods

Result and Discussion

Table-1: Result and Discussion

S.NoMethodSamplesMosquito Repellency in %
3ConventionallyToluamide complex84

Mosquito Repellency in %

This research work has given a new idea in finishing of cotton and organic cotton with herbs for Mosquito Repellent activity (Rosemary). The treated fabrics were found to be very hygienic when compared to conventionally Mosquito Repellent finished fabrics.


[1] Carey AF, Wang G, Su CY, Zwiebel LJ, Carlson JR. Odorant reception in the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae Nature. 2010; 464:66–71.

[2] Elementary idea of textile dyeing, printing and finishing, Kanwar Varinder Pal Singh, Kalyani Publishers, 2004, pg.no-5, 29

[3] Hallem EA, Dahanukar A, Carlson JR., (2006). “Insect odour and taste receptors” Annu Rev Entomol. Vol.51. P.113–135

[4] J.R. Aspland, American association of the textile chemists and colorists, 2002, pg.no-44, 72

[5] Textile spinning, weaving and designing,  M.G.Mahadevan, Abhishek Publications, 2009, pg.no-2, 3 & 163

[6] Krishnaveni, fiber to fashion.com, Mosquito repellent finish on textiles

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