Mosquito Repellent Textiles – An Overview
J.Monisha Gracin Edith
Angel college of Engineering and Technology, Tiruppur, India
Mosquito is the most dangerous insect which spreads mosquito-born diseases over the human beings. Even though there are many repellent available for it, they are limited in their use. Many researchers were proved that chemicals used for mosquito repellents are more harmful and poisonous. The source of herbal plants is a way to develop the mosquito repellent garments and to get a rid of the mosquito born diseases and to ensure high safety from illness. Now, the new virus is spreading towards the people called zika, due to mosquitoes. So it is mandatory to develop mosquito repellent garment to protect the humans from its diseases. In this present and future era mosquito repellent textiles are more essential. Advancement in technologies provides the various methods to manufacture the mosquito repellent textiles with low cost, high durability and high performance.
There are more than 3000 species of mosquitoes, but only three members are responsible for spreading diseases. Mosquitoes are attracted home in by exhaled carbon dioxide, body odours and temperature of human. Only female mosquitoes have the mouth parts necessary for sucking blood. They use that blood as a source of protein for their eggs. Mosquitoes are the most dangerous insects which transmit deadly diseases among human beings like malaria, dengu, filariasis and chickungunya, yellow fever. Among these only very few are preventable by vaccines. For every 12 seconds a child dies of malariya. During the third world war many people have died because of disease transmitted by the mosquito from all the fighting in all the war. Malaria now infects approximately 110 million people annually1 and causing 2-3 million deaths says service health program. There is no effective vaccine against malaria. The use of the repellents such as lotions coils and liquidators are limited due to various reasons. Mosquito repellent fabrics provide a best solution to overcome this. The mosquito repellent find their application over a wide range. Although this sector contributes 1% to the smart textiles, still has a good scope for growth.
Mosquito repellent is a substance applied to skin, clothes or other surface which repels away the mosquitoes.
DISEASES CAUSED BY MOSQUITOES:
- Lymphatic Filariasis
- Yellow fever
- West Nile fever
- Dengue fever
- Ross River fever
- Eastern Equine encephalitis
- Japanese Encephalitis
- La Crosse Encephalitis
- St. Louis Encephalitis
- Western Equine Encephalitis
ZIKA VIRUS-RECENTLY SPREADING DISEASE:
Mosquitoes are also one of the reasons for transmitting the zika virus. The bite of an infected Aedes species mosquito spreads this virus. This zika virus infection was first found in Brazil. Symptoms of this disease are mild-fever, rash, joint pain, or red eyes. Zika virus likely will continue to spread to new areas.
METHODS OF MOSQUITO CONTROL:
The bite of mosquitoes may leads to anything from skin irritation to dangerous diseases. By covering the whole body we can minimize the chance of mosquito bite. But this not enough, it requires the speciality product like mosquito repellent garments to drive away the mosquitoes. Inaudibly high frequency sounds are also act as mosquito repellent.
Methods involved in producing mosquito repellent fabric are:
- Natural method. Eg: Neem oil, Lemon grass oil
- Chemical method. Eg: DEET, Permethrin
- Physical method. Eg: mosquito net, mosquito traps
NEED OF MOSQUITO REPELLENT TEXTILES:
As the global warming increases the distribution of mosquitoes also increases. Now a days escaping from mosquito become the greatest task. Mosquitoes are the carrier of many diseases. Due to our carelessness these diseases are caused. We need to protect our self in order to escape from those diseases. Though there are many lotions and creams available to repel the mosquitoes, they are limited in their use. This may cause some ill-effects to the skin. A mosquito repellent textile is one such textile product emerges recently. It protects the human from the mosquito bite and there by promising safety from diseases like dengu. A mosquito repellent finish can be applied to the textile material either by natural or chemical repelling agents.
This fig. shows the death rate of human due to mosquitoes, on comparing with other animals.
- Used in apparels and also in home textile industry.
- Mosquito prone areas also find their application in wall coverings and tens.
- Apart from these applications it also used for manufacturing bags used for storing eatables, textiles, perishable goods and all other goods prone to damage by insects.
- We should create awareness to the people about the mosquito repellent fabrics.
- Usage of chemicals should be replaced by the herbal products.
- Durability of the finish should be increased.
- Comparative efficacy of insect repellents against mosquito bites.
- Commercially available insect repellents and criteria for their use, In M. Debboun, S.P. Frances and D. Strickman (eds.), Insect Repellents: Principles, Methods, and Uses, 2nd edition.
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