Jute Spinning Process – An Overview

Last Updated on 27/05/2021

An Overview of Jute Spinning Process

Mustaque Ahammed Mamun
Department of Textile Engineering
Dhaka University of Engineering & Technology (DUET)
Email: mamuntex09@gmail.com

 

Introduction:
Jute is known as the “golden fiber” due to its golden brown color and its importance. Jute belongs to bast fiber category and is normally spun in the form of coarse threads. Contrary to most vegetable fibers which consist mainly of cellulose, jute fibers are part cellulose and part lignin. Jute fiber offers strength, low cost, high durability, and versatility. It is a cheap natural fiber having variety of end uses, for example to make hessian sacks, garden twine, ropes, and carpets and other diverse textile and non-textile applications including technical textiles. Jute is also used nowadays for furnishing and decorative upholstery products as home textiles.

jute spinning process

Process Flow Chart of Jute Spinning:
Raw jute (untreated Jute Strand) fibers treated with suitable additives like oil (jute batching oil, JBO) in water emulsion followed by piling and conditioning are subjected to carding at Breaker card followed by Finisher carding with or without intercarding (used only for very coarser type of raw jute for coarser jute yarn production) and then after three to four passage of drawing, the finisher drawing sliver is subjected to Jute spinning process in slip draft or apron draft jute spinning machine for jute yarn making of desired count.

A typical flow chart of jute spinning process is given below:

Batching /selection of raw jute

Piecing up

Softening

Pilling

Jute Carding

Drawing-1

Drawing -2

Drawing -3

Jute Spinning

Batching Section:
Different types of batch for different count.

Batch for Hessian warp (8.25 Ibs per spindles) the batch is given bellow-

Jute grade Percentage
Tossa – C 60%
White – X 30%
Mesta – c 10%

Batch for Hessian Weft (8.5 Ibs per spindles)-

Jute grade  Percentage
Tossa – C 30%
White – X 50%
 White -c 20%

Batch selection for Sacking warp (count 10.25 lbs/ spyndle)-

Jute grade percentage
Hard jute 60%
Soft jute 40%

Emulsion Section:
Basic ingredients of an emulsion:

  1. Water
  2. Mineral oil and
  3. Emulsifier

The reasons why emulsion is used are given below:

  1. To make the jute fiber soft.
  2. To increase flexibility.
  3. To reduce fiber stiffness and brittleness.
  4. To increase cohesiveness of fiber.

Recipe for Emulsion:

  • Oil ……………………………………………..27.67%
  • Water …………………………………………72.28%
  • Emulsifier ……………………………………0.05%
Recipe for emulsion
Fig: Emulsion making

Procedure:
Emulsifier and equal quantity of mineral oil are placed in the mixing tang. Adding remaining oil then add water and mixed for a period of time. Then transferring to the reserve tank to supply next machine

Softening Section:
After preparing emulsion it is applied on the fiber by softener or spreader machine. The discussion is here about softener machine. The figure and function of softener machine are given below-

Function:

  • The long jute fibers are fed on the machine by feed rollers.
  • Gripping and beating the fibers by spirally fluted rollers.
  • Emulsion is sprayed after passing one third portion of the fluted roller zone.
  • The fibers are delivered through delivery roller and delivery sheet.
 Passage diagram of Softening machine
Fig: Passage diagram of Softening machine

Deeping System: Why it is used?
It is a system developed by the authority of BJM by means of which the cuttings portion of the long jute fiber are slightly sink into the emulsion before feeding the fibers in softener machine so that a large amount of emulsion can be applied to the cuttings portion of the fiber and make it more flexible.

Deeping System
Fig: Deeping System

Pilling Section:
Definition of Pilling: It is the process by which emulsion applied long jute fibers are kept under a thick fabric for a certain time as a result fiber become soft and flexible. Depending on fiber quality the pilling time is varied.

Assumption of pilling assembly: 19 ft*5.5 ft*6 ft

Pilling section
Fig: Pilling section

Carding Section:
Carding is the process by which long strikes of jute fibers, while passing through high speed pinned rollers, are broken down into an entangled mass and delivered in roll form of uniform weight per unit length.

Breaker Card:

Breaker card
Fig: Breaker card

Machine Information:

  • Delivery rate = 600 kg /hr
  • Dollop weight = 34 lbs,
  • Clock length =13 yards,
  • Clock rotation = 360 degree,
  • Draft = 6,
  • Sliver weight /100 yards =18 lbs

Surface speed (SS) of different rollers:

  • Surface speed of cylinder = 3935 ft/minute
  • Surface speed of pin feed roller = 22.5 ft/min
  • Surface speed of worker = 70.61 ft/min
  • Surface speed of stripper = 81.7 ft/min
  • Surface of doffer = 192 ft/minute
  • Surface of Delivery roller = 268.13 ft/minute

Finisher Card:

Finisher card
Fig: Finisher card

Machine Information:

  • Doubling = 11:1
  • Draft = 10.6
  • Delivery = 400-450 kg/h
  • Finisher roll weight /100 yards = 16 lbs

Surface speed (SS) of different rollers:

  • Surface Speed of stripper = 398.48 ft/min
  • SS of worker = 54.39 ft/min,
  • SS of doffer =103.389 ft/min
  • SS of cylinder = 2388.6 ft/min ,
  • SS of feed stripper = 34.33 ft/min,
  • SS of top drawing roller = 117.20 ft/min
  • SS of bottom drawing roller = 123.21 ft/min,
  • SS of front delivery roller = 128.85 ft/min

Drawing Section:
After above these process drawing and doubling is done.

Jute Ring Spinning Frame:
Finally we get jute yarn from jute spinning frame.

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