Versatile Uses of Jute and Its Effect on Environment and Economy
Md. Palash Hossain
Department of Textile Engineering
Dhaka University of Engineering & Technology (DUET)
As jute can be used for many purposes, it is multipliable. It can be used for making different diversified products, geo-textiles (geo jute), as synthetic substitute, composite materials by mixing with various compounds. The most important factor that this fibre is easily decomposable and hence it is eco friendly. Beside this, it is quite available and cheap. This paper is concerned about introducing some new jute products (diversified, jute composite, geo jute) and reduces the use of synthetic material as this type of material is not decomposed and pollute environment in many ways. Complementary to this topic it deals with the effect on environment and economy.
Jute is a familiar fiber to the many countries of the world especially in Bangladesh as Bangladesh is one of the largest a big producer of jute in the world.
The weather condition of Bangladesh is very suitable for growing jute. Beside Bangladesh it is usually seen in India and other Southeast Asian countries. India is also a big producer of jute. In the 1800s jute industry was first set up by an English lady during British rule in India. In the 1950s and 1960s when nylon and polythene were rarely used, the united Pakistan earned a lot of currency through Bangladesh its eastern territory. In the 1970s Bangladesh earned huge foreign currency by exporting raw materials, jute goods, arts and crafts made with jute. That is why it was called the golden fiber of Bangladesh. But since the use of synthetic materials as a substitute of jute this sector was damaged. In the middle age for the plotting of IMF this sector went down. But now days these issues have been over. In the recent years Bangladesh government is trying to promote the jute industry to get back its lost position in the world market. The government is trying to initiate a revolution in the jute industry. For multiple uses it has now become the popular fiber to everybody. Jute has entered various diversified sectors, where natural fibres are gradually becoming better substitution. Among these industries produce paper, celluloid products (films), non-woven textiles, composites (pseudo-wood), and geo-textiles.
Primary discussion about jute
Jute is a substance which comes from a Southeast Asian plant and which is used for making rope and cloth a strong, glossy fiber used for making burlap, sacks, mats, rope, etc. The botanical name of this fiber is Corchorus Capsularis and C.Olitorius.This fiber is longer and usually cellulose class.
- Jute is pollution free non toxic and thus eco-friendly.
- Bio-degradable jute deteriorates organically replenishing the earth with nutrients.
- Jute is renewable and recyclable.
- Jute is reusable.
- Jute is extremely strong durable and flexible.
Various Uses of Natural Jute
Fiber Based Products
Group-A: Pulp, Paper, Paper Products, Jute composites, Wood/Plastic substitutes, Non-woven products Wipes, Medicare textiles, Absorbents, Pillow/ Quilts fillers, Insulation materials, Bonding materials, etc.
Group-B: Cellulose, Cellulose derivatives, CMC, MCC, Technical fibers, Sheets, Panels, Floor tiles, Damp proofing sheet, etc.
Yarn Based Products
Group-C: Finer yarn, Bleached yarn, Dyed yarn, Dehaired yarn, Polished yarn, Coated yarn, Woollenized yarn, Blended yarn, Fancy yarn, Fused yarn, Core yarn, Cable yarn, Other treated yarn, Multiplied yarn, Fire retardant/ proof yarn, Corded yarn, etc.
Group –D: Hammock, Shikka, Shoe, Shoe upper, Shoe sole, Sandals, Door mat, Belts, Tape, Lace, Braids, Braided Rugs, Door cheeks, Door and window screen, etc.
Group-E: Sweater, Cardigan, Jackets, Muffler, Caps, Carrying kits, Knitted wears, knitted bags, etc.
Fabric Based Products
Group-F: Light fabric, designed fabric, Stripped fabric, checked fabric, Dyed fabric, Bleached fabric, Treated fabric, Union fabric, Woollenized fabric, Laminated fabric, Printed fabric, Calendar, etc.
Group-G: Suitcase, Briefcase, Gift boxes, Pots, Purses, Hold-all, Seminar bags, Folders and files, Beach products, Jewellery box, etc.
Group-H: Denim, Drill, Suiting, Shirting, Sheeting, Scarf, Dress materials, Chaddar, Tapestries, Curtains, Home textiles, Furnishing fabric, Bed cover, Sofa cover, Cushion cover, Pillow cover, Scrim cloth, Apparels, Quilts, Venetian blind, Buchram, Canvas, Tarpaulin, etc.
Group-I: Carpet, Blanket, Mats, Satranji, Wall mats, Table mats, Prayer mats, Running mats, Technical textile, Geo-Textiles, Brattic, Linoleum backing cloth, Floor covers, etc.
Group-J: Grocery bags, Shopping bags, Carry bags, Laundry bags, Garbage bags, School bags, Travel bags and kits, Havar sacks, Shoulder bags, Vanity bags, Purses, Toys, Decorative products, Berets, Nursery pots/ sheet/ square, etc.
Discuss About Jute Composites
What are jute composites: A material consisting of any fibers whiskers and particles in a common matrix.
Application of polymer matrix composites (Jute)
Aircrafts: Doors, wing, boxes, frames, staffers, floor beam, landing.
Space: Space shuttle, space station “freedom”.
Automotive: Body frame, chassis components, exterior body components.
Marine: Hulls and masts, spars, decks, and bulkheads etc.
Sports goods: Tennis, golf club shafts and heads, bicycle frames, skis, helmets.
Chemical: Pipes, tanks.
Construction: Structural and decorative panels, bridge, housing doors.
Electrical: Printed circuit board, computer housings.
Furniture: Table, chair, kitchen cabinet etc.
Fire proof jute fabrics
Jute fabrics are made fire-proofed by treating them in a composite solution admixed with some phosphate compounds urea and a resin component in a pad-dry-cure technique it fulfills the requirement of flame proof fabrics according to international standard. These fabrics are suitable for all specialized uses wherever fire proofing or insulation is desirable.
Other uses of jute composite
- Mobile body
- Computer body
- Fire proof Car’s body
List and figures of different jute diversified products
Applications and Uses
Geo-textiles are used in wide range of areas. Following are the some important application areas where treated-untreated, blended-nonblended, natural and synthetic, geo-textiles are used. They may be woven-nonwoven, knitted-netted, corded, composite and sandwiched etc. But application of geotextiles is location specific so in addition to the characteristics of geo-textiles, identification and application of geo-textiles depends on soil type, soil composition, moisture content, liquid limits, plasticity index, bulk density, soil pH, iron/calcium content, clay/silt and sand composition, land sloping & hydraulic action etc. Moreover climatic condition of the application site is also to be considered.
Recent study of International Fabrics Association shows following eight end uses for geo-textiles with the percentage of market share (i) Asphalt overlay (35%) (ii) Stabilizer (30%) (iii) Drainage (16%) (iv) Liners (6%) (v) Silt fence (6%) (vi) Rail road (4%) (vii) Reinforcement (viii) Filters in barrages/embankment, seashore protection (rest.).
A. As a Separator/Separation
These are some forms of aggregate used to form some layer which prevent contamination of one kind of material from another kind of material, called separator. They are used in all classes of roads and similar civil foundation as the base of construction on contaminated layer is the single most cause of premature failure. The use of separator prevents pumping effect created by dynamic load and also helps the passage of water while retaining soil particles.
In this types of geo-textile, thickness and permeability are most important characteristic properties.
Some of the applications areas are:
- Between sub grade and stone base in unpaved and paved roads and airfields.
- Between sub grade in railroads.
- Between landfills and stone base courses.
- Between geo membranes and sand drainage layers.
- Between foundation and embankment soils for surcharge loads.
- Between foundation and embankment soils for roadways fills.
- Between foundation and embankment soils for earth and rocks dams.
- Between foundation and encapsulated soil layers.
- Between foundation soils and rigid retaining walls.
- Between foundation soils and flexible retaining walls.
- Between foundation soils and storage piles.
- Between slopes and downstream stability.
- Beneath sidewalks slabs.
- Beneath parking lots.
B. Reinforcement of Weak Soil and Other Materials:
Reinforcement types of geo-textiles are used to form the foundation and reduce the level of stress in the soil by spreading and evening out the stresses. For examples it would be used for building of a road/any civil construction over soft soils like mashes, swamps, wetland, and peat of similar difficult areas. Similarly stability of dams and embankment can be increased with their property of reinforcement. Strength and durability are the major characteristic properties needed for this type of geotextile. Geo textiles can reduce the thickness of the road-making materials needed and increase the life span of the road along with cost reduction.
A few application areas are shown below:
- Over soft soils for unpaved road, airfields, railroad, landfills, sports and athletic fields.
- Over unstable landfills as closure system.
- To warp soils in encapsulated fabric systems.
- To construct fabric-reinforced walls.
- To reinforcement embankment.
C. Filtration (Cross-Plane Flow)
In filtration fabrics can be either woven or non-woven, to permit the passage of water while retaining soil particles.
Porosity and permeability are the major properties of geo-textiles which involves in filtration action.
Some of application areas are given below:
- In place of granular soil filters.
- Beneath stone base for unpaved and paved of roads, rail road’s, airfields.
- To filter hydraulic fills.
- As a silt fence.
- As a silt curtain.
- As a flexible form for containing sand, grout or concrete in erosion control systems.
- As a flexible form for restoring underground mine integrity.
- Around crush stone surrounding under drain, drain pipe.
- Beneath landfill that generate leaching.
- Between backfill soil and voids in retaining walls.
- As a filter beneath stone riprap.
- As a filter beneath recast block etc.
D. Drainage (In-Plane Flow)
Fiber drains/prefabricated drains:
In foundation engineering, consolidation settlement of clayey, salty and muddy soil creates serious problems for construction engineers. The application of various types of drains is to allow accelerated dissipation of pore water pressure by lateral drainage, cardboard drain, wick drain, prefabricated drain and latest innovated banana drain.
Some of the application areas of these drains are given below:
- As a chimney drain in earth dam.
- As a drainage gallery in earth dam.
- As a drainage inceptor for horizontal flow.
- As a drainage blanket beneath a surcharge fill.
- As a drain behind a retting wall.
- As a drain beneath railroad ballast.
- Beneath aggregate in unpaved roads.
- Reinforcement of embankment fills and earth dams.
- Repairing slope failures and landslides.
- Construction of mattresses for fills over soft soils.
- Water drainage behind retaining walls.
- Water drainage beneath building foundations.
E. Geo-textiles In Rural Road Construction or Surfacing
The use of geo-textile products in temporary and rural unpaved road construction is one of their most common uses, and work on them is well established. The basis behind their use is that by placing a geo-textile between the weak sub grade soil and the aggregate fill the unpaved road construction will be established.
- Provide a physical barrier to the intermixing of the aggregate and sub grade soil.
- Provide local reinforcement.
- Act as a support membrane.
- Provide sufficient fiction to limit lateral sliding of the aggregate.
- Improve the quality of rural roads.
- Increase life span of the road.
- Cost reduction of repair.
- Stands natural climatic like flood /monsoon destruction.
- Natural geo-textiles like jute geo-textiles help balancing eco-system.
F. Erosion Control
Erosion control products are designed to control erosion and cover a diverse range of products which includes; nets, meshes, mats, blankets, both synthetic and natural biodegradable and non biodegradable are used to mitigate erosion under different conditions, according to short, medium and long term.
Jute geo-textiles particularly geo jute of open, porous and knitted structure (500-1000gm|sqm) are generally used for its effective and advantage over synthetic for its easy biodegradable, droppable, and easy to contact with soil along with capillary actions so that they can easily be compatible with application slope area.
In agricultural practices, particularly in agronomic/horticultural activities, various fibrous materials are being used from time immemorial for better and effective benefits in producing better crops. Jute geo-textiles are biodegradable and have only a lifespan of one season.
Moisturizers are generally from natural fibers. They are fabricated and design so that they have high water holding capacity. High capiliraties and hydrogen bonding properties are special properties for these types of geo-textile, so that they can provide water to the plants /crops/land/structure when needed.
These are woven, nonwoven, composite, treated and untreated fabrics like nursery sheet/pot, nursery tapes etc. some time with special treatment for higher water absorption capacity, anti microbial protection etc.
Some applications areas are:
- Seasoning newly constructed RCC/civil structure during building.
- Protect land from desertification by planting specials type of grass/herbs/plants and providing water for initial growth propagation.
- Protection of forest plant from draught/dehydration by supplying soil moisture and preventing evaporation.
- Anti forest fire retardant/stopping fire propagation by the application of specially treated geo-textile in forest area.
I. Land Reclamation from Sea/Desert
Jute is a versatile fiber having composite nature of high chelae forming. By setting them land reclamation can be undertaken and further with the formation of lignomass quicker vegetative growth occurs. On the other hand desert area can be transformed in to a cropland with the transformation of sand into soil by gradual supply of water and plantation on it.
J. Irrigation Liner
Irrigation liners are non permeable fabrics, generally synthetics or natural modified with resin/rubber/polymers etc. so that water can not pass through it. But compatible with canal structure and land.
Important properties of irrigation liners are;
- Save water from sieve during irrigation.
- Reduce waste of water during irrigation.
- Reduce soil erosion during irrigation.
- Save land for cultivation by using movable canal liner.
- Prevent soil degradation during irrigation.
- Reduce water evaporation during irrigation.
- Create beneficial climatic condition for growth of crop with appropriate local climate.
K. As a Protection of Earthquake
Though jute and other fibrous materials were used as a reinforcing material in the construction of mud houses of this part of the world from time immemorial, recently jute and other fiber materials have been identified as an effective raw material for stabilizing various buildings made as of ancient mud houses in Asia and African countries from protection of earthquake.
L. As Temporary Irrigation Dam
These are specially treated /modified jute fabrics which are hydrophobic, on permeable and easily movable so that water can be channeled within a short usable area.
M. Protection of Tea Garden
Jute having high moisture and UV protecting character have a definite capability to protect soft tea leaves.
Here geo-textiles are used to contain sand, rock and fresh concrete in the form work.
To remove access stress and strain or redistribution between to materials geo textiles are used as cushion. It protects materials from friction, breakage and cavity.
P. Tensioned Membrane
Here geo-textiles reduce the stress between two side by side materials.
Q. Slip Surface
Geo-textiles act as a slip surface between two continuous materials. In doing so geo-textiles reduce friction or adhesion.
The process for producing jute blanket comprises spinning jute fiber, chemical modification of plied jute yarn followed by bleaching, dyeing and finishing weaving in a loom fitted with dobby, rising in a raising machine. The blankets produced from jute have strength high abrasion resistance, high thermal involution value i.e. very warm.
The fabrics are woven using finer jute yarn as weft and cotton yarn as warp. The fabrics are then chemically modified by hot woollenisation process, bleached and dyed in order to make them soft, lustrous and light weight. These are free from health hazard and naturally decomposable. They are also excellent for travel, kits school bag, and hand bag, file bag, shopping bag, hold all and shoe cover, etc.
Jute Garments are gaining popularity in recent time these fashion Garments in many new and innovative design are fetching the market and their demand is increasing at a tremendous pace. As the demand of Jute Garments is increasing there exist a great scope for new entrepreneur to enter into this field.
Jute Yarn, Jute Sutli & Hessian Cloth Weaving Integrated Unit
Jute Follows cotton in world textiles consumption. It is used in a floor covering, wrapping & industrial fabrics rather than in clothing textiles. Three classes of twine are made viz. Country twine, export twine and sacking twine. There is bright scope of jute yarn, jute sutli & hessian cloth weaving integrated unit.
Jute Shopping Bags
Shopping bags available in Bangladesh made by paper, jute, synthetic resin base bags, leather bags etc. Jute is ecofriendly product. Jute fiber largely used for making jute base product – Carpet, Bags, Shopping Bags, School Bags etc. There is very good demand of jute bags. Proportionately supply of jute shopping bags is from the tiny and small scale sector. It can be used transferring product from one place to another. It can be used for shopping purpose. There is very bright scope for entrepreneurs as these are being accepted for export business also.
Effect of Jute on Environment
- If mobile body, computer body, television body are made by jute, it will be most effective for environment because when life time of mobile phone, TV, computer body will be invalid, it is dropped on the land as a result the fertility of land is decrease. In doing so synthetic material destroys the production capability of land.
- Also if we make table by jute composite it will minimize the pressure on wood which is most effective for our environment.
- When jute bag is used as a substitute of polythene bag, it does not hamper the soil as done by polyethylene.
- In case drainage system, if we use concrete nothing is possible to do on the place of that concrete but jute can reduce this problem because it is possible to grow plants under the jute compound.
Comparative properties of synthetic and jute products
|SI. No||Name of observations||Effect on synthetic Products.||Effect on Jute Products.|
|1.||Biodegradability||Non Biodegradable||Designed Biodegradable|
|2.||Photo degradability||Not Photodegradable||Photodegradable|
|3.||Ionic Property||Normal nonionic||Anionic|
|4.||Metal content||Mercury, lead, cadmium, coper, nickel, cobalt, zinc, Arsenic etc.||None|
|5.||Stabilizer \ sensitizer||Present||Absent|
|6.||Compatible||Normally not compatible||Compatible|
|7.||On burring||Toxic gas evolves||Only co evolves|
|8.||Effect on water||Pollution on leaching||No pollution|
|9.||Effect on biological path way||Possibility of creating disturbance in biological pathway||No disturbance|
|10.||Effect on agricultural activity||Increase insect growth by increasing soil temperature||No effect|
|11.||Extensibility||High extensible||Low Extensible|
|12.||Shape and size||Any dimension||Any dimension|
|13.||Fabrication||Woven, Nonwoven, Composite||Woven, Nonwoven, Composite|
|14.||Expected design Life||Not possible (if possible, creates other problems)||Possible|
|17.||Availability||Imported||Local and easy|
Importance of Jute Sector on Economy of Bangladesh
As a huge amount of jute is grow in Bangladesh so the economy of Bangladesh is related to it. If the uses area of jute is increase hence the rate of jute exportation will be increase Bangladesh once enjoyed the monopoly in production and marketing of jute & jute goods in the world market. At present Bangladesh is the second largest producer of jute.
Bangladesh produces the finest quality of jute due to favorable climate and soil condition. About 12 lac (1.2 million) acres of land is in use for jute cultivation per year in the country.
Bangladesh on an average produces 50-55 lac (5.0-5.5 million) bales of raw jute which is 30% of world production per year. Out of these 20-25 lac(2.0-2.5 million) bales are exported and 30 lac (3.0 million) bales are consumed by the jute mills, leaving the rest for domestic consumption and carryover. About 5.5-6.0 lakh MT jute goods are produced in the country annually out of which 70-75% is exported. Bangladesh meets nearly 95% of world raw jute demand and about 60% of jute goods demand. Bangladesh approximately earns foreign currency worth about 2000 crore taka from exporting raw jute and jute goods on an average per year. Still today Bangladesh is the largest supplier of jute and jute goods in the international markets. At present there are more than 150 composite & twine Jute Mills in Bangladesh in public & private sector. They are producing traditional products along with various types of twine & diversified jute products. About 35 million people (25% of the total population) of Bangladesh is directly or indirectly dependent on Jute cultivation and manufacturing, trading of Jute & Jute goods. Jute industry is the 2nd largest industrial employer in the country and about 10% of the total labor force is engaged in jute sector. For achieving the goal and objective as mentioned above following outlines have been undertaken for upgrading national jute policy;
- Retain/increase market of the traditional jute products.
- Develop new application of traditional products.
- Development of new products using the advantages of natural fibers.
- Improve fiber quality.
- Improve productivity and product quality.
- Make use of sustainable development agenda.
- Increase consumer awareness by highlighting the environment friendliness of jute Kenaf.
- Address the trade issues.
- Address supply and management issue.
- Create R&D net work.
- Create employment opportunities and develop human resources.
- To provide due price to the farmer keeping in view the production of raw jute.
- Restructuring of jute industry to make it commercially profitable and viable.
Amount of earning foreign currency by exporting jute items
(Value in million dollars) Value in million Taka
|Fiscal year||Total export of jute items|
Graphical representation of earning foreign currency by exporting jute items of recent years
Prospect of Jute Industry in Bangladesh
1. For keeping our environment safe, jute products must be used instead of synthetic materials.
2. If our government takes necessary steps to inspire jute producer, they will be motivate to produce jute by which they will be able to earn huge capital.
3. By applying jute composite to produce car body, mobile body, computer body, table, chair and comet etc, in doing so jute will increase the economy of our country also it will create the job vacancy for our countrymen.
4. Although jute sector is striving for its existence with a huge accumulated financial burden on it and losses being incurred every year, yet the rays of hopes are not totally disappeared. As renewable, biodegradable, easily disposable and environment friendly natural commodity, there is a good prospect of Jute and Jute products which is described in brief below:
5. A global consciousness has already developed against the use of artificial fibers and synthetic products, which are now being replaced by the environment friendly jute goods.
6. The Govt. of Bangladesh banned production, sale and use of polythene from 01 March, 2002. As a result the demand of Jute & Jute goods is increasing.
7. There is a huge local demand of jute stick as a primary substitute for diesel/wood. Moreover, Jute sticks are very useful material for various purposes as fencing and roofing materials for making sheds. These are also used as important industrial raw material for making particle board whose demand is increasing in national and international Market.
8. Due to increasing price of Jute & Jute goods more entrepreneurs (SMEs) are entering the market for Jute business and introducing new Jute Diversified Products.
9. Series of R&D project and programmers had been implemented and these have generated new technologies for production of diversified jute products. There is huge demand of Diversified Jute Products in National and International Market.
10. JDPC has established contact with different foreign bodies which are interested in R&D activities along with commercial exploration of diversification of jute uses like, IFTH, West Australian Agriculture Department (wool service desk), Toyata Tsusho Corporation, GTZ-Progress, Innovation Bio-Fibers Corporation AG, Rovotex AG, Miaco International, MITSUI & Co. LTD, Asia-Pacific Coalition for Environment, Euro Mode Fashion, General Motor, Cosmic International Inc, Freudenberg-Vilene, different Universities of Europe and USA, Dong Bang Textiles Ltd. etc. The successful completion of these activities may open up a new horizon in Jute sector.
11. The first and foremost strength of the Bangladesh Jute Industry is that it is based on the raw material that is available at the doorstep. Bangladesh is recognized as one of the major jute producing countries.
12. Jute is a rapidly growing crop with 120 days for its production. In addition, Jute and Jute products are renewable, biodegradable, eco-friendly, easily disposable and natural commodity.
13. The availability of cheap labor in Bangladesh is a known fact and jute industry is bestowed with this factor of production. The activities pertaining to the traditional jute industries do not require much skilled labor. Again, the skill that is required can be improve through simple training on the job itself.
14. There are educated and professionally experienced people in the country to run industries including jute industries.
15. Bangladesh jute industry is based on old technology and machinery. New technologies for production of diversified jute products are now available.
16. Bangladesh is in jute business for decades. There are adequate arrangements for facilitation of jute trade inside and outside the country. An elaborate system exists for procurement and disposal of raw jute. Jute goods produced by public sector mills are marketed centrally by BJMC. There are standard procedures and contract forms for jute trade exist in private sector mills under BJMA and BJSA.
17. Jute is one of the most versatile natural fibers used as raw material for packaging, textiles, the non-textile and agricultural sectors.
Bangladesh is one of the largest jute producing country. Recently Jute fiber is getting popularity duo to its eco-friendly characteristics. Jute manufacturing sector of Bangladesh has passed through a critical juncture in the course of its long track record of development. The sector faced both opportunities and challenges. The sector inherent weakness, but it has also demonstrated strengths. These weaknesses and strengths of the jute sector need to be identified in order to provide appropriate directions of reform and restructuring for the growth and development of this sector. It is possible to make proper use of jut product as it is effective for environment and economy. Hence it will develop our economy and safe our environment. So we should come forward.
- Bangladesh Jute Research Institute
- Jute Geo-textile and their application, A.B.M Abdullah -2008.
- Statistical report (2000-2010) Export Promotion Bureau
- International Jute Study Group
- Advanced Long Staple Spinning by Engg. A.K.M Fazlul Haque and Engg. Abu Naser Mohammed Shamim.
- Seema Bose Adhara, Director Marketing, Jute Diversification Promotion Centre.
- Hand note about jute composite, source -BJRI
- ”Jute Manufacturing Sector of Bangladesh Challenge, Oppurtunities and Policy Option ” by Md. Tarikur Rahman, Khandaker Golam Moazzem and Abdus Sobhan
- Bangladesh Textile Today, September-October, 2010
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