Garment Analysis: Its Classification and Methods
Dept of Fashion Design & Arts
Hindustan University, Chennai, India
Most apparel professionals engage in some type of garment analysis, either formal or informal, as part of their job responsibilities.
Garment analysis procedures differ depending on who performs the analysis, the purpose of the analysis, and the methods of analysis that are employed.
Both consumers and Apparel professionals do garment analysis. Consumers engage in garment analysis every time they shop for apparel. The thoroughness of the analysis depends in large part of the type of garment being sought and consumer’s product knowledge.
Consumers perceptions of products may be based on intrinsic or extrinsic cues to quality and performance depending on personal preferences or priorities. Purchase made by the customers determine the success of the decisions made by the apparel professionals.
Classifications of Garment Analysis:
- Professional Garment Analysis.
- Methods of Garment Analysis.
- Process of Garment Analysis and specification development.
- Style description.
- Sizing and fit.
- Materials selection.
- Garment component Assembly.
- Final garment assembly and finishing.
- Style presentation.
Professional Garment Analysis:
Professional Garment Analysis involves the following goals, processes, and limitations:
- Products are examined from a business perspective with the goal or positioning products to satisfy the needs of target customers.
- Decisions are made in the context of the product line and the firm’s strategic plan.
- Products are developed and marketed to suit groups of target customers in terms of styling, fit, fashion, quality, and value.
- Sound technical knowledge of materials and garment assembly is needed to determine product performance.
- Alternative product development,production,and/or marketing processes are assessed.
- The bottom line, the potential profitability of the product,is always considered in evaluating alternatives.
- Quality standards are based on perceptions of target customers exceptions.
- Analysis standards are based on perceptions of target customers expectations.
- The results of professional analysis determine what will be available to consumers of the retail sales floor.
Methods of Garment Analysis:
Three different methods of analysis that could be used are these;
- Visual inspection.
- Augumented visual inspection, aided by simple tests, simple magnification and measuring equipment, and/or home laundry equipment.
- Laboratory analysis with standard test methods, specialized testing equipment, high-power magnification, and highly calibrated measuring equipment.
1. Visual inspection
It is effective in evaluating overall garment appearance and aesthetics, estimating fabric quality, identifying stitch and seam types, and estimating number of stitches(spi).
A skill person can conduct a quick and reasonably reliable assessment of these product characteristics using visual inspection.
Experience in garment analysis develops the ability to see and feel quality products. Skills are developed through comparing similar characteristics and performance of a wide variety of products.
Consumers and retail buyers, when viewing product lines for the first time, frequently use visual inspection. The reliability of visual analysis is completely dependent on the skill of the individual conducting the analysis.
2. Augumented visual inspection
Provides more information and increases the ability to reach reliable conclusions. Simple burning or solubility tests might be used to verify fiber content. Use of microscopes or pic glasses increases the details that can be observed in fabric structures relative to interlacing patterns, yarn types, yarn twists, methods of color application, and so on.
Use of home laundry equipment can provide insight into latent defects such as color bleeding and shrinkage.
Both visual inspection and augumented visual inspection can often be performed without destroying the product.use of standard tests and calabrated equipment increases the costs of the analysis but also the amount of information available.
3. Laboratory analysis with standard test methods
The most scientific garment analysis involves laboratory tests of the products and materials.laboratory tests with standard test methods endorsed by the American society for testing and materials (ASTM). The American association of chemists and colorists (AATCC) or other professional organizations and controlled laboratory conditions provide the most reliable results.
Shrinkage, strength, abrasion resistance, air-permeability, colorfastness, and shading, analysis of these compatibility of materials and suitability to particular end uses.
Tests are frequently destructive,and extra materials and garments must be sampled according to specified methods.
In –house testing is less time consuming but requires equipment, time, and personnel.out-of-house testing requires more lead time.
Process of Garment Analysis and Specification Development:
Garment analysis conducted to meet particular business needs, may require extensive knowledge of certain aspects of the apparel business.
Professional garment analysis works best conducted in small segments including the following:
- Style description.
- Positioning strategy.
- Sizing and fit.
- Materials inspection.
- Component assembly.
- Final assembly and finishing and
- Style presentation.
The information necessary to communicate identity of the style to numerous apparel professionals that will be using specifications includes brand, style number, merchandise group, size ranges, and the person responsible for approval of the changes that may take place as the garment is developed.
- Merchandise Group.
- Body Type.
- Sample Size.
- Approved By.
The foundation for garment analysis is the purpose or intended use of a garment. Factors that are useful in describing a products’ purpose and slyling include functional/aesthetic priorities, durable/disposable performance, intrinsic/extrinsic cues to quality, basic/fashion styles, non-seasonal/budget/moderate/better/bridge/designer price ranges. Each set of factors forms a range of possibilities that can be selected to position a product to make it desirable target market.
Sizing and fit:
Consumers seek garments that provide an attractive appearance and comfort during wear, often within whatever current fashion suggests as acceptable fit.
Manufacturers and retailors recognize that garments must be labelled in a manner that allows customers to find the right size.However, the apparel industry has no mandated or universally used sizing standards. Normally the garment size should be suit to their target customers.
Commonly used body types are infant, toddler, girls, boys, preteen, junior, misses, petite, women’s petite, womens’, young mens and mens’. S.m.land xl sizes are the general body size category. Height is mentioned in women’s readymade wear. Age is mentioned in the label of children’s wear. Bust girth along with cup size indicating the letter A,B,C,D,DD. and DDD in the foundation upper torso wear like corset, brassiere and in panties waist or hip girth is indicated in the label.
Materials used in apparel manufacturing include fabrics and findings.findings include all the rest of materials required to complete the garments, including support/shaping, materials, trims, closures, threads, labels, and accessories. Proper selection and consistent quality of materials are important to apparel quality and performance. One inferior material can impart a lower quality level to the entire garment. The quality of materials must also be consistent with the product positioning strategy.
Yarn type and size, fabrication, count, weight, drapability, structural or applied design, color application, finishes, care and material method of application are to be considered.
Garment Component Assembly:
Garment structure is determined by the pattern shapes and method of assembling materials into garments. Method of assembly defines the sequence of processes and how each step in the assembly process is accomplished to create the garment structure.
Two phases are 1. Garment components Assembly. and 2. Final Garment Assembly.
Final garment assembly and finishing:
Final Garment Assembly are:
- Use methods appropriate to materials that will achieve consistent output.
- Use methods that will achieve quality and performance standards.
- Use appropriate work aids to reduce handling.
- Minimize handling and number of operations.
- Keep garment components so they will lay flat as long as possible.
- Assemble small components before attaching to large components.
- Operators are responsible for quality of their own work.
Descriptions of garment components:
- Top front and top back,
- Collars and other neckline treatment,
- Cuffs and other sleeve treatments.
- Waist band treatments.
Garment Finishing Processes:
Trimming, wet-processing, garment dyeing, post cure durable press, final pressing, ticketing, tagging and packaging.
Garment analysis is a part of the everyday life of most apparel professionals. The purpose and depth of analysis vary depending on professional responsibilities for the garments. A garment can be evaluated by establishing the product positioning strategy; examining sizing and fit; analyzing quality, and appropriateness of materials.
Examining the components of garment structure, the processes of final assembly and techniques of garment finishing, and evaluating garment presentation.
Professionals uses of garment analysis depend on individual responsibilities for garments. Apparel professionals who are using merchandisers, designers, marketing managers, specification writers, costing engineers, material buyers,production managers, quality control engineers, laboratory technicians, retail sales people, sourcing specialists, and technical designers.
- Apparel manufacturing sewn product analysis- By.E.GLOCK and Grace. I.KUNZ.
- Apparel Manufacturing Technology By T. Karthik, P. Ganesan and D. Gopalakrishnan
More articles published by same author:
- Drafting and Cutting Techniques of Dartless Saree Blouse
- Drafting Details of Katori Blouse Step by Step
- Viva Questions and Answers for Fashion Design Students and Professionals
- Different Types of Traditional Dress in India
- Madurai Sungudi Cotton Sarees – Present Trend
- Chettinad Cotton Sarees in Tamilnadu – An Overview
- Mangalagiri Sarees and Fabrics – An Overview
- Interview Questions for Industrial Engineering Job in Apparel Industry
- Duties and Responsibilities of the Apparel Industrial Engineer
Founder & Editor of Textile Learner. He is a Textile Consultant, Blogger & Entrepreneur. He is working as a textile consultant in several local and international companies. He is also a contributor of Wikipedia.