Analyze the Effect of Different Washing on Garments

Last Updated on 30/03/2021

Analyze the Effect of Different Washing on Garments

Rahat Khan
Dept. of Apparel Manufacturing
Atish Dipankar University of Science and Technology
Email: rahat.info@gmail.com

 

1. INTRODUCTION
Garments industry is the fastest growing and competitive sector in Bangladesh. It is also challenging as well. Bangladesh earns 83% of total foreign currency from this sector by exporting ready made garments. Washing is a new and important technique in garments trade. That is why the study of washing technology does deserve well practical practice. So, our university provides us a project work on garments washing. We have completed our project work in HAMS WASHING & DYEING LTD and some part in our lab.

1.1 Objectives:

  1. The main object of garments washing is to know the process of washing, such as, Stone, Enzyme, Acid and Bleach wash.
  2. Analyze the effect of different washing, and compare which washing is more preferable for garments washing.
  3. To analyze the use of different chemical on garments washing and compare the effect of chemical on garments.
  4. To create new fashion like different types of fading effect in garments.
  5. To develop soft feeling effect on the garments by using softener and create new outlook.

2. LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 Garments washing:
It is a technology by which outlook, comfort ability and fashion of garments is changed or modified and given old garment effect. Various types of chemicals and materials may be needed to do the specific wash.

2.2 Types of garment washing:

  1. Normal wash
  2. Bleach wash
  3. Stone wash
  4. Acid wash
  5. Enzyme wash
  6. Caustic wash
  7. Super white wash
  8. Wash & over dyeing (dirty washing)

2.2.1 Normal wash:
Normal wash is used to remove size material, adhering dyes, and any dart or oil spot of the garments. It is also used to develop the wash look of garments and to improve the soft feeling of garments. Detergent is used in normal wash. We get soft feeling effect through normal wash.

2.2.2 Bleach wash:
Fading effect is produced in the garments by partial bleaching action. Color garments are normally dyed with direct or reactive dyes. Due to the use of bleaching agent this wash is called bleach wash. Soda ash, antistant, powder enzyme, liquid enzyme and H2O2 is used in bleach wash. Through bleach wash fading effect can be done on garments.

2.2.3 Stone wash:
Stone wash is done on garments made from denim and jeans fabric. Fading effect is produced in the garments in irregular pattern. Garments become comfortable during use after stone wash. Soda ash, antistant, powder enzyme, liquid enzyme and pumice stone are used here. Through stone wash we can get soft feeling effect with fading of garments.

pneumic stones
Fig: Pumice stones

2.2.4 Acid wash:
Garments made from heavy jeans & denim fabrics are washed by acid wash technique. Pumice stone is used for washing. Soda ash, antistant, liquid enzyme, powder enzyme acetic acid and pumice stone are used in acid wash. Irregular spotty effect can be produced in the garments through acid wash. Pumice stone stones are perforated stones produced by volcanic explosion. At first it is soft, but becomes cold, it seems to like the stones with rough surface. This type of stones floats on water.

The pumice stone stones to be used during acid wash should be pretreated in the following chemical solution.

Recipe:

  • Water: 100 L
  • Potassium permanganate: 1.2 kg
  • Phosphoric acid: 300 ml

The solution was stirred in a stainless-steel bowl.

The pumice stone stones were soak in the stock solution for 2-3 min. Then the stones were dried in open air for 60 to 90 min.

Stone preparation
Fig: Stone preparation                                           Fig: Prepared stone

2.2.5 Enzyme wash:
Indigo dyed warp yarn is sized with Starch together with soluble PVA to remove this size materials enzyme wash is used. In order to give the fabric a soft effect & to give the denim a stone wash look, with better nice blue and white contrast on the surface. Soda ash, antistant, powder enzyme, liquid enzyme are used during enzyme wash.

2.2.6 Caustic wash:
High density alkali medium is used in caustic wash which remove the protruding fiber from the fabric surface and also fade the color of the fabric. “Caustic” is a chemical with corrosive nature, or strong cleaning power especially for oil spot. In this process all the dirt fine particles of cotton seeds & all foreign materials are cleaned up.

2.2.7 Garments washes & garments over dyeing:
This type of wash is done on the garments after acid wash or stone wash. Normally, direct or reactive dyes are used for over dyeing. If direct dyes are used for over dyeing, at the end of dyeing color fixing agent is needed to fix the direct dyes. If reactive dyes are used for over dyeing, then staining of other garments during cleaning can be avoided.

2.2.8 Super white wash:
During stone wash & bleach wash, optical brightening agents (OBA) is used in the final rinsing to make the white threads in the fabric whiter to create stronger contrast between blue & white on the surface of the fabric.

2.3 Machineries used in garments washing industry:

  1. Garments washing machine.
  2. Hydro extractor machine
  3. Drying machine (tumble dryer)
  4. Boiler
  5. Sample washing machine
  6. Sand blasting unit for sand blast washing
  7. Spray machine
  8. Whickering
  9. Grinding machine
  10. Heat chamber for making crease in denim garments.

2.3.1 Garments washing machine:
The main function of garments washing machine is to remove the Starch and to make the garments soft. If any dirt is generated in the fabric surface it can be removed by washing. It gives garments new outlook.

Vertical washing machine
Fig: Vertical washing machine
Horizontal washing machine
Fig: Horizontal washing machine

Specification of machine:

  • Capacity: 500kg (weight of garments)
  • Normal capacity: 200kg
  • Dia of main cylinder: 4-6 inch
  • Height of the bar: 4inch
  • Cylinder rpm: 30-40
  • M: L: 1:5 to 1:10

Garments washing machine consists of a perforated main cylinder where the washing is done. There is a door in the main cylinder by which fabric or garments are dosed. The washing liquor along with chemicals is positioned in the bottom of the main cylinder. When the main cylinder rotates clockwise or anticlockwise direction, washing liquor goes to the main cylinder by perforated holes and washing is done

2.3.2 Hydro extractor:
Hydro extractor is used to remove excessive water from the garments. Knitted fabrics should not be squeezed in pressure mangles. Hydro extractor is used for such kind of fabrics to remove excess water before go for drying. Hydro extraction is a batch process which works on centrifuge principle. Fabrics put into the perforated case, made for copper or galvanized iron, which is mounted on a central spindle and contained in steel or iron casing. When the perforated casing rotates at high speed, a centrifugal force is developed which forces the wet fabrics to the inner wall of the case. Water is then forced out from the fabrics through the perforation of the casing. It is the best process for removing water giving the most efficiency.

Hydro extractor
Fig: Hydro extractor

2.3.3 Drying machine:
After hydro extraction the garments are turned to drying machine for better drying. Tumble dryer is specially used for garments drying. Here the fabrics are dried at maximum relaxation state. That’s why shrinkage and GSM can be controlled.

2.3.4 Boiler:
Boiler is an essential machine, which is used in dyeing & washing industries to produce steam from water. It contains huge amount of water in it and convert those water in to steam to raise temperature.

The equipment used for producing steam is called steam generator or boiler. The boiler used for producing steam in IAL is Cochran boiler which is a fire tube type boiler. Simple vertical boiler of fire tube type is mainly used in small plant requiring small quantity of steam and where floor area is limited.

Here, gas is fed to the burner which run by thermo motor and produce flame. The flame produces hot flue gases, which pass through the tubes that are surrounded by water. This water is supplied from the soft water tank to the feed water tank, which is situated above the boiler. The heat energy of the flue gas is transfer to water which is converted into steam. This steam is supplied to the whole plant. The spent gases are then discharged to the atmosphere through chimney.

2.3.5 Sample washing machine:
After getting order from buyer, sample is prepared as per buyers’ requirement to match the original sample. Before bulk production this is done in sample washing machine.

Sample washing machine
Fig: Sample washing machine

2.3.6 Sand blasting unit:
It is a mechanical process of producing fading effect on garments made from heavy fabric like denim. Normally sand blasting is combined with wash like normal wash, bleach wash, enzyme wash & over dyeing.

Sand blasting unit
Fig: Sand blasting unit

The process of sand blasting is described below:
Aluminum oxide is used for sand blasting which looks like sand. This aluminum oxide are blown at very high pressure through a gun. The gun has a switch to start and stop flow of aluminum oxide. The garments to be sand blasted are placed on the bed of a closed chamber. From feeding chamber sands are blown by high air pressure through the pipe and gun. The area of the garments fabrics surface is faded by the friction affect of sand. The blow of sand is placed at 10-20 angle on surface. Fading is done on re marked areas .Various patterns or designs may be used during fading creation in the pre marked areas by blocking or fading technique. The faded garments are manually cleaned by shaking and kept aside.

The process of sand blasting
Fig: The process of sand blasting

3. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1 Sample preparation:

Denim:
Denim is a strong, durable fabric constructed in a twill weave with indigo and white yarns. The blue or indigo yarns are the length wise or “warp” threads (parallel to the selvedge). The white yarns run across the fabric width (the weft threads). Denim is traditionally woven with 100% cotton yarn; however, today it is blended with polyester, to control shrinkage & wrinkles, and lycra to add stretch.

Today, denim has many faces. It can be printed, striped, brushed, napped & stone washed, and the indigo blue yarn can be replaced with different colors’ to create colored denim.

3.2 Denim fabric analysis:
By analyzing the denim fabric with counter glass & needle we find that it is a 2 up 1 down twill weave fabric.

Denim fabric analysis

Denim fabric sample
Fig: Denim fabric sample

Fabric composition:

1. Warp: 100% cotton

2. Weft:

  • Cotton: 76%
  • Polyester: 23%
  • Spandex: 1%
  • Total: 10

4. WASHING PROCEDURE FOR DENIM GARMENTS

4.1 Chemicals used for washing:
The following are the names of the chemicals that has been used during washing of the denim fabric.

  1. Soda ash
  2. Antistant
  3. Acetic acid
  4. Powder enzyme
  5. Liquid enzyme
  6. H2O2
  7. Stabilizer

4.2 Functions of chemicals used for washing:

1. Soda ash:
Soda ash creates the alkaline medium to get chlorine ion from bleaching powder. Without alkaline medium bleaching powder cannot give chlorine ion. Soda ash also has a cleaning power.

2. Antistant:
Anti-staining agent is one type of strong detergent, which is used in the dye bath to protect the fabric from the staining of color.

3. Acetic acid:
We use alkaline medium for washing, the acetic acid turns the garments in to neutral medium.

4. Powder Enzyme:
It is powder form enzyme; it is one type of Bio-chemical catalysts, which works mainly to remove the size material during desizing of grey woven fabric.

5. Liquid Enzyme:
It is liquid form enzyme; it is one type of Bio-chemical catalysts, which works mainly to remove the size material during desizing of grey woven fabric.

6. H2O2:
H2O2 is one type of strong oxidizing agent. It is works during bleaching of scoured fabric to improve the whiteness of the material by destroying color substance. Its effectiveness depends on available chlorine it contains.

7. Stabilizer:
Stabilizer works as reducing agent. This is an alkali of medium strength.

4.3 Washing procedure for making washed garments

Before wash sample
Fig: Before wash sample

4.3.1 Bleach wash:

Step 1: Desizing

Recipe:

  • Soda ash: 250gm
  • Antistant: 50gm
  • Time: 15min
  • Temperature: 600c.

Procedure:
A lot size of 5 kg garments was considered. Water was added at the rate of 1:5 liquor ratio i.e. 25 kg water.

  • At first the machine was started running.
  • Soda ash was added.
  • Antistant was added.
  • The process was continued for 15 min at a temperature of 600c.
  • Then the liquor was dropped
Flow diagram of desizing
Fig: Flow diagram of desizing (Bleach wash)

Step 2: Enzyme wash

Recipe:

  • Acetic acid: 20gm
  • Antistant: 20gm
  • Powder enzyme: 200gm
  • Liquid enzyme: 150gm
  • Time: 25min
  • Temperature: 450c.
diagram of enzyme wash
Fig: Flow diagram of enzyme wash

Step 3: Bleach wash

Recipe:

  • H2O2: 400gm
  • Time: 20min
  • Temperature: 50oC

Procedure:
A lot size of 5 kg garments was considered. Water was added at the rate of 1:5 liquor ratio i.e. 25 kg water.

  • At first the machine was started running
  • H2O2 was added
  • The process was Continued for 20 min at a temperature of 50oC
Flow diagram of bleach wash
Fig: Flow diagram of bleach wash

Step 4: Hydro extraction
After drop the liquor, the bleach wash garments turned to Hydro extractor machine to remove excessive water from the garments.

Step 5: Drying
After hydro extraction the garments are turned to drying machine for better drying. This process continued for 15 minutes.

4.3.2 Enzyme wash:

Step 1: Desizing

Recipe:

  • Soda ash: 250gm
  • Antistant: 50gm
  • Time: 15min
  • Temperature: 600C.

Procedure:
A lot size of 5 kg garments was considered. Water was added at the rate of 1:5 liquor ratio i.e. 25 kg water.

  • At first the machine was started running.
  • Soda ash was added.
  • Antistant was added.
  • The process was continued for 15 min at a temperature of 600c.
  • Then the liquor was dropped.
Flow diagram of desizing
Fig: Flow diagram of desizing (Enzyme wash)

Step 2: Enzyme wash

Recipe:

  • Acetic acid: 20gm
  • Antistant: 20gm
  • Powder enzyme: 200gm
  • Liquid enzyme: 150gm
  • Time: 25min
  • Temperature: 450C

Procedure:
A lot size of 5 kg garments was considered. Water was added at the rate of 1:5 liquor ratio i.e. 25 kg water.

  • At first the machine was started running.
  • Acetic acid was added.
  • Antistant was added.
  • Powder enzyme was added.
  • Then liquid enzyme was added.
diagram of enzyme wash
Fig: Flow diagram of enzyme wash

Step 3: Hydro extraction
After drop the liquor, the enzyme wash garments turned to Hydro extractor machine to remove excessive water from the garments

Step 4: Drying
After hydro extraction the garments are turned to drying machine for better drying. This process continued for 15 minutes.

Enzyme wash
Fig: Enzyme wash

4.3.3 Stone enzyme wash:

Step 1: Desizing

Recipe:

  • Soda ash: 250gm
  • Antistant: 50gm
  • Time: 15min
  • Temperature: 60oc

Procedure:
A lot size of 5 kg garments was considered. Water was added at the rate of 1:5 liquor ratio i.e. 25 kg water.

  • At first the machine was started running.
  • Soda ash was added.
  • Antistant was added.
  • The process was continued for 15 min at a temperature of 600c.
  • Then the liquor was dropped.
Flow diagram of desizing( Stone Enzyme wash)
Fig: Flow diagram of desizing (Stone Enzyme wash)

Step 2: Enzyme wash

Recipe:

  • Acetic acid: 20gm
  • Antistant: 20gm
  • Powder enzyme: 200gm
  • Liquid enzyme: 150gm
  • Time: 25min
  • Temperature: 450C
  • Pumice stone: 7 to 10 kg (Depending on garments weight)

Procedure:
A lot size of 5 kg garments was considered. Water was added at the rate of 1:5 liquor ratio i.e. 25 kg water.

  • At first the machine was started running.
  • Acetic acid was added.
  • Antistant was added.
  • Powder enzyme was added.
  • Then liquid enzyme was added.
  • The process was continued for 25 min at a temperature of 450c.
  • Then the liquor was dropped
diagram of enzyme wash
Fig: Flow diagram of enzyme wash

Step 3: Hydro extraction
After drop the liquor, the stone enzyme wash garments turned to Hydro extractor machine to remove excessive water from the garments

Step 4: Drying
After hydro extraction the garments are turned to drying machine for better drying. This process continued for 15 minutes.

Stone enzyme wash
Fig: Stone enzyme wash

4.3.4 Light wash:

Step 1: Desizing

Recipe:

  • Soda ash: 250gm
  • Antistant: 50gm
  • Time: 15min
  • Temperature: 600C

Procedure:
A lot size of 5 kg garments was considered. Water was added at the rate of 1:5 liquor ratio i.e. 25 kg water.

  • At first the machine was started running.
  • Soda ash was added.
  • Antistant was added.
  • The process was continued for 15 min at a temperature of 600c.
  • Then the liquor was dropped
Flow diagram of desizing (Light wash)
Fig: Flow diagram of desizing (Light wash)

Step 2: Enzyme wash

Recipe:

  • Acetic acid: 20gm
  • Antistant: 20gm
  • Powder enzyme: 200gm
  • Liquid enzyme: 150gm
  • Time: 25min
  • Temperature: 450c.

Procedure:
A lot size of 5 kg garments was considered. Water was added at the rate of 1:5 liquor ratio i.e. 25 kg water.

  • At first the machine was started running.
  • Acetic acid was added.
  • Antistant was added.
  • Powder enzyme was added.
  • Then liquid enzyme was added.
  • The process was continued for 25 min at a temperature of 450c.
  • Then the liquor was dropped
Flow diagram of enzyme wash (Light wash)
Fig: Flow diagram of enzyme wash (Light wash)

Step 3: Bleach wash:

Recipe:

  • Stabilizer: 200gm
  • H2O2: 500gm
  • Temperature: 200C
  • Time: As required

Procedure:
A lot size of 5 kg garments was considered. Water was added at the rate of 1:5 liquor ratio i.e. 25 kg water

  • At first the machine was started running.
  • Stabilizer was added
  • H2O2 was added
  • The process was Continued for required time at a temperature of 200C
Flow diagram of bleach wash (Light wash)
Fig: Flow diagram of bleach wash (Light wash)

Step 4: Hydro extraction
After drop the liquor, the light wash garments turned to Hydro extractor machine to remove excessive water from the garments

Step 5: Drying
After hydro extraction the garments are turned to drying machine for better drying. This process continued for 15 minutes.

Light wash
Fig: Light wash

4.3.5 Potassium permanganate:

Step 1: Desizing

Recipe:

  • Soda ash: 250gm
  • Antistant: 50gm
  • Time: 15min
  • Temperature: 60ْc

Procedure:
A lot size of 5 kg garments was considered. Water was added at the rate of 1:5 liquor ratio i.e. 25 kg water.

  • At first the machine was started running.
  • Soda ash was added.
  • Antistant was added.
  • The process was continued for 15 min at a temperature of 600c.
  • Then the liquor was dropped
Flow Diagram of desizing (Potassium permanganate)
Fig: Flow Diagram of desizing (Potassium permanganate)

Step 2: Enzyme wash

Recipe:

  • Acetic acid: 20gm
  • Antistant: 20gm
  • Powder enzyme: 200gm
  • Liquid enzyme: 150gm
  • Time: 25min
  • Temperature: 45oC

Procedure:
A lot size of 5 kg garments was considered. Water was added at the rate of 1:5 liquor ratio i.e. 25 kg water.

  • At first the machine was started running.
  • Acetic acid was added.
  • Antistant was added.
  • Powder enzyme was added.
  • Then liquid enzyme was added.
  • The process was continued for 25 min at a temperature of 450c.
  • Then the liquor was dropped
diagram of enzyme wash (Potassium permanganate)
Fig: Flow diagram of enzyme wash (Potassium permanganate)

Step 3: Spray
Spray with potassium permanganate as per required depth of shade

Step 4: Tinting

  • Brown color (reactive dye): 0.001 gm
  • Salt: 500gm
  • Temperature: 500C
  • Time: 15min

Step 5: Hydro extraction
After drop the liquor, the Potassium permanganate wash garments turned to Hydro extractor machine to remove excessive water from the garments

Step 6: Drying
After hydro extraction the garments were turned to drying machine for better drying. This process continued for 15 minutes.

Potassium permanganate
Fig: Potassium permanganate

4.3.6 Hand whicker:
Hand whickering is the wash where after washing the garments, the garments are brushed with emery paper by hand placing on a pattern made by using wire or pipe on wooden board.

Step 1: Desizing

Recipe:

  • Soda ash: 250gm
  • Antistant: 50gm
  • Time: 15min
  • Temperature: 600c

Procedure:
A lot size of 5 kg garments was considered. Water was added at the rate of 1:5 liquor ratio i.e. 25 kg water.

  • At first the machine was started running.
  • Soda ash was added.
  • Antistant was added.
  • The process was continued for 15 min at a temperature of 600c.
  • Then the liquor was dropped
Diagram of desizing (Hand whicker)
Fig: Diagram of desizing (Hand whicker)

Step 2: Enzyme wash

Recipe:

  • Acetic acid: 20gm
  • Antistant: 20gm
  • Powder enzyme: 200gm
  • Liquid enzyme: 150gm
  • Time: 25min
  • Temperature: 450c

Procedure:
A lot size of 5 kg garments was considered. Water was added at the rate of 1:5 liquor ratio i.e. 25 kg water.

  • At first the machine was started running.
  • Acetic acid was added.
  • Antistant was added.
  • Powder enzyme was added.
  • Then liquid enzyme was added.
  • The process was continued for 25 min at a temperature of 450c.
  • Then the liquor was dropped
Flow diagram of enzyme wash (Hand whicker)
Fig: Flow diagram of enzyme wash (Hand whicker)

Step 3: Hydro extraction
After drop the liquor, the hand whicker wash garments turned to Hydro extractor machine to remove excessive water from the garments

Step 4: Drying
After hydro extraction the garments were turned to drying machine for better drying. This process continued for 15 minutes.

Step 5: Hand whickering
After washing the garments was placed on a pattern (It is a design made by using wire/pipe on a wooden board) then brush it with emery paper by hand.

Step 6: Normal wash
It was done by normal water for 5 minutes.

Step 7: Hydro extraction
After drop the liquor, the hand whicker wash garments turned to Hydro extractor machine to remove excessive water from the garments

Step 8: Drying
After hydro extraction the garments were turned to drying machine for better drying. This process continued for 15 minutes.

Hand whicker
Fig: Hand whicker                         Fig: This pattern has been used for hand whicker

4.3.7 Pattern whicker:
Pattern whickering is a type of wash where after washing, the garment was placed on a pattern (It is a design made by using rubber pattern) then sand blasting is done in the pattern area using sand gun.

Step 1: Desizing

Recipe:

  • Soda ash: 250gm
  • Antistant: 50gm
  • Time: 15min
  • Temperature: 600c

Procedure:
A lot size of 5 kg garments was considered. Water was added at the rate of 1:5 liquor ratio i.e. 25 kg water.

  • At first the machine was started running.
  • Soda ash was added.
  • Antistant was added.
  • The process was continued for 15 min at a temperature of 600c.
  • Then the liquor was dropped
Diagram of desizing (Pattern whicker)
Fig: Flow Diagram of desizing (Pattern whicker)

Step 2: Enzyme wash

  • Acetic acid: 20gm
  • Antistant: 20gm
  • Powder enzyme: 200gm
  • Liquid enzyme: 150gm
  • Time: 25min
  • Temperature: 450c

Procedure:
A lot size of 5 kg garments was considered. Water was added at the rate of 1:5 liquor ratio i.e. 25 kg water.

  • At first the machine was started running.
  • Acetic acid was added.
  • Antistant was added.
  • Powder enzyme was added.
  • Then liquid enzyme was added.
  • The process was continued for 25 min at a temperature of 450c.
  • Then the liquor was dropped
Diagram of desizing (Pattern whicker)
Fig: Flow Diagram of desizing (Pattern whicker)

Step 3: Hydro extraction
After drop the liquor, the hand whicker wash garments turned to Hydro extractor machine to remove excessive water from the garments.

Step 4: Drying
After hydro extraction the garments are turned to drying machine for better drying. This process continued for 15 minutes.

Step 5: pattern whickering
After washing, the garment was placed on a pattern (It is a design made by using rubber pattern) then sand blasting is done in the pattern area using sand gun.

Step 6: Normal wash
It was done by normal water for 5 minutes

Step 7: Hydro extraction
Hydro extractor was used to remove excessive water from the garments.

After hydro extraction the garments were turned to drying machine for better drying. This process continued for 15 minutes.

Pattern whicker
Fig: Pattern whicker                            Fig: Use this pattern for pattern whicker

5. TEST PROCEDURE

5.1 Test procedure:
The following are the names of the tests that have been done during the project work

  • Strength loss
  • Color fastness to washing (washing)
  • Color fastness rubbing (crocking test)
  • Dimensional stability
  • Weight loss
  • Outlook change / Visual assessment

5.1.1 Strength loss
Since a considerable amount of impurities (dirt, dust) are removed in washing process, the strength loss of fabrics can be a parameter. For garments washing for this test, the strength of the garments sample before and after washing is measured by any fabric strength tester.

Strength tester:

Titan strength tester
Fig: Titan strength tester

Working Procedure:

  • The end of the sample was placed on the upper clamp in the titan universal strength tester machine.
  • Then other part of the sample was placed on the bottom clamp in the titan universal strength tester machine.
  • By using motion indicator, both clamps were closed or fixed.
  • Then the machine was started and both the clamps were moving, upper clamp to the upper direction and bottom clamp to the lower direction.
  • After a certain time when the fabric could not bear the extension load the it breaks and machine stopped.
  • Finally, the result was shown in the monitor of the titan universal strength tester machine.
Sample (before strength test)
Fig: Sample (before strength test)
Sample (after strength test)
Fig: Sample (after strength test)

Experimental data:
Strength test by strength tester.

No. Sample type Sample direction Maximum force, N Extension% Time to break, S
1. Basic Warp 965 9.28 34.3
2. Weft 1050 43.87 54.2
3. Enzyme Warp 795.14 27.40 49.2
4. Weft 762.27 55.40 51.0
5. Stone Enzyme Warp 958.49 26.85 60.8
6. Weft 1014.26 65.13 55.3
7. Pattern whicker Warp 768.9 32.8 42.3
8. Weft 623.80 48.90 47.5
9. Hand whicker Warp 960.59 35.32 133.6
10. Weft 919.47 56.81 49.0
11. Medium bleach Warp 901.08 29.24 65.8
12. Weft 804.95 57.44 49.3
13. Light bleach Warp 701 19.60 76.8
14. Weft 831 53.99 62.9
15. Potassium permanganate with tinting Warp 914.81 34.14 77.4
16. Weft 846.25 62.35 59.5

5.1.2 Color fastness (washing)
Color Fastness to washing is one of the important dyeing properties to the consumers.

There is a variety of testing procedure to some extent, these have arisen:

  • Washing condition vary from one country to another
  • The method depends on the basis of the material used.

Apparatus & Material:

  • Wash-wheel with a thermostatically controlled water bath & rotating speed of 40±2 rpm.
  • Stainless steel container
  • Stainless steel bowl
  • Multi-Fiber fabric
    1. Wool
    2. Acrylic
    3. Polyester
    4. Nylon
    5. Cotton
    6. Acetate.
  • Sewing machine
  • Dryer
  • ISO type grey scale for changing
  • ISO type grey scale for staining
Gyrowash
Fig: Gyrowash

Reagents:

  • Detergent (without optical brightener)
  • Sodium Carbonate
  • Distilled water

Test specimen:
If the textile to be tested is fabric: cut out a specimen of 10cmX 4cm & make sure all color is included in it. Sew it along all four edges with the same size of multi fiber fabric.

Recipe:

  • Detergent: 5gm/L
  • M: L: 1:5
  • Soda: 2gm
  • Time: 30min
  • Temperature: 600c
Sample (After test)
Fig: Sample (After test)
Sample (After test)
Fig: Sample (After test)
Multi fiber strip
Fig: Multi fiber strip

Test procedure (based on ISO: 103/5):

  • 5gm detergent was Dissolved in to 1 liter of water
  • 2gm sodium carbonate Dissolved in to 1 liter of water
  • The machine temperature was Raised to 600c
  • The specimen was put in to the stainless-steel container
  • The stainless-steel container with specimen was put in to the machine
  • The machine was kept running for 30 min
  • Excess water was Extracted from specimen by squeezing
  • The specimen was dried with hand dryer

Evaluation:
The contrast between white rubbing cloth was Compared with the staining grey scale & rated from 1-5 & changing in the tested specimen with changing grey scale.

Experimental data for washing fastness:

No. Name Grading for color fastness
1. Denim fabric without wash 4/5
2. Super bleach wash 5
3. Medium bleach wash 4/5
4. Stone enzyme 5
5. Enzyme wash 5
6. Hand whicker 4/5
7. Pattern whicker 4/5
8. Potassium permanganate 1/2

Average grade/ range of testing: 1-5 grades
Interpretation of grade: (5) Excellent, (4) Good, (3) Fair, (2) Poor, (1) Very poor

Grading for staining
No. Name Acetate Cotton Nylon Polyester Acrylic Wool
1. Denim fabric without wash 1 4 ½ 4 4/5 ¾
2. Super bleach wash ½ ½ 2 4/5 5 4
3. Medium bleach wash ½ 4/5 2/3 4/5 5 ¾
4. Stone enzyme wash ½ 4/5 2 4/5 4/5 4/5
5. Enzyme wash 2/3 4/5 2 4/5 4/5 4
6. Hand brush ½ 4/5 2 4/5 4/5 4/5
7. Machine brush ½ 4/5 2 4/5 5 5
8. Potassium permanganate 3 4/5 4 ¾ 1 4

Average grade/ range of testing: 1-5 grades
Interpretation of grade: (5) Excellent, (4) Good, (3) Fair, (2) Poor, (1) Very poor

5.1.3 Color fastness to rubbing
This test is designed to determine the degree of color which may be transferred from the surface of a colored textile to a specific crock meter test cloth for rubbing (dry and wet state).

Equipment:

  • Suitable crock meter
  • Cotton rubbing cloth (desized, bleached without finish)
  • Gray scale for staining
Crock meter
Fig: Crock meter

Test specimen:
If the textile to be tested is fabric: Two pieces 14cmX5cm are required for dry rubbing & two for wet rubbing. One specimen of each pair shall have the long direction parallel to the warp yarn & the other parallel to the weft yarns.

Test procedure:

Dry rubbing test:

  • At first the sample of 14cm was cut for warp & 5cm for weft direction.
  • The test sample was locked on to the base of the crock meter so that it lies flat & tight for testing.
  • Then the length & width direction of the test specimen was kept parallel to the direction in which the rubbing is to be conducted.
  • Then the spiral clip was used to set a 5cmX5cm of the white, cotton rubbing test cloth to the finger of the crock meter. The weave of the test cloth should be parallel to the direction of rubbing.
  • Then the covered finger was lowered on to the test sample.
  • Then the hand crank was turned & 10 complete cycle of the crank was completed.
  • Then the white rubbing test cloth was removed from the finger.
  • Then color transfer was evaluated by using grey scale for staining under standard lighting.
After crocking test
Fig: After crocking test (dry sample)

Wet rubbing test:

  • At first the sample of 14cm was cut for warp & 5cm for weft direction.
  • The test sample was locked on to the base of the crock meter so that it lies flat & tight for testing.
  • Then the length & width direction of the test specimen was paralleled to the direction in which the rubbing is to be conducted
  • Then the spiral clip set was used, a 5cmX5cm square of the white, cotton rubbing test cloth to the finger of the crock meter. The weave of the test cloth should be parallel to the direction of rubbing.
  • Then the covered finger was lowered on to the test sample.
  • The hand crank was turned & 10 complete cycle of the crank was made.
  • Then the white rubbing test cloth was removed from the finger.
  • Then another sample of white cotton test cloth was wetted in the distilled water. The wet sample should wet with 100% take-up.
  • Then the cotton test cloth was dried in air
  • Then the rubbing test cloth was removed from the finger & color transfer was evaluated by using the grey scale for testing under standard light.
After crocking test (wet sample)
Fig: After crocking test (wet sample)

Evaluation:
The contrast between white rubbing cloth was compared with the staining grey scale & rated from 1-5 & changing in the tested specimen with changing grey scale.

Test report:
1. For dry rubbing test:

  • One rating (1-5) for warp direction
  • Another (1-5) for weft direction

2. Wet rubbing test:

  • One rating (1-5) for warp direction
  • Another (1-5) for weft direction

Experimental data:

1. For denim fabric without wash:

Staining No. Length wise Width wise
Dry 1 ¾ ¾
2 3 ¾
3 4/5 4
Wet 4 ¾ 2
5 ½ ½
6 1 2

Average grade/ range of testing: 1-5 grades
Interpretation of grade: (5) Excellent, (4) Good, (3) Fair, (2) Poor, (1) Very poor

2. For enzyme wash:

Staining No. Length wise Width wise
Dry 1 5 4/5
2 4/5 5
3 4/5 4/5
Wet 4 2 2/3
5 ½ 3
6 2/3 2

Average grade/ range of testing: 1-5 grades
Interpretation of grade: (5) Excellent, (4) Good, (3) Fair, (2) Poor, (1) Very poor

3. For light bleach:

Staining No. Length wise Width wise
Dry 1 5 5
2 5 5
3 5 5
Wet 4 ¾ ¾
5 3 4
6 ¾ 4

Average grade/ range of testing: 1-5 grades
Interpretation of grade: (5) Excellent, (4) Good, (3) Fair, (2) Poor, (1) Very poor

4. For stone enzyme:

Staining No. Length wise Width wise
Dry 1 4/5 4/5
2 5 4/5
3 4/5 5
Wet 4 2 ½
5 2 2
6 2 2

Average grade/ range of testing: 1-5 grades
Interpretation of grade: (5) Excellent, (4) Good, (3) Fair, (2) Poor, (1) Very poor

5. For medium bleach:

Staining No. Length wise Width wise
Dry 1 5 4/5
2 4/5 4/5
3 5 5
Wet 4 2/3 3
5 3 ¾
6 2/3 3

Average grade/ range of testing: 1-5 grades
Interpretation of grade: (5) Excellent, (4) Good, (3) Fair, (2) Poor, (1) Very poor

6. For hand whicker:

Staining No. Length wise Width wise
Dry 1 4/5 4/5
2 4/5 4/5
3 4/5 5
Wet 4 ¾ 3
5 3 2
6 2/3 2

Average grade/ range of testing: 1-5 grades
Interpretation of grade: (5) Excellent, (4) Good, (3) Fair, (2) Poor, (1) Very poor

7. For pattern whicker:

Staining No. Length wise Width wise
Dry 1 5 4/5
2 5 5
3 5 4/5
Wet 4 3 2
5 3 2/3
6 3/4 2

Average grade/ range of testing: 1-5 grades
Interpretation of grade: (5) Excellent, (4) Good, (3) Fair, (2) Poor, (1) Very poor

8. For potassium permanganate:

Staining No. Length wise Width wise
Dry 1 4/5 3/5
2 4/5 3/5
3 4/5 3/5
Wet 4 3 2/3
5 2/3 2/3
6 3 2/3

Average grade/ range of testing: 1-5 grades
Interpretation of grade: (5) Excellent, (4) Good, (3) Fair, (2) Poor, (1) Very poor

5.1.4 Dimensional stability test:
This test method is intended for determining the dimensional changes of woven fabric, when subjected to repeated automatic laundering process commonly used at home.

Dimensional change:
In general sense the changes in length or width of a fabric, specimen subjected to specify condition is known as dimensional change.

Shrinkage:
A dimensional change resulting in a decrease in the length or width of a specimen subjected to specified condition is known as shrinkage. Shrinkage% means how much percentage will shrink after wash.

Apparatus:

  • Automatic washing machine
  • Dryer
  • Stainless steel container
  • Commercial detergent
  • Measuring scale
  • Weight balance

Test specimen:
For woven fabric:
The specimen size is 22cmX22cm and mark with 20X20cm parallel to warp and weft direction respectively.

Shrinkage test
Fig: Sample (For Shrinkage)

Working procedure:

  • The specimen of 22X22cm was taken.
  • The detergent into stainless steel container was taken.
  • Then the detergent was dissolved.
  • The specimen was putted into it and then the stainless-steel container was kept into the machine.
  • Machine was started running.
  • The temperature was raised up to 600c and kept it 30 min.
  • The specimen was removed.
  • Water was extracted by squeezing then took it into the dryer up to 600c.

Recipe:

  • Detergent: 5gm/L
  • M: L 1:50
  • Time 30 min
  • Temperature: 600c

Calculation the present dimensional changes according to the formula as below:

% Dimensional changes = (A-B)/AX100

Where,

A = Original dimension
B = Dimension after laundering

Experimental data:

1. For denim fabric without washing (Basic):

Before wash (cm) After wash (cm) % Change
Length wise 20 19.4 3%
Width wise 20 19.2 4%

2. For light bleach:

Before wash (cm) After wash (cm) % Change
Length wise 20 19.7 1.5%
Width wise 20 19 5%

3. For medium bleach:

Before wash (cm) After wash (cm) % Change
Length wise 20 19.8 1%
Width wise 20 19.2 4%

4. For enzyme:

Before wash(cm) After wash(cm) % Change
Length wise 20 19.7 1.5%
Width wise 20 19.2 4%

5. For stone enzyme:

Before wash(cm) After wash(cm) % Change
Length wise 20 19.8 1%
Width wise 20 19.5 2.5%

6. Hand whicker:

Before wash(cm) After wash(cm) % Change
Length wise 20 19.8 1%
Width wise 20 19.6 2%

7. Pattern whicker:

Before wash(cm) After wash(cm) % Change
Length wise 20 19.6 2%
Width wise 20 19.2 4%

5.1.5 Weight loss:
Weight loss is a process by which how much weight reduced from the basic sample after washing can be known. The weight of the sample loss varied in different washing.

The basic sample of 10cmX10cm was taken, then weighted and compared with other washing samples.

Weight loss test
Fig: Sample (4X4 inch)

The result can be determined from (Actual sample weight-Washing sample weight)

Difference between basic sample & washed sample:

No. Sample type Basic sample weight (gm) Washed sample weight (gm) Difference (gm) Change %
1. Denim fabric without wash(basic sample) 2.79 2.79 0 0
2. Light bleach 2.57 0.22 7.88
3. Medium bleach 2.55 0.24 8.6
4. Stone enzyme 2.77 0.02 .71
5. Enzyme 2.72 0.07 2.5
6. Pattern whickering 2.55 0.24 8.6
7. Hand whickering 2.64 0.13 4.65
8. Potassium permanganate 2.73 0.04 1.43

6. RESULT AND DISCUSSION:

6.1 Strength test:
Graphical presentation of strength loss (Warp direction):

Graphical presentation of strength loss (Warp direction)

Discussion:
If we compare the strength of the fabric before washing and after different types of washing in warp direction, we got the above bar diagram. This bar diagram shows that in case of stone and hand brush washing, the fabric strength remains more or less same at before washing and after washing. Because in these cases only fading effect is produced by washing on the outer surface of the garments in irregular pattern by physical means. That’s why strength loss is comparatively less than other washing. But considerable amount of strength loss in case of enzyme wash, Potassium permanganate with tinting and light bleach wash.

In enzyme washing, strength loss is occurred due to removal of size materials from warp yarn and in light bleaching, natural coloring matters are removed by bleaching agent. But in case of medium bleaching, strength loss should be more than light bleaching. But somehow we get less strength loss in medium bleach washes due to any mistake during washing or strength measuring.

Graphical presentation of strength loss (Weft direction):

Graphical presentation of strength loss (Weft direction)

Discussion:
If we compare the strength of the fabric before washing and after different types of washing in weft direction, we got the above bar diagram. This bar diagram shows that in case of stone and hand brush washing, strength loss is comparatively smaller than enzyme wash, Potassium permanganate with tinting, light bleach wash and medium bleach wash. Considerable amount of strength loss is occurred in enzyme washing. Due to removal of more natural coloring matter in case of medium bleach wash than light bleach wash, strength loss is comparatively higher in case of medium bleach wash.

6.2 Color fastness to washing:

Color fastness to washing

Discussion:
The above bar diagram represents the effect of color fastness on different types of washing. The arrows represent that the actual value lies within this region.

The bar diagram shows that accept for Potassium permanganate wash, the color fastness to washing is very good for different types of washing and in some cases color fastness is improve due to washing. But in case of Potassium permanganate wash color fastness to washing is very poor. The reason of poor color fastness is that Potassium permanganate was applied on the surface of the fabric by spraying. That’s Potassium permanganate is mechanically adhering with the fiber.

6.3-Dimensional stability test:
Graphical presentation of shrinkage % (lengthwise direction):

Graphical presentation of shrinkage (lengthwise direction)

Discussion:
The above bar diagram represents the lengthwise shrinkage percentage of the fabric before and after different types of washing. From the bar diagram we got that fabric shrink in lengthwise direction due to washing. In case of medium bleach, stone enzyme wash and hand whickering fabric shrink more or less same in lengthwise direction and it is comparatively lower than other washing process. But in case of pattern whickering wash shrinkage percentage of the fabric is comparatively higher than other washing processes.

Graphical presentation of Shrinkage % (Widthwise direction):

Graphical presentation of Shrinkage (Widthwise direction)

Discussion:
The bar diagram represents the widthwise shrinkage percentage of the fabric before and after different types of washing. From the bar diagram we got that fabric shrink in widthwise direction due to washing. The graph shows that the shrinkage percentage in widthwise direction is comparatively higher in case of light bleach wash than other types of washing and comparatively lower for hand whickering.

If we compare the shrinkage percentage at lengthwise and widthwise direction (after washing), for same type of wash on same fabric, we got different result. So, it can be said that the shrinkage percentage is independent with respect to fabric.

6.4 Weight loss:
Graphical presentation of weight loss:

Graphical presentation of weight loss

Discussion:
If we compare the weight loss of fabric after different types of washing, we find that the above bar diagram. This show that weight loss of the fabric after stone wash is lowest. The reason is that stone only fade the outer surface of the fabric but did not damage the fibers. In Potassium permanganate washing & Enzyme washing strength loss is also very small. But in case of case of light, medium bleach and pattern whickering, considerable amount of strength occurred as bleaching agent damage the fibers more during washing.

Washing charge for different type of washing

Washing Type Price per dozen
Bleach wash 3.00 $
Enzyme wash 3.00$
Stone enzyme 3.25 $
Light wash 4.00 $
Potassium permanganate 5.50 $
Hand whickering 4.50 $
Pattern whickering 5.00 $

Graphical Representation of Washing Charge:

Graphical Representation of Washing Charge

Discussion:
Here we can see that, the washing charge of Potassium Permanganate wash is highest. On the other hand, washing charge is comparatively cheaper for bleach and enzyme wash.

7. CONCLUSION
Garments washing is an important part of garments manufacturing. By which outlook, comfort ability and fashion on garments is changed or modified and old garments effect can be produced. That’s why now a days the importance and demand of garments washing is increasing day by day. Through the analysis of this project we have found that, in case of strength test of the washed garments in warp direction, during stone and hand whickering the fabric strength remain more or less same before and after washing but considerable amount of strength loss occurred in enzyme and bleach wash. In case of strength loss in weft direction considerable amount of strength loss occurred in enzyme wash.

For color fastness to washing except for potassium permanganate wash the color fastness to wash is very good for different types of washing.

In case of length wise dimensional stability change we got that the fabric shrinks in length wise direction due to washing. For pattern whickering wash shrinkage percentage of the fabric is comparatively higher than other washing process. In case of width wise direction shrinkage is comparatively higher in light bleach wash, comparatively lower for hand whicker.

Weight loss of the fabric after stone wash is lowest. In potassium permanganate and enzyme wash the weight loss is small. But in case of light, medium bleach and pattern whickering considerable amount of weight loss occurred as bleaching agent damage the fibers more during washing.

From the above cases it is found that for same fabric and same chemicals used the strength loss of a fabric in warp direction and weft direction results are far different from each other and this type of results were found for other experiments also.

You may also like:

  1. Different Types of Garment Washing Techniques
  2. Latest Dry Washing Techniques in Denim Garments
  3. Garments Washing Techniques Used in Bangladesh
  4. Factors Affecting Appearance After Washing of Garments
  5. List of Garment Washing Chemicals and Their Functions
  6. Different Types of Garment Washing Machine

Share this Article!

Leave a Comment