Process Management in Textiles: An Introductory Approach

Last Updated on 23/04/2021

Process Management in Textiles: An Introductory Approach

Moin.S Khan
DKTE’s Textile and Engineering Institute,
Ichalkaranji, Maharashtra, India
Email: moinkhn024@gmail.com

 

Process
A process is a naturally occurring or designed sequence of changes of properties or attributes of an object or system. The process approach is a management strategy. When managers use a process approach, it means that they manage all the aspects of the processes that make up their organization, the interaction between these processes, and the inputs and outputs that glue these processes together. In this article, I will explain different approaches for process management in textiles.

Process Management in Textiles

Type of inputs

  1. Primary – Inputs those themselves get transformed, like raw materials.
  2. Supporting – Inputs that help in the value addition process.

Type of processes

  • Transforming – Changing in character or culture.
  • Identifying – Separating into smaller and more clearly defined units.
  • Unifying – Combining or bringing together.
  • Homogenizing – Creating uniformity or consistency.
  • Moving – Changing the placing or location.
  • Holding – Keep waiting in a controlled environment.
  • Providing – Giving or offering the requirements.

Type of outputs

  • Goods.
  • Services.
  • Goods and services
  • Decisions

Different processes

  1. Quality Management
  2. Resource Management
  3. Regulatory Research
  4. Market Research
  5. Product Design
  6. Purchasing
  7. Production
  8. Service Provision
  9. Product Protection
  10. Customer Needs Assessment
  11. Customer Communications
  12. Internal Communications
  13. Document Control
  14. Record Keeping
  15. Planning
  16. Training
  17. Internal Audit
  18. Management Review
  19. Monitoring and Measuring
  20. Nonconformance Management
  21. Continual Improvement
  22. General Systems

Steps in deciding the processes

  1. Identify the purpose for which you are working (Mission).
  2. Decide the goals (Targets).
  3. Arrive at the path (Quality Policy).
  4. Decide the activities.
  5. Identify the processes involved

Identify the process objectives

  • Clearly define the objectives of the process.
  • Prepare action plans for achieving the objectives in detail with time bound targets.
  • Assign responsibilities
  • Decide the method of measuring the results.
  • A desired result could be achieved more efficiently when related resources and activities are managed as a process.

Managing a process

  • Start with the Objectives and Targets.
  • Identify the processes needed and determine their sequence and interactions.
  • Identify the controls needed and decide on check points
  • Identify resource requirement and provide as needed.
  • Decide the competency levels of human resource required and allot people.
  • Train people as needed and empower by assigning jobs with defined authorities and responsibility.
  • Do the activities as decided
  • Monitor the process and correct as required.
  • Review the processes for their suitability and effective implementation
  • Take suitable actions to achieve the targeted results

iso 9000 process monitoring

Process Blow room
Process objectives Action Plan Key Result Area Measure Monitored by
Gentle opening of cotton Reduce beater speed Reduction in fiber rupture Rupture%
Neps generation
Maintenance in charge
Check and maintain beater sharpness Reduction in fiber rupture Neps generation
Fiber rupture
Maintenance in charge
Optimize the beater to fan speed ratio Optimized speeds RPM of Beater and Fan Production in-charge

Points to be considered while designing a process

  • What is expected out of that process?
  • What are the factors contributing for the success of the process?
  • What are the checkpoints and control points?
  • What are value adding and cost adding elements?
  • What are avoidable and what are essential?
  • How much to be controlled?
  • What data and information are required for control?
  • Who should collect data and analyze?
  • Who should monitor?
  • What should be the frequency of checks and reviews?

Interaction between processes

Interaction between processes

Typical process flow chart

Typical Process Flow Chart

Product design

  • A set of processes that transforms requirements into specified characteristics or into the specification of a product, Process or System.
  • A formal documented and systematic critical study of a design proposal by specialists as required is called as Design Review.

Product Design

Process mapping

  • Helps in understanding the inter relation between processes and gives an idea of the acceptable criteria’s to be monitored.

Process mapping

Identify the controls

  • There are interactions between processes.
  • Some process are depending on others
  • Some process cannot happen if another process is not complete
  • Identify the controls and checks required.
  • Let us see some examples

Stack Mixing of Cotton

Input:

1. Cotton Bales-

  • Check the bales received, and compare with the plan
  • Check the quality of bales
  • Check the quantity received

2. Mixing Area –

  • Check for the cleanliness of the mixing area
  • Check for the display board

3. Men –

  • Check the number of people present
  • Check the quantity of work to be done
  • Check the competency of the people available for the work

4. Hand trolleys –

  • Check the need of trolleys
  • Check the condition of the trolleys

5. Sprayer-

  • Check the condition of the sprayer

6. Cotton spray oil-

  • Check the quantity of oil
  • Check the condition of oil

Output:

1. Tuft size-

  • Check the tuft size in the mixing at different places

2. Packing materials/Contaminations removed-

  • Check the weight of packing materials like hessian/canvas, bale hoops removed.
  • Check the contaminants removed and the bale numbers from which they are removed.

3. Updating of display board-

  • Check the updating of display board

4. Updating of records-

  • Check whether all the bales opened are recorded with their weights in the mixing register.
  • Check whether the weight of packing materials are recorded.

Control points and check points

  • The control points if controlled should lead to the achievement of the result in the key result area, and finally the company objectives and goals.
  • The checkpoints are process related, where as the control points are result related.
  • It is necessary for the concerned heads of department to analyze their processes very carefully and decide on the area where they need control.
  • Once the area to be controlled is clear, one can identify the points to be checked to verify whether the process is in control.

Preparing control points and check points

  • Involve the men on shop floor to prepare Control points and Check points
  • Brain storming among the concerned to get all the relevant points applicable for the process
  • Pinpoint as to who should do which check
  • Write work instructions for the system of checking
  • Impart required training to the people assigned the job of checking

Amendments in control points and check points

  • The control points and check points are to be reviewed periodically, and modified as the systems improve.
  • The changes may be as a part of technology up-gradation or as a preventive action for certain potential problems, considering the market feed back or by the trend analysis of the company performance
Control Points Check Points
Process parameters
  • Level of adherence to process parameters.
  • Calibration of equipments monitoring the process.
  • Suitability of process parameter decided to get the results.
Selection of raw materials
  • Quality of Raw materials received.
  • Handling and storage systems.
Selection and training of employees
  • Competency levels of men available and men employed.
  • Process performance.
  • Work practices.
  • House keeping practices.
Maintenance of machines
  • Adherence to maintenance schedules.
  • Suitability of maintenance schedules and plans for the production and quality expectation.
  • Condition of machine parts.
  • Maintenance practices.
  • Results of maintenance.
Rejection Rates
  • Whether acceptance criteria are clear to all on the shop floor?
  • Whether process parameters are as per standards specified?
  • Rejections → Machine wise, Shift wise, operator wise and material wise.
Delivery schedule
  • Whether production started in time?
  • Utilization of machines.
  • Productivity of each machine.
  • Whether quality approved?

Value adding and cost adding elements

  • A process contains a number of operations, which finally contribute for the required out put.
  • All the elements of a process need not add to the value of the product, but may be an essential step.
  • The stock for example is not adding any value but adding to the interest on working capital, it is a cost-adding element.

Avoid over engineering

  • Understand the specific needs of customers and work for delivering only those to them.
  • Giving more than the needs of a customer need not satisfy the customer, but may create a problem.
  • Anything for which customer is not ready to pay is a waste and it is a non-value adding element of the process.

5-S concepts in Process Management

  1. Seiri → Sorting out – Eliminate unwanted activities
  2. Seiton → Systematic arrangement – Arrange the activities in a sequence as per priority
  3. Seiso → Spic and span cleanliness inspection – Have transparency in system and effective checklist to follow them
  4. Seiketsu → Standardizing – Regularize and implement documented procedures
  5. Shitsuke → Self-Discipline and training – Follow the documented procedures religiously

work process designing

Operation plan in process document

  • Input and output requirements.
  • Activities within the processes.
  • Identification, assessment and mitigation of risks, corrective and preventive actions, opportunities and actions for process improvement.
  • Control of changes to process and products.

Operation plan of a process should cover

  • Input and output requirements: specifications, resources and support processes such as information, training of people, infrastructure and safety methods, marketing, etc.
  • Activities within the processes, verification and validation of process and products, analysis of the process including dependability, monitoring the processes.
  • Identification, assessment and mitigation of risks, corrective and preventive actions, opportunities and actions for process improvement.
  • Control of changes to process and products.

Process review should cover

  • Reliability and repeatability of process.
  • Identification and prevention of potential non-conformity.
  • Adequacy of design and development inputs and outputs.
  • Consistency of inputs and outputs with planned objectives.
  • Unresolved issues.

Factors contributing for success of a process

  1. Quality Planning.
  2. Product Design.
  3. Process Design.
  4. Process Monitoring.
  5. Logistics and,
  6. Services.

process monitoring system

process of manufacturing

Quality objectives of a product must address the following:

  • For what end use the customer is asking for this material?
  • What are the critical quality requirements of the end product?
  • What is the intended application of the product with ultimate consumer?
  • On what machines our product is likely to work, i.e. high-speed machines, Super High speed machines, slow speed machines, Automatic machines, etc.
  • What is the work environment at customer’s place, i.e. humidification, temperature level, dust level, skill of operatives, the management culture, etc?
  • What are the applicable regulatory requirements for the product from the point of view of product safety, user safety, trade regulations etc?

Important steps in quality planning

  • Understanding Customer needs and deciding quality objectives of the product.
  • Identification of processes needed.
  • Identification of machines to work.
  • Determination of process controls and norms.
  • Determination of Inspection and testing and Acceptance criteria.
  • Planning the starting and ending time.
  • Identification of persons to operate and control.
  • Identification of training needs.
  • Working out infrastructure requirement.

Process monitoring

  • Quality objectives
  • Key result areas
  • Measures
  • Monitoring system

The essential steps of process monitoring

  • Deciding Quality Objectives of Process,
  • Identifying key result Areas, Control points and Check points,
  • Fixing Targets,
  • Evolving measurement systems, and defining clearly the measures and frequency of measurement,
  • Review of results and trends,
  • Actions,
  • Verification of results after action.

Duties of individual

  • The routine checks like the speeds, production on each machine, the utilization of machines to its planned programme, allotting the required number of persons for each operation, maintaining the process stocks for working, etc., are to be monitored online in each shift, and hence they are to be monitored by shift in-charges.
  • The productivity variations from machine to machine and man to man, the variations in quality levels compared to targets, planning for changes in product mix and counts, etc., are to be monitored by the next seniors, like Junior spinning masters, etc.
  • The programming of the whole section for the week or for the month, working out norms for working, preparation of procedures, work instructions, designing of formats for data collection and control, planning for purchase of spares, etc., are to be done by the concerned heads of the department.
  • The top management should monitor the overall performance in terms of costs, sales, profits, meeting legal and regulatory requirements etc.

Wastes

Process Wastes

  • Blow room droppings
  • Flat strips in cards
  • Licker-in droppings in cards
  • Micro dust generated during production
  • Comber Noil
  • End bits in dyeing

Avoidable Wastes

  • Anything for which customer is not ready to pay is a waste.
  • Work contents added by defects in design or specification of the product.
  • Work content added by inefficient methods.
  • Ineffective time due to shortcomings of the management.
  • Ineffective time within the control of the worker.

Continuous Improvement

  • Continual improvement of the organization’s overall performance should be a permanent objective of the organization.
  • The recurring activity to increase the ability to fulfill the requirements is called as Continual Improvement.
  • Identifying the root cause for all deviations and taking appropriate corrective and preventive actions
  • Reinforcing the systems as and when corrections are made
  • Keep on questioning the status-quo and identifying the areas for improvement
  • Stretching the targets as they are achieved

Benchmarking

  • No individual or Organization can be the best in all aspects.
  • Each one has some area, where they are the best.
  • Identify the best in each class and try to implement those in your systems
  • Always keep a watch on the competitors achievements and work towards surpassing them

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  5. Human Resource Management (HRM) in Indian Apparel Retail Industry

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