Natural Dyeing of Cotton Fabric Using Terminalia Chebula (Kadukkai) and Turmeric (Curcuma Longa)

Last Updated on 21/03/2021


Rajan.S1 & Gopinath. M2
Textile Chemistry, SSM College of Engineering,
Komarapalayam, Namakkal, India.
Email: srajusri321@gmail.com1 & gopi.tc007@gmail.com2


An innovative approach was made to utilize the eco-friendly dyeing using renewable sources such as TURMERIC & KADUKKAI to produce herbal medicated textile material which are free from chemicals, detergent and pollution. In this paper eco-friendly garments, inner wears, child clothing’s and home furnishing materials were developed by natural dyeing cotton fabric with herbs like TURMERIC (CURCUMA LONGA) & TERMINALIA CHEBULA. These herbs are extensively used to heal chromic fever, skin and eye diseases, allergies, Asthma, rheumatic, body ache, diabetes, skin infections and allergies. In contact with clothing, the skin absorbs the medicinal qualities of the herbs. Compared to the synthetic dyed cotton fabric, the above dyed fabrics showed excellent results in terms of fastness properties. Herbal Textile is finished entirely with herbal extractions, without using any chemicals. These herbs are applied directly to the fabric with the help of natural ingredients, so that the medicinal value of the herbs can be kept intact. No chemical process is adopted while finishing process. Herbal treated cloth has the ability to protect us from various skin diseases, provides relief from viral infected disease and mental depressions since the herbal finished clothes or garments come in prolonged contact with the human body. The medical properties of herbs are known to cause no damage to the human body.

Keywords: Dyeing, Cotton Fabric, Terminalia Chebula, Turmeric, Fastness.

Textile materials (Natural or Synthetic) used to be colour for value addition, look and desire of the customers. Anciently, this purpose of colouring textile was initiated using colours of natural source, until synthetic colours/dyes were invented and commercialized. For ready availability of pure synthetic dyes of different types/classes and its cost advantages, most of textile dyers/ manufacturers shifted towards use of synthetic colorant. Almost all the synthetic colorants being synthesized from petrochemical sources through hazardous chemical processes pose threat towards its eco-friendliness. Hence, worldwide, growing consciousness about organic value of eco-friendly products has generated renewed interest of consumers towards use of textiles (preferably natural fibre product) dyed with eco-friendly natural dyes. Natural dyes are known for their use in colouring of food substrate, leather as well as natural fibres like wool, silk and cotton as major areas of application since pre-historic times. Although this ancient art of dyeing textiles with natural dyes withstood the ravages of time, but due to the wide availability of synthetic dyes at an economical price, a rapid decline in natural dyeing continued. Thus, natural dyeing of different textiles and leathers has been continued mainly in the decentralized sector for specialty products along with the use of synthetic dyes in the large-scale sector for general textiles/apparels owing to the specific advantages and limitations of both natural dyes and synthetic dyes.

The use of non-allergic, non-toxic and ecofriendly natural dyes on textiles has become a matter of significant importance due to the increased environmental awareness in order to avoid some hazardous synthetic dyes. However, worldwide the use of natural dyes for the coloration of textiles has mainly been confined to artisan / craftsman, small scale/cottage level dyers and printers as well as to small scale exporters and producers dealing with high-valued ecofriendly textile production and sales. Recently, a number of commercial dyers and small textile export houses have started looking at the possibilities of using natural dyes for regular basis dyeing and printing of textiles to overcome environmental pollution caused by the synthetic dyes. Natural dyes produce very uncommon, soothing and soft shades as compared to synthetic dyes. On the other hand, synthetic dyes are widely available at an economical price and produce a wide variety of colors; these dyes however produce skin allergy, toxic wastes and other harmfulness to human body.

A dye can generally be described as a colour substance that has an affinity to the substrate to which it is being applied and is used to impart colour to materials of which it becomes an integral part. Dyes are widely used in industries such as textiles, rubber, plastics, printing, leather, cosmetics, etc. to colour their products. As a result, they generate a considerable amount of coloured wastewater. There are more than 10,000 commercially available dyes with over 7 x 105 tons of dyestuff produced annually. It is estimated that 2 % of dyes produced annually is discharged in effluents from associated industries. Among various industries, textile industry ranks first in usage of dyes for coloration of fibre. The total dye consumption of the textile industry worldwide is in excess of 107 kg/year and an estimated 90 % of this ends up on fabrics. Consequently, 1,000 tones/year or more of dyes are discharged into waste streams by the textile industry worldwide (March 1996). Many types of dye are used in textile industries such as direct, reactive, acid and basic dyes, sulphur, metal complex dyes. The main source of waste water generated by the textile industry originates from the washing and bleaching of textile materials and, from the dyeing and finishing stages. Dyes exist in two forms one is True colour and the other is apparent colour. Apparent colour can be removed very easily where as True colour is very hard to treat. Since Organic content reduces the Dissolved Oxygen content in the water and becomes a threat to the Aquatic life and dyes used in textile industries are very carcinogenic, mutagenic and toxic in nature leads to the chronic effects towards human beings.

Synthetic dye
Fig: Synthetic dye

Harmful effects of dyes
Numerous studies have been conducted to assess the harm impacts of colorants on the ecosystem. It was found that colorants may cause problems in water in several ways:

  1. Dyes can have acute and/or chronic effects on exposed organisms with this depending on the dye concentration and on the exposure time;
  2. Dyes are inherently highly visible, minor release of effluent may cause abnormal coloration of surface waters which captures the attention of both the public and the authorities.
  3. The ability of dyes to absorb/reflect sunlight entering the water, this has drastic effects on the growth of bacteria and upsets their biological activity;
  4. Dyes have many different and complicated molecular structures and therefore, are difficult to treat and interfere with municipal waste treatment operations.
  5. Dyes in wastewater undergo chemical and biological changes, consume dissolved oxygen from the stream and destroy aquatic life.
  6. Dyes have a tendency to sequester metal ions producing micro toxicity to fish and other organisms.

The low level of fixation can be a major problem when dyeing with synthetic dyes when less than 70% of the dye reacts with the fibre. This results in unfixed dye being discharged into the dye house effluent. This problem, coupled with high salt concentrations used when dyeing with synthetic dyes, causes a significant environmental problem.


Presence of colour in the waste water is one of the main problems in textile industry. Colours are easily visible to human eyes even at very low concentration. Hence, colour from textile wastes carries significant aesthetic importance. Most of the dyes are stable and has no effect of light or oxidizing agents. They are also not easily degradable by the conventional treatment methods. Removal of dyes from the effluent is major problem in most of textile industries.

Dissolved solids contained in the industry effluents are also a critical parameter. Use of common salt and Glauber salt etc. in processes directly increase total dissolved solids (TDS) level in the effluent. TDS are difficult to be treated with conventional treatment systems. Disposal of high TDS bearing effluents can lead to increase in TDS of ground water and surface water. Dissolved solids in effluent may also be harmful to vegetation and restrict its use for agricultural purpose.

Waste water of textiles is not free from metal contents. There are mainly two sources of metals. Firstly, the metals may come as impurity with the chemicals used during processing such as caustic soda, sodium carbonate and salts. For instance, caustic soda may contain mercury if produced using mercury cell processes. Secondly, the source of metal could be dye stuffs like metalized mordant dyes. The metal complex dyes are mostly based on chromium.

The use of chlorine compounds in textile processing, residual chlorine is found in the waste stream. The waste water (if disposed without treatment) depletes dissolved oxygen in the receiving water body and as such aquatic life gets affected. Residual chlorine may also react with other compounds in the waste water stream to form toxic substances.

Textile effluents are often contaminated with non-biodegradable organics termed as refractory materials. Detergents are typical example of such materials. The presence of these chemicals results in high chemical oxygen demand (COD) value of the effluent. Organic pollutants, which originate from organic compounds of dye stuffs, acids, sizing materials, enzymes, tallow etc. are also found in textile effluent, such impurities are reflected in the analysis of bio-chemical oxygen demand (BOD) and COD. These pollutants are controlled by use of biological treatment processes. In many textile units, particularly engaged in synthetic processing, low BOD/COD ratio of effluent is observed which makes even biological treatment not a ready proposition. The waste water of cotton-based textile unit is usually alkaline, whereas synthetic and woollen fabric processing generates acidic effluent.

Natural dyes are dyes or colorants derived from plants, invertebrates, or minerals. The majority of natural dyes are vegetable dyes from plant sources roots, berries, bark, leaves, and wood and other organic sources such as fungi and lichens.


  1. It protects the skin against UV radiations from the sun.
  2. It can be used to make the child wears.
  3. It is a strong antibacterial, non- toxic, non-allergic and antifungal element that protects the human body.
  4. Balancing of internal body hormones hence prevents critical conditions such as diabetes.
  5. The pollution load is very much less and Waste of the dyes can be used as the manure or fertilizer.
  6. To promote the ancient and traditional Natural Dyeing Technology.

Nature is full of fascinating colours without which life would have been dull and monotonous. Until the 19th century natural dyes were the main colorants for textiles. Artificial dyes were then introduced. The latter are easier to apply than the natural dyes. Besides a wide range of available colours, higher reproducibility and improved quality of dyeing could be achieved at lower specific cost. Natural dyes cost has to be lowered considerably and the quality level of the dyeing needs substantial improvement. According to Pan et al (2003) the concept for production of natural dyes with lowered specific cost involves use of cheap by- products from other agricultural activities, like bark from the timber industry or leaves from abundantly available plants as deodar, jackfruit and eucalyptus. Synthetic dyes are non-biodegradable. There is a quest of replacing these with natural dyes in textile coloration addressing issues to do with environmental awareness, ecology, pollution control and sustainability. Natural dyes are neither toxic nor polluting. Considerable research has been done around the world to discover new sources of natural colouring agents and especially those with lower costs in order to make these textile products as popular as possible. Most of the natural dyed textiles are imported from Third World Countries and India is still a major producer of natural dyes.

natural dyeing of Cotton Fabric
Fig: Natural dyeing process


Substantive dyes:

  • Whereby no mordant (dye fixes) are required to set the colors.

Vat dyes:

  • Whereby fixing the colors involve the oxidization process.

Mordant dyes:

  • Whereby the dyes require the use of an additive, usually some form of mineral, to set the colors.

Ever looked at a vast landscape and go, “Wow, I could just look at this forever?” Sure, we are all captivated by the richness of the colours of Mother Nature. A leaf will never have the same shade of green throughout its life. Yet, the colours are all equally eye pleasing.

So why should you buy naturally dyed products? 3 reasons:

  1. Even if they fade, the colours are still eye pleasing and are not garish like their synthetic counterparts.
  2. They have therapeutic properties because they are made from products in nature.
  3. Less chance to develop skin conditions such as rashes and eczema especially for babies.

In the world of natural fabric dyeing, there are three sources where the artist may get their pigment bases from:

  1. Plants – such as Marigold which produces a rich yellow.
  2. Animal/Insect – such as Cochineal, an insect that lives on cacti that produces a deep blood red due to the carminic acid found in them.
  3. Minerals, colored clay or earth oxide – such as ochre.

The word ‘natural dye’ covers all the dyes derived from the natural sources like plants, animal and minerals. Natural dyes are mostly non-substantive and must be applied on textiles by the help of mordant, usually a metallic salt, having an affinity for both the colouring matter and the fibre. Transition metal ions usually have strong coordinating power and/or capable of forming week to medium attraction/interaction forces and thus can act as bridging material to create substantively of natural dyes/colorants when a textile material being impregnated with such metallic salt (i.e. mordant) is subjected to dyeing with different natural dyes. Usually having some mordant able groups facilitating fixation of such dye/colorant. These metallic mordents after combining with dye in the fibre, it forms an insoluble precipitate or lake and thus both the dye and mordant get fixed to become wash fastness to a reasonable level.

Most of the natural dyes have no substantively on cellulose or other textile fibers without the use of a mordant. The majority of natural dyes need a mordanting chemical (preferably metal salt or suitably coordinating complex forming agents) to create an affinity between the fibre and dye or the pigment molecules of natural dyes. Aluminium sulphate or other metallic mordant anchored to any fibre; chemically combine with certain mordant able functional groups present in the natural dyes and bound by coordinated/covalent bonds or hydrogen bonds and other interactional forces. Thus, for proper fixation of natural dyes on any textile fiber, mordanting is essential in most of the cases.

Natural Dyeing of Cotton Fabric
Fig: Natural dyeing of cotton fabric

Natural dyes can be classified in a number of ways. The earliest classification was according to alphabetical order or according to the botanical names. Later, it was classified in various ways, e.g. on the basis of hue, chemical constitution, application class etc.

  • In “treatise on permanent colours” by Bancroft, natural dyes are classified into two groups: ‘Substantive Dyes’ such as indigo, turmeric etc. which dye the fibres directly and ‘Adjective Dyes’ such as logwood, madder etc. which are mordant with a metallic salt.
  • Humme classify the colouring matter as ‘Monogenetic Dyes’, those produce only one colour irrespective of the mordant present on the fibre or applied along with the dye and ‘Polygenetic Dyes’, those produce different colour with different mordant applied, e.g., alizarin (Dedhia, 1998)
  • In the colour index the natural dyes are classified according to the hue (Predominating colour).


  • The shades produced by natural dyes/colorants are usually soft, lustrous and soothing to the human eye.
  • Natural dyestuff can produce a wide range of colours by mix and match system. A small variation in the dyeing technique or the use of different mordant with the same dye (polygenetic type natural dye) can shift the colours to a wide range or create totally new colours, which are not easily possible with synthetic dyestuffs.
  • Natural dyestuffs produce rare colour ideas and are automatically harmonizing.
  • Unlike non-renewable basic raw materials for synthetic dyes, the natural dyes are usually renewable, being agro-renewable/vegetable based and at the same time biodegradable.
  • In some cases like hard a, indigo etc.,the waste in the process becomes an ideal fertilizer for use in agricultural fields. Therefore, no disposal problem of this natural waste.
  • Many plants thrive on wastelands. Thus, wasteland utilization is an added merit of the natural dyes. Dyes like madder grow as host in tea gardens. So, there is no additional cost or effort required to grow it.
  • This is a labour intensive industry, thereby providing job opportunities for all those engaged in cultivation, extraction and application of these dyes on textile/food/leather etc.
  • Application of natural dyes has potential to earn carbon credit by reducing consumption of fossil fuel (petroleum) based synthetic dyes.
  • Some of its constituents are anti-allergens, hence prove safe for skin contact and are mostly non-hazardous to human health.
  • Some of the natural dyes are enhanced with age, while synthetic dyes fade with time.
  • Natural dyes bleed but do not stain other fabrics, turmeric being an exception.
  • Natural dyes are usually moth proof and can replace synthetic dyes in kid’s garments and food-stuffs for safety. Despite these advantages, natural dyes do carry some inherent disadvantages, which are responsible for the decline of this ancient art of dyeing textiles.


  • It is difficult to reproduce shades by using natural dyes/colorants, as these agro products vary from one crop season to another crop season, place to place and species to species, maturity period etc.
  • It is difficult to standardize a recipe for the use of natural dyes, as the natural dyeing process and its colour development depends not only on colour component but also on Materials.
  • Natural dyeing requires skilled workmanship and is therefore expensive. Low colour yield of source natural dyes thus necessitates the use of more dyestuffs, larger dyeing time and excess cost for mordant and mordanting.
  • Scientific backup of a large part of the science involved in natural dyeing is still need to be explored.
  • Lack of availability of precise technical knowledge on extraction and dyeing techniques.
  • The dyed textile may change colour when exposed to the sun, sweat and air.
  • Nearly all-natural dyes with a few exceptions require the use of mordant to fix them on to the textile substrate. While dyeing, a substantial portion of the mordant remains unexhausted in the residual dye bath and may pose serious effluent disposal problem.
  • With a few exceptions, most of the natural dyes are fugitive even when applied in conjunction with a mordant. Therefore, sometimes their colour fastness performance ratings are inadequate for modern textile usage.


Raw material
Terminalia Chebula (Kadukkai) and Turmeric (Curcuma Longa) was used as a raw material for the preparation of dye solution for dyeing.

Terminalia Chebula (Kadukkai)
Fig: Terminalia Chebula (Kadukkai)
Turmeric (Curcuma Longa)
Fig: Turmeric (Curcuma Longa)

Turmeric is the most popular natural dye in textile dyeing. Turmeric is a rich source of phenolic compounds called curcuminoids. The active colouring ingredient in turmeric rhizome is Curcumin, which is also known as Natural Yellow. Its general formula is given in Figure.

Chemical structure of turmeric (keto form)
Fig: Chemical structure of turmeric (keto form)

Turmeric is the brightest yellow natural dye, which belongs to the diaroylmethane group named difer-uloylemethane. It is also well-known for its anti-carcinogenic, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, anti-parasitic, anti-mutagenic and anti-inceptive properties, as well as for the formation of sunscreen products. Natural dyes such as turmeric dye is mostly non-substantive and must be applied on textiles with the help of mordant such as terminalia chebula (kadukkai). Turmeric has antioxidant and skin-lightening properties and might be used to treat skin inflammations, making these compounds useful in cosmetics formulations.

The common name of turmeric. This polyphenol compound due to a variety of biological activities has been gained significant attention of researches all over the world. Turmeric, an ancient colouring spice of Asia, as the main source of curcumin is traditionally used for many remedies. Curcumin due to a variety of specific characterizations as many other plant materials, there are differences in the curcumin content for the Curcumalonga from different geographical regions and it could be due to hybridization with other Curcuma species which could be important fact to choose the plant with higher content of curcumin. Curcuma longa rhizome has been traditionally used as antimicrobial agent as well as an insect repellent.

Several studies have reported the broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity for curcumin including antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal, and antimalarial activities. Because of the extended antimicrobial activity of curcumin and safety property even at high doses (12 g/day) assessed by clinical trials in human, it was used as a structural sample to design the new antimicrobial agents with modified and increased antimicrobial activities through the synthesis of various derivatives related to curcumin. It was even studied as an antimicrobial agent suitable for textile materials. Results showed that curcumin in combination with aloe Vera and chitosan could be a potential suppressor for microbial growth in cotton, wool, and rabbit hair assessed by the exhaustion method. Either the continuous or batch dyeing process with curcumin provided textiles with antimicrobial properties beside the colour. Curcumin finished wool had semi durable antimicrobial activity, less durable to light exposure than home laundering with 45% and 30% inhibition rates against Staphylococcusaureus and Escherichia coli, respectively, after 30 cycles of home laundering. Mixture of curcumin with other antimicrobial agents is used for the development of antimicrobial skin gels and emulsions with improved skin protection and wound dressing properties.

Composition of curcumin with hydrogel silver nanoparticles is used to increase the function of hydrogel silver Nano composites as marked substances for antimicrobial applications and wound dressing. Curcumin-loaded myristic acid micro emulsion with the 0.86 μg/mL of curcumin suitable for skin consumption inhibited 50% of the S. epidermidis growth as one of the nosocomial infectious agents. It showed 12-fold stronger inhibitory effect compared to curcumin activity dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO).

Terminalia chebula (Kadukkai)used as a mordant for cotton dyeing; it has good dye fixing properties. Cotton has very low affinity for natural dyes. Terminalia chebula (Kadukkai) plays an important role in cotton dyeing. It has phytoconstituents Such as chebulic acid, tannins, flavonoids, sterols, amino acids, fructose, resin, fixed oils etc.

Chemical structure of Terminalia chebula (Kadukkai)
Fig: Chemical structure of Terminalia chebula (Kadukkai)
  • TANNINS-Protection from predation and pesticides.
  • AMINO ACIDS-It is a good anti biotic & kills the microorganism or inhibits their growth.
  • CHEBULIC ACID- This constitution has good healing properties like Antibacterial, Antifungal, Antiviral, Antioxidant, & faster wound healing property.

Terminalia chebula have good transdermal to property and easily diffused into the pores of skin to restore vitality with balance for healing health.


Selection of Fabric

Pre processing

Natural Scouring

Natural Bleaching

Natural Dyeing

Selection of material with regard to medicated product is mostly preferred to the comfort ness of patient. When a patient is dressed the material is in close contact with physical touch. The fabric should be 100% cotton or organic. Cotton free from toxins and irritants. Cotton have been commonly used as the material for medical textile as it absorbs perspiration quickly, thus allowing the material to be fine and dry. Thus, the investigator selected 100% cotton fabric for the study keeping in mind that medical that material such as cotton fabric can control and cure various diseases without causing any side effects when combined with herbal extract when in close contact with skin.


  • The material is first wetted in cold water solution containing a natural mild detergent (10%) and left in this bath for 24 hours.
  • The Scouring process was carried out in the solution containing 15% natural scouring agent at the boiling temperature for an hour and washed till the material brought to neutral PH.


  • The scoured cotton fabrics are exposed to direct sunlight with use of a natural grass base and animal manure, which carries out the natural bleaching process.
  • No chemicals are used in this process.
Natural Bleaching
Fig: Natural Bleaching

The dye was prepared by extracting turmeric powder from deionised water at neutral pH, at 95°C for 1.5 hours. The obtained Curcuma Longa extract solution (dye solution) had a yellowish colour.

Dyeing of cotton fabrics using traditional method, were dyed with the natural colouring matter extracted from Terminalia Chebula (kadukkai) and turmeric as a mordant at goods to liquor ratio 1:40, at 60°C, for 60 min. Dyeing was performed in stainless-steal beakers carried out. The fabric samples were immersed in the dyeing solution in a water bath at 40 °C. After dyeing, rinsing of samples was per- formed in warm and cold deionised water. The samples were air-dried at room temperature.

Natural Dyeing Process of Cotton Fabric
Fig: Natural Dyeing Process of Cotton Fabric

Colour fastness is the resistance of a material to change in any of its colour characteristics or extent of transfer of its colorants to adjacent white materials in touch or both for different environmental and use conditions or treatments like washing, dry cleaning etc. or exposure to different agency heat, light etc. Fading means changes in the colour with or without loss of depth of shade for exposure to particular environment/agency/treatments either by lightening or darkening of the shades. Bleeding is the transfer of colour to a secondary material in contact accompanying white fibre material of similar/dissimilar nature. The colour fastness is usually rated either by loss of depth of colour/ colour change in original sample or it is often expressed by staining scale meaning that the accompanying material gets tinted/stained by the colour of the original fabric, when the accompanying white fabrics of similar/dissimilar nature are either in touch/ made to touch by some means of test procedure/protocol.

The dyed samples were washed in the Launder o meter Laboratory apparatus according to EN ISO 105-C06 standard. The size of the sample was 100 x 40mm, the wash bath contained 4 g/l ECE phosphate reference detergent B, the volume of the bath was150 ml, the temperature of the bath was 40°C and time of washing 45 minutes. Ten stainless steel globules were added into each bath to perform washing, which corresponds to five domestic washings. After washing, the samples were rinsed twice in deionised water and air dried at room temperature.

The dyed samples were Rub fastness in Taber Crock meter – Model 418 found Laboratory apparatus according to EN ISO 105-C06 standard. The size of the sample was 100 x 20mm, arm is weighted to provide a constant 9Nload on the sample at all times and a mechanical counter keeps track of completed 10 cycles. After completion of the Rubbing fastness samples are dried. Then it is Compared AATCC Gray Scale for Staining of color.

CIE L*a*b* colour values and reflectance (R) of samples were measured using a reflectance spectrophotometer Spectra flash 600 PLUS-CT (Data colour). From the CIE L*a*b* colour values, colour differences were calculated according to equation 1:

Color measurement equation 1

Where ∆L* is the lightness difference, ∆a* is the red/ green difference and Δb* is the yellow/blue difference between standard and batch. From the reflectance measurements, K/S values were calculated according to equation 2:

Color measurement equation 2

Where R is the reflectance, K is absorbance and S is the scattering.

Colour measurements
Fig: Colour measurements


FTIR Data Analysis
Fig: FTIR Data Analysis

The above FTIR spectra clearly show Terminalia chebula (Kadukkai) that they have the functional compounds. Among all the compounds are found to have good dye fixing/ bonding properties, sowhich has variety of biological activities, the Terminalia chebula extract contains highest amount of compounds thus influencing the effect of and antibacterial activity.

To utilize the eco-friendly Dyeing using renewable sources such as KADUKKAI and TURMERIC to produce herbal medicated textile material which is free from chemicals like Shirts, T Shirts, Shocks, and Kids Garments.

Dyed Samples, Kurtha, T-Shirt
Fig: Dyed Samples, Kurtha, T-Shirt
Bed Cover, Pillow Cover
Fig: Bed Cover, Pillow Cover

Based upon the result of color fastness on wet rubbing and dry rubbing, light fastness and wash fastness, this dye can be applied for home furnishing and kids’ garments, fabrics such as screen cloth, bed covers, pillow covers and curtains. Based upon the tone produced, this dye stuff can be used for dying spiritualist fabrics. The process is eco-friendly and not harmful and it obeys ISO 14000 certification. The Method of producing and handing is easy. The cost of the dye is cheaper. The natural source for the dye is easy to cultivate the recommended to apply this dye stuff and procedures followed in.


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