Productivity in Textile Spinning Mill:
In yarn manufacturing, two immediate prerequisites to success are high productivity and high quality. Productivity in a textile spinning mill could be taken as an indication of the mill performance level. As the productivity increases, product cost reduces, which in turn raises the standard contribution. Productivity is simply the output expressed as the ratio of the input. In other words, productivity is defined as the efficient use of resources such as labor, capital, land, materials, and energy in the production of goods and services. Productivity is, therefore, key to the survival of a manufacturing enterprise in business. Higher productivity means accomplishing more with the same amount of resources or achieving higher output in terms of volume and quality for the same input. Productivity of spinning mill is related to total operative hours necessary to produce 100 kg of yarn.
Production in spinning mill is affected by spindle speed, yarn twist per meter, end break rate, out of production hours, ring diameter, doffing time and type (auto-doffing or manual), and personnel organization. Productivity reduces with decrease in mill efficiency. Hence, mill performance is closely related to the total operative hours worked to produce a constant amount of production. Productivity is a comparative tool for managers, industrial engineers, and management people.
Factors Affecting Productivity in Textile Spinning Mill:
All spinners wish that the spinning productivity of their mill (ring frame production in grams/spindle shift) has the optimum level of efficiency. Though there are many aspects that limit the actual production like ring diameter and its life, lift, life and make of the ring frame, its maximum mechanical speed, type of spindle drive, lot size, fluctuating production program, poor control on RH, lower HP of main driving motor, greater percentage of untrained workers, impoverished technical knowledge of subordinates, etc.
In every factory, production efficiency defends on some factors or parameters. As like as other factory, productivity in textile spinning mill defends on some factors. The factors which influence the productivity of textile spinning mill are mentioned below:
- Raw material
- Ends down
- Bobbin size
- Energy consumption
Above factors of productivity in textile spinning mill are described below:
1. Raw material:
Raw material has an important impact on yarn quality and production. Let’s see how it affects on yarn production? There are many parameters through which we can easily assess the properties of cotton; first one is the fiber length which is the most important characteristic of cotton and is measured in terms of staple length, span length and effective length. If fibers have good staple length it results in the form of high production because less twist per inch is required to give enough strength. Second one is the short fibers percentage; higher percentage of short fibers will result in the form of production losses due to more end breakage and higher twist per inch. Third one is the fiber maturity, in case of immature fibers it results in the form of production loss because the yarn made from these types of fibers have poor strength and also it produces breakage in spinning department. Fourth one is the fiber strength which is the dominating feature of fiber. When fiber strength is higher it outcomes in the form of high production due to less twist multiplier. I think while choosing cotton we have to keep in mind all these factors otherwise it results in the form of great loss.
In all industries, the importance of labor cannot be denied. But in the textile sector specially in spinning mills optimum number of labor employment in various departments of a spinning mill plays a very crucial role because without their participation nothing could be done. The efficiency of the labor in any department of spinning mill is of paramount importance in influencing the productivity. The right selection of labor for particular work profile requires the application of psychometric tests. The efficiency of the labor should be checked at the end of the training period. The inefficient labor allotted to any work in the spinning mill reduces the productivity. The allotment of higher work force than recommendation in a department affects the productivity of the spinning mill.
Sometimes productivity is viewed as a more intensive use of labor, which should reliably indicate performance or efficiency if measured accurately. It is important to separate productivity from intensity of labor, because while labor productivity reflects the beneficial results of labor, its intensity means excess effort and is no more than work “speed-up.” The essence of productivity improvement is working more intelligently, not harder.
Productivity of any manufacturing industry relies mostly on the machines installed for manufacturing products. The selection of machinery type such as manual or semiautomatic and automatic also has a significant effect on productivity. If the process is highly automatic, then the labor allotted should be less in order to attain higher productivity. In the textile industry, machine are working 24 hours so it is important that its efficiency would be excellent. Let’s look at the comparison between the old and new machine. In Spinning Mills we analyzed that, “why new machine are better than old machine?” In the simplex department they have erected 10 frames and in which one of them is the old one. If we compare the old machine with the new machine in production point of view then, it is clear that new machines are better than old ones. We got some experimental results, from the new frame with the speed of 725 rpm the production is 45 bags/day while with the old machine with the same speed production is 35 bags /days because many factors involved in it like sliver and roving breakages, machine adjustments and stoppages. If we compare these machines in energy point of view then old machine consumes more energy than the new ones. From the above discussion it is clear that the machine matters if we talk about productivity.
While analyzing in Ring Department, during working stoppages may occur due to the following reasons:
- Ends down
- Bobbin size
These factors affect the productivity to a great extent. If we control these stoppages then production can be increased and it also has an impact on yarn quality which is improved under the same conditions of cost and labour charges.
a) Ends Down:
The end down is due to the less strength of yarn and greater spindle speed. Adding to stops, no. of spindles per frame, lift of bobbin rail and cleanliness of the department also affects the production. More number of spindles on a frame increases its efficiency. Cleanliness means no fibrous mass is floating in atmosphere of ring otherwise ends down rate will be increased.
Doffing means removal of full size package and replacing it with the empty one. During doffing, the machine is stopped and it is carried out by skilled workers. For coarse count like 7s, 10s etc, doff time is less and for finer count like 30s, 40s etc, time is more. For 20S it takes 90-110 min for complete doff. During doffing, it should be kept in mind that it should be carried out in the shortest possible time.
The changing of the roving bobbin when it is empty and to replace it by a new full roving bobbin is called creeling. Creeling time should be as small as possible.
d) Bobbin Size:
The production can be increased by increasing the bobbin size because with a bigger bobbin less doff is required per shift. The Bobbin size depends on ring dia, but as we increase the ring dia, ends down rate also increases so it also has a limit. Usually 42 mm ring dia is available on which 40 mm dia bobbin can be prepared.
Proper maintenance of spinning machine is necessary otherwise it results in the form of many problems like sudden shut downs and big production loss. In ATM maintenance is done on daily basis to overcome the problems which they are facing every day. Usually in ATM one machine is opened 30 in every department for maintenance. Proper maintenance results in the form of efficient working of machine and good outputs. For example by proper maintenance and by proper preparation of roving it results in the form of minimizing the end breakage rate.
The important maintenance activities such as cleaning schedules and replacement of worn-out parts should be implemented effectively to enhance the productivity by reducing the unnecessary machine break downs. The deviation in the replacement of worn-out machine parts such as carding wire points, top roller cot, aprons, spindle tapes, roller bearing, and spindle may significantly affect the quality and process performance so that productivity gets dropped.
5. Energy consumption:
Energy is the basic requirement of any industry but nowadays in Bangladesh it’s a big issue right now that’s why the textile industry is suffering from many problems. Now take a look and discuss what kind of problems they are facing and how they create hurdles for productivity? Bangladesh industry is mainly running on these two resources i.e. gas and electricity. But due to shortage of these necessities many textile units are shutting down. Sometimes due to sudden failures machine parts are being destructed. The second and most important problem that arises is that the products are not being prepared in time for delivery which causes customer and production loss as the products are not being produced on time. For instance if one spinning mill has a production of 300 bags/ day due to shut down of 2 hours, its production is going to decrease by 275bags/day.
The various factors influencing the energy consumption of the machines are machine load, process type, motor specifications, and motor maintenance. Units per kilogram (UKG) is a parameter used in the spinning mill to measure the energy consumption level.
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Founder & Editor of Textile Learner. He is a Textile Consultant, Blogger & Entrepreneur. He is working as a textile consultant in several local and international companies. He is also a contributor of Wikipedia.