Basic Concept of Yarn Manufacturing Process
B.Sc. in Textile Engineering
Textile Engineering College, Noakhali
With the exception of silk, all other natural fibers that are of technical relevance are obtained in the form of staple fibers. Staple fibers exhibit a characteristic average length. In the spinning process, fibers are entangled, for example, by rotation, to increase the friction between the individual fibers and thus build a staple fiber yarn.
Different techniques are used to introduce the required number of turns per length into a spun yarn: ring spinning, open-end spinning, friction spinning and airjet spinning. The characteristics of a yarn will depend on the spinning technology used. In this article I will discuss basic concept of cotton yarn manufacturing process (ring spinning) with machine flow chart.
- Yarn is defined as a linear assemblage of the fibers twisted together.
- Yarn properties are parameters to describe the yarn, such as fineness or titer, elongation, hairiness, tenacity, twist, and volume.
- The process of making the yarn from a textile fiber is called Spinning.
- The so-called “spun yarns” are yarns made from staple fibers (for example cotton and cut man-made fibers).
- All other yarns are made from man-made fibers.
- Plied yarns consist of two or more parallel oriented yarns; twisted yarns consist of at least two twisted yarns.
Yarn Manufacturing Process
At present, the short-staple (also called cotton or three-roller) spinning process is the most common spinning method worldwide. The name three-roller spinning comes from the arrangement of the rollers in the drafting zone in the most commonly used spinning machine, the ring spinning frame. This spinning principle is suitable for all fiber types with lengths up to 40 mm. It is very flexible with regard to the properties and applications of the produced yarns. Yarns manufactured by ring spinning are processed into wovens, hosiery, knits, and braidings in the areas of apparel, home textiles, and technical textiles.
Machine Flow Chart of Cotton Yarn Manufacturing Process
Spinning (Ring Frame)
Bale Opening or Breaking
- The cotton tufts are opened in this process.
- As the cotton arrives in an extremely compressed condition the first operation is to loosen the matted fibers
- The cotton fiber is loosen by means of rotating spiked rollers of the bale opener.
- This is a process of mixing the same/different category of fibers to get desired properties and cost effectiveness.
- Mixing is done after the study of the essential properties of fiber like staple length, tensile strength, fineness, uniformity etc.
- In this process the cleaning and opening of the cotton is done by beaters and openers.
- The foreign materials like dust particles, seeds of cotton and other impurities are partially removed in this process.
- The cotton tufts are opened and cleaned in this process and the cotton lap is made out.
- Carding is the heart of spinning in this process the minute impurities like small seed particles,immature fibers etc. are removed.
- The straightening and aligning of fibers are done in this process.
- In carding the Blow room lap is attenuated to the card sliver.
- Through drafting fibbers get paralleled
- Up to Eight Carded Slivers are fed into the Draw Frame and they are stretched/Straightened and made into a single sliver.
- Also fiber blending can be done at this stage.
Simplex (Roving Frame)
- Further drafting is done here to get the fibers more aligned/paralleled.
- The Sliver from Draw-Frame is thicker and will be difficult to be fed into the Ring-frame as is, hence here the Slivers are stretched and were made thinner by Drafting and mild twisting (so as to strengthen the Roving).
- The End-Product from the Simplex is called as Roving.
Ring Frame (Spinning)
- The roving is fed into the Ring-frame and is made into yarn by further Drafting & Twisting.
- To draft the roving until the required fineness is achieved
- To impart strength to the fiber, by inserting twist.
- Depending upon the yarn count required, the drafting and twisting can be adjusted.
- Winding is the creation of large yarn packages that can be easily unwound.
- Winding makes easier and economical use of yarn on subsequent machines.
- All yarns made on ring frame are wound in the form of large cones on Autocone winding machine.
- Yarn faults are also removed on this machine with the help of yarn clearer.
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Founder & Editor of Textile Learner. He is a Textile Consultant, Blogger & Entrepreneur. He is working as a textile consultant in several local and international companies. He is also a contributor of Wikipedia.