Spindle in Ring Frame: Functions, Parts and Spindle Speed

Last Updated on 02/08/2022

What is Spindle in Ring Frame?
The spindle is the main part of a ring frame which helps in twisting, winding simultaneously. Spindle is a shaft for ring cop or bobbin. It rotates at high speed around its own lengthwise axis. The rotation of spindle also drives the bobbin mounted firmly on it, by the same speed. However, the rotation of the traveller lags behind that of the spindle and thereby helps in bobbin lead winding. Difference in the speed of spindle and traveller defines the winding speed. Sometimes, spindle referred as ‘heart of spinning’. It hold the bobbin, somewhat loosely but tight enough to prevent slippage. High production rate demands higher spindle speed. When the spindle speed is increased, the friction work between ring and traveller increases. Spindles of modern ring frame are driven by spindle tape through ABS pulley. The direction of twist in the yarn spun is decided by the direction of spindle rotation. Spindles have a predominant influence on the ring spinning machine’s energy consumption and noise level.

New generation spindles are designed with reduced lift in order to get better speeds due to reduced yarn tension, package weight, etc. The top parts are designed to suit auto-doffing, and spindle brakes are provided to remove operator fatigue. The concentricity of spindle with respect to ring plays a critical role in deciding the yarn quality and end breakage rate. Eccentric spindles in the ring frame significantly increase the hairiness in the yarn and affect strength and elongation also. An eccentric spindle can increase the end breakage markedly because of the once-per revolution cycle of tensions produced.

Spindle performs two basic functions of spinning, viz. twisting and winding. However, both of them demands assistance from the traveller. Spindles are generally made from aluminum alloys, whereas the bolsters are made from cast iron or steel.

Functions of Spindle:

  1. Twisting and winding is performed by spindle.
  2. It holds the bobbin.
  3. The capacity of ring frame is mainly determine by the number of spindle.

Major Requirements of Spindle:

  1. True running even at high speed
  2. Less power consumption
  3. Less noise level at higher speeds

Different Parts of Spindle:
A ring frame spindle consists of two main parts, viz. spindle center shaft and enclosed bearing housing as shown in Figure 1. They are fit together very accurately and thereby manufactured with very close tolerances. Different makes and styles of the spindles may look very much alike; the dimensions of parts are sufficiently different. So, corresponding parts of different models manufactured by either same or different manufacturers will not fit together.

spindle structure
Figure 1: Spindle structure

Spindle centre shaft: It is the active element of the entire assembly. As the name suggests, it is a shaft for bobbin and thereby supports the bobbin and rotates it at a desired speed. These rotations of the bobbin are responsible for twisting and winding actions. The main components of center shaft are spindle sleeve, blade, oil deflector ring, sleeve whirl or wharve and Let-ON or clutch.

Bearing housing: It is the bottom end and the stationary fixed element of the spindle. It is the lubricating arrangement for the highest speed driven part of the machine. Thus it is an antifriction device for central shaft of the spindle. Normally regarded as bolster and fitted in the holes bored in spindle rail for it.

Different parts of spindle are given below:

  1. Spindle blade
  2. Spindle sleeve
  3. Wharve
  4. Bolster
  5. Lock
  6. Bearing
  7. Bolster cage

The last three parts help the spindle to fix at the right place and work properly.

Different parts of spindle
Figure 2: Different parts of spindle

Main parts of a spindle are described below:

Spindle blade: It is made up of high grade steel rod, hardened and tempered. It forms the axis of rotation for the spindle. The lower two-third of its length is turned to an accurate taper reducing downward, to fit the bolster bearings in which it will revolve. The upper one-third, approximately, has a general taper reducing upward, and is made right dimensions to receive spindle sleeve.

Spindle sleeve: It is made up of a light aluminum alloy to reduce the weight of the revolving mass. It is provided with slight taper at top of say 1:64. Taper is perfectly matching with bobbin taper to grip it well during spinning and winding. To ensure that the tube is firmly seated on the shaft, it has a spring loaded rectangular or circular tube coupling at the top, known as spindle plug or button.

Sleeve whirl/wharve: The bottom end of the shaft is in the form of a cap wharve, a hollow grooved pulley, known as whirl or wharve. It receives drive from the mains via tape. The narrow flanges prevent riding off tape from either edge or face of the pulley. It is hollow and can therefore be fitted over the spindle collar accommodated in the bearing housing.

Regular plain bearing bolster: It is used on conventional slow speed frame. It is provided with upper sleeve bearing (neck bearing) and simple hollow cast iron 100–140 mm long and average 10 mm outside diameter tube. Tube is filled with antifriction oil, circulating through the bolster for lubrication center shaft blade. Bolster is constructed with one or more vertical slots or grooves in the outside of the top end of the tube. These slots permits the oil raised up wards due to capillary action to flow down back into the base for recirculation.

What is Spindle Speed in Ring Spinning Machine?
The spindle speed is an important process parameter that characterizes the technological process on ring spinning machine and determines the technical and economic indices of operation of the machines for processing of fibers. The increase in spindle speed results increase in yarn tension, which can lead to yarn breakage over a level recognized as standard.

Yarn quality gradually decreases with the increase in spindle speed. The increase in spindle speed in turn increases the noise pollution as well as energy consumption in the ring frame. The spinning tension varies from the bottom to the top of the ring bobbin and it is proportional to the spindle speed for the constant ring diameter and traveler mass. Optimization of spindle speed at different ring bobbin positions is essential for achieving uniform spinning tension, which would reduce the end breakage rate and also result in uniform quality of yarn.


  1. Engineering Techniques of Ring Spinning by Someshwar S. Bhattacharya and Tasnim N. Shaikh
  2. Process Management in Spinning by R. Senthil Kumar
  3. Advances in Yarn Spinning Technology Edited by C. A. Lawrence

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