Antibacterial Extraction of Cotton and Synthetic Fabric Testing from Centella Asiatica

Antibacterial Extraction of Cotton and Synthetic Fabric Testing From Centella Asiatica

Shahidul Islam
Dept. of Textile Engineering
BGMEA University of Fashion & Technology, Dhaka


Centella asiatica may be a plant that has antifungal and antibacterial bioactive compounds. Centella asiatica is one among the main herbs for treating skin problems, healing wounds and being an antibacterial and antiviral. Centella asiatica Leaf samples taken from the manoko bandung plantation were extracted using 90% ethanol and n-hexane, the extract was thickened and a thick extract was obtained which was then tested for its antibacterial activity. Antibacterial activity test uses the paper gram positive and gram negative method and tested against the bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus subtilis. The extract concentrations used were 6.5%, 9%, 11.5% and 13%. The results showed that ethanol extract was effective in inhibiting the expansion of Bacillus subtilis bacteria with an average inhibition zone of 9.41 mm and included within the strong category. As for n-hexane, it’s effective in inhibiting the growth of Bacillus subtilis bacteria with inhibition zones 22.20 and categorized as very strong inhibition. The ethanol and n-hexane extracts of Centella asiatica Leaves are effective in inhibiting bacteria from the gram positives group because gram positives have an easier cell wall with a relatively large number of peptidoglycan.

Antibacterial found in leaves and bark of Centella asiatica plant. This antibacterial protects the skin. Applied on textile purpose means cotton & synthetic fabric testing means it will save from bacteria. I could have used potassium permanganate as antibacterial but I am using natural because it is cost effective.

Keywords: Antimicrobial, cellulosic fabric, synthetic fabric, antibacterial, clothing.

Centella asiatica is one of the most important commercially grown tree origin since it yields drug and textile purpose both. Centella asiatica commonly known as gotu kola, is a herbaceous plant belonging to the family Mackinlayaceae. While most Mackinlayaceae grow on trees, the Centella asiatica is a ground drug. It is native to tropical regions of Africa, Asia, Australia, and islands in the western Pacific Ocean. The quality of the Centella which is used for extraction of antibacterial is different from what is grown as a drug. This leave of a drug bearing plant also yield textile purpose; however, they do not yield good quality textile purpose. Centella asiatica plants, with long leaves and bark, especially production for its drugs give the antibacterial agent.

Centella Asiatica Antibacterial Agent:
At present, plant fibers are widely using for numerous applications from many resources. the foremost important property of Centella asiatica is non toxic and fewer side effects which bring it back to skin protection, with a plus of being cost-effective. Centella asiatica is more delicate in texture than the opposite drugs. Medicinal plants are an integral part of man since the dawn of civilization. Makeup the backbone of several indigenous traditional drug systems.

Pharmacological studies have confirmed medicinal plants as a possible source of bioactive substances. Medicinal plants are a rich source of new drugs that form components in traditional systems, medicine, modern drugs (leprosy, psoriasis, eczema and itching) pharmaceutical intermediates, of bioactive principles and lead compounds in different natural drugs. Extract from plant have been used an additves in different drug formulation to enhance their use as basic health care of 80% of the global population. Reckless hunting resulted within their names being included within the Red Book. In recent years, multiple drug resistance has emerged in both human and plant pathogens, it was developed through the reckless use of synthetic drugs. This leads to the necessity of screening medicinal plants new bioactive compounds as plant-based drugs are biodegradable, safe. Gotu kola (Centella asiatica) is probably the most commonly used traditional medicinal plant of Africa.

Within the last few decades, aside from studies considerable progress has been made within the chemistry of gotu kola compounds in the evaluation of biological activity phytochemicals for medical use. Within the fashionable era, gotu kola is taken into account a valuable source of uniques natural products for the case of medicine against various diseases. Centella asiatica is well known in Africa and neighboring countries one of the most versatile medicinal plants with a wide spectrum of biological activity. Centella asiatica  and centella cordifolia are two closely related species of Mackinlayaceae. The previous is popularly known as the African aka gotu kola (a caffeine containing plant) gotu kola is an evergreen tree, cultivativation several parts of the African subcontinent. Every a part of the tree was used as traditional medicine for home remedy for various human ailments, from the past. Several pharmacological activities and medicinal applications of varied parts of gotu kola have been documented in ancient literature.In recent times, the biological activities and medicinal properties of gotu kola are greatly expanded. The biological activity of gotu kola is reported for crude extracts and their various fractions from leaves, bark, root, seed and oil. However, only crude extract from different parts of gotu kola was used as traditional medicine treatment of varied diseases. Gotu kola has been widely utilized in Ayurveda, Unani, Homeopathy and Siddha medicine and became the cynosure of recent medicine. During this study we assessed antimicrobial potential of Centella asiatica.

It collected gotu kola leaves and bark from the road side of Feni, Parshuram Bazar which is near my house. I did the microorgansim test on this leaf and BuTEX lab which is done in both positive and Negative methods, it was found to be antibacterial. Extraction of leaf and root of Centella  asiatica was done with water, ethanol 90% and chloroform. The leaf powder and the root (10 g each) were dissolved in 100 mL of each solvent. The suspended solutions were left to stand for 7days and labeled accordingly. The extracts were filtered and stored at 4°C.

The antimicrobial activities of aqueous, chloroform and ethanol extracts were determined by filter paper disc and gram positive and gram negative method as described by Jorgensen and Turnidge.paper disc diffusion of Sterile paper discs (6.0 mm diameter) were soaked with the test extracts and dried at 35°C for 25 min. The prepared agar plates were seeded with each of the test bacteria and therefore the filter paper discs were placed on each plate. The plates were incubated at 30°C for 36 hr. The fungal isolates were similarly cultured on SDA plates and incubated 25°C for 72 hr.

Cantella Asiatica extraction
Figure 1: Cantella Asiatica extraction

Cotton Fabric Test:
Centella asiatica (gotu kola) were tested using ASTM E2149. It is often a quantitative antimicrobial test method that can evaluate the resistance of non-leaching antimicrobial-treated samples to microbial growth under dynamic contact conditions. Antimicrobial activity testing was performed against Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli) at the Microbiology Laboratory of Dhaka University.

Synthetic Fabric Test:
Biogenic Ag nanoparticles were synthesized using CAPE as the reductant and stabilizer following a previous work with minor modification. Briefly, a 4.5 mg mL-¹ of lyophilized CAPE sample was dissolved in ethanol: water mixture (1 : 2). Then different concentrations of AgNO3 were prepared (1.5-4.5) mM. 90mL of AgNO3 was measured into a 250 mL beaker wrapped with an aluminum foil to prevent photo-oxidation and placed on a magnetic stirrer. CAPE solution (4.5 mL) adjusted to a pH 8.0 was added to the AgNO3 solution and stirred at 25-50°C for 90 minutes. Successful synthesis of CAPE-AgNPs was monitored with a UV-visible spectrophotometer. Parameters affecting CAPE-AgNPs, like the effect of AgNO3 concentration and synthesis kinetics were briefly optimized. CAPE-AgNPs was centrifuged at 12000 rpm for quarter-hour and was washed with an ultra-pure water to get rid of excess CAPE and free AgNO3 that weren’t used for AgNPs synthesis from solution. The collected pellets were lyophilized before characterization and applications.

Antibacterial test
Figure 2: Antibacterial test

The Gram positive and Gram negative antibacterial (10.0 mm) was demonstrated by the ethanol extract of C. asiatica root against S. aureus while the value dropped to 4.5 and 5.5 mm for chloroform and water extract respectively when tested against the same organism. The zone of inhibition was 13.1 mm for the ethanol extracts of C. asiatica root against E. coli when Gram position and Gram negative was used as against 9.0 mm for the antibacterial test as well as many fabric bonding test such as FTIR and SPX on cotton fabric and synthetic fabric.

The obtained results showed that both the leaves and the root of C. asiatica have bactericidal effects on pathogenic microorganisms. Figure 1 (extraction) shows that ethanol was the best solvent for the extraction of antimicrobials from this plant compared to chloroform and water. However, the aqueous extract was not effective against Centella cordifolia and Centella erecta. The result agreed with previous studies that there was a requirement to use a wide range of extraction solvents in the extractions of potential antibacterial substances from medicinal plants. However, the agar gram-positive and gram-negative method gave larger zones of inhibition compared to the paper disc method. In accordance with the previously investigated Gram positive and Gram negative method better extraction into the medium, thus improving contact with organisms. The paper discs may act as a barrier between the extract and thus the organisms, preventing the overall diffusion of the active substances absorbed by the discs into the medium and should be responsible for the observed differences.

The results of antibacterial activities showed that the ethanolic extract of C. asiatica leaf and root showed activities against “cotton and synthetic fabric” two-assay testing with the widest zone of inhibition of 7.5 mm against A. niger. ethanol extracts based on. However, the antibacterial agents of Centella cordifolia and Centella erecta were not inhibited by the aqueous extracts of both the leaf and the root of the plant. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values ​​of the mentioned extracts the highest activity was recorded against E. coli (MIC 3.5 mg ml–1) in the ethanolic extracts of C. asiatica root and therefore the lowest activity was observed against Centella cordifolia and C. Centella erecta ( 15 mg ml–1) in the aqueous extract of roots and leaves.

The bacterial activity of C. asiatica root may be due to the presence of bioactive components of C. asiatica root. In addition, the results are accepted as true in the use of C. asiatica root and leaf in wastewater treatment due to its bactericidal effect on cotton fabrics and synthetic fabrics. The antibacterial root extract of C. asiatica can be said to have more potential than the leaf extract. Recently, C. asiatica was reported to have antimicrobial ability, but this study showed that the root extracts were much more effective as an antibacterial as well. Based on the results of this study, we can say that there is great hope for the development of the root part of C. asiatica to obtain antimicrobial compounds that are clearer and more effective for cotton and synthetic fabrics.

Most of the extracts were effective in inhibiting the microbes at the absolute best concentration though ethanol extracts of C. asiatica provided better antimicrobial activity the opposite plant. There are also inhibitions that done at lowest concentration level of extraction. As a result the inhibition of the microbes organism enough to be done at the less concentration since it had the same result as the most oncentration and it is the most economical strategy that saves on both sources and application cost. Since Centella asiatica grow abundantly in Africa, it also make them as promising plant to be utilized in antimicrobial drug formulation as they are easily available sources which can overcome the existing drug which may later become resistant to the microbes.


  1. Antibacterial Activity of Ethanol Extracts And n-hexane OF (Centella asiatica (L.) Urb.) AGAINST THE Pseudomonas aeruginosa AND Bacillus subtilis Lia Fikayuniar, Anggun Hari Kusumawati, Ermi Abriyani, Dadan Ridwanuloh, Sakina Ichsani.
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  5. Antimicrobial and Phytochemical Analysis of Centella asiatica (L.) Ramar Perumal Samy and Vincent TK Chow.
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