Medical Textile Wound Care
Deepalakshmi.K1 & Rajan. S2,
Textile Technology1 & Textile Chemistry2,
Jaya Engineering College, Chennai, India1.
SSM College of Engineering, Namakkal, India2.
Email: email@example.com & firstname.lastname@example.org,
Medical textile is an emerging area with numerous uses, Medical textile products are produced from high performance textile materials that are manufactured primarily for their functional and performance properties rather than their aesthetic or decorative properties. Studies have carried out in the present work to impart the properties of WOUND CARE and antibacterial finishes in medical textiles producing a “MEDICATED HERBAL BANDAGE”. An eco-friendly natural finish has been prepared from the medicinal herb –extracts to achieve the properties of wound healing and antimicrobial finish. Ethanol extract of the herbs were directly applied on % on cotton gauze by pad- dry- cure method. Padding was carried out in padding mangle at pressure of 3psi to get a pickup of 100% on weight of fabric. Drying and curing was carried out at 80 degree Celsius for 3 mints respectively. Thus the medicated herbal bandage has been prepared. The treated and untreated samples are tested using test methods like SEM, FTIR and WOUND HEALING and ANTIBACTERIAL TESTS and ABSORBENCY TESTS.
Keywords: Mimosa Pudica, Cotton Gauze, Wound Healing, Antibacterial.
MIMOSA PUDICA also called as sensitive plant, sleepy plant and the touch me not is a creeping annual or perennial herb often grown, for its curiosity value, the compound leaves fold inward and droop when touched or shake, to protect them from predators, reopening minutes later. It grows mostly in shady areas, under trees or shrubs. The stem is erect in young plants, but becomes creeping or trailing with age. It can hang very low and become floppy. The stem is slender, branching and sparsely to densely prickly, growing to a length of 1.5m. The leaves of the mimosa pudica are compound leaves. The leaves are bipinnately compound, with one or two pinnae pairs, and 10-26 leaflets per pinna. The petioles are also prickly. The fruit consists of clusters of 2-8 pods from 1-2cm long each, these being prickly on the margins. The pods break into 2-5 segments and contain pale brown seeds some 2.5mm. The flowers are pollinated by wind and insects. Mimosa pudica is well known for its rapid movement. The leaves also close under various other stimuli, such as touching, warming, blowing, or shaking. These type of movements have been termed as seismonastic movement. The movement occurs when specific regions of cells lose turgor pressure, which is the force applied onto the cell wall by water within the cell vacuoles and other cell contents. When the plant is disturbed, specific regions on the stem are stimulated to release chemicals including potassium ions which force out of the cell vacuoles and the water diffuses out of the cells, producing a loss of cell pressure and cell collapse, this differential turgidity between different regions of cells result in the closing of the leaflets and the collapse of the leaf petiole.
PURPOSE OF CHOOSING MIMOSA PUDICA
- Mimosa Pudica promotes wound care in the shortest time possible, with minimum pain.
- It is a good product which is very best for human health.
- The leaves of Mimosa pudica have very good anti-bacterial property.
OBJECTIVES OF MEDI-TEX WOUND CARE
- To promote wound healing.
- To reduce the pain of the wound.
- To immobilize the injured part of body.
- To protect the wound and surrounding tissues.
- To keep the wound clean and prevent contamination by foreign bodies.
- To reduce the risk of bacterial infection.
An injury to living tissue caused by a cut, blow, or other impact, typically one in which the skin is cut or broken. Wound is breakdown in the protective function of the skin; the loss of continuity of epithelium, with or without loss of underlying connective tissue (i.e. muscle, bone, nerves) following injury to the skin is called wound.
CLASSIFICATION OF WOUND
- Acute wound
- Chronic wound
TYPES OF WOUNDS
- Non-penetrating wounds: These are usually the result of blunt trauma or friction with other surfaces; the wound does not break through the skin.
- Penetrating wounds: These results from trauma that breaks through the full thickness of skin; reaching down to the underlying tissue and organs.
The first principle of wound care is the removal of nonviable tissue, including necrotic (dead) tissue, slough, foreign debris, and residual material from dressings. The second principle of wound care is to provide a moist environment. This has been shown to promote re epithelialization and healing. Preventing further injury is the third principle of wound care. This involves elimination or reduction of the condition that allowed the wound to develop.
- Prevention of wound complications and promotion of wound healing.
- Wound healing is the restoration of continuity of cells.
- Wound healing involves the synthesis of several types of tissue and scar formation.
Dressings are important to maintain sterility and absorb blood and serum. Moisture improves the rate of epithelialization. The goal is a state of optimal hydration of the wound margins – not too wet or too dry. Sutured or stapled lacerations should be covered with a non-adherent dressing for the first 1 to 2 days to also allow sufficient epithelialization to prevent gross contamination.
2. MATERIAL AND METHODS
Plant collection and authentication:
Mimosa Pudica leaves were collected from the fields and the leaves of the mimosa pudica are compound leaves. The leaves are bipinnately compound, with one or two pinnae pair, and 10-26 leaflets per pinna. Mimosa pudica is well known for its rapid movement. The leaves also under various other stimuli, such as touching, warming, blowing or shaking. All the five parts of plant leaves, flowers, stems, roots and fruits are used as medicines in the traditional healthcare systems. It has ability to promote health cell growth. Leaves have been popular use for treating various ailments since long. Mostly, leaves of mimosa pudica are showed maximum pharmacological activity as ant diabetic, antitoxin, antioxidant, and antibacterial and wound care activity.
Gauze is the bleached woven cloth used for dressing, bandages and absorbent sponges. It is a thin translucent fabric with loose open weave. Weave structure is arranged in such a manner that the pair of weft yarns cross before and after each warp yarn keeping the weft yarn firmly in place which gives stability to the fabric.
Preparation of Herbal Extraction
The leaves of Mimosa Pudica were collected from the lands and it has been dried under shadow of sunlight to remove the moisture content present in the leaves. The dried leaves were grinded into powder for further process. The powdered leaves was mixed with ethanol in soxhlet apparatus in the ratio of 1:10 and made to boil it for 1 hour at 50 degree Celsius for about one cycle. After the completion of one full cycle, the extract was separated to get the residue at the bottom. The extract was filtered and thus the herbal extract is produced.
The extract of mimosa pudica was followed for fabric padding. The cotton gauze has been taken to padding mangle maintaining the room temperature and normal pH. The padding mangle used is two bowl padding mangle with each bowl of 1kg. The cotton gauze were impregnated in the herbal extract for about half hour at room temperature and it has been squeezed using pair of bowls with the pressure of 0.75 psi so the padding was done uniformly in the full width of the fabric and excess amount of liquor have been squeezed out. Thus the herbal finished fabric is taken for drying and the finished fabric is named as “Medicated Herbal Bandage”.
Medicated Herbal Bandage
Ethanol extracts of herbs were directly applied on cotton gauze by padding method to promote wound healing in short time and to reduce the risk of bacterial infection. Since mimosa pudica plant has abundantly available in many of the countries, the scope of implementation and commercialization of herbal extract to impart finishes in textile is will be high and raw material is 100% natural resources, it is ecofriendly having economic, social and environmental benefits. Thus the medicated herbal bandage is prepared and various performance test have been carried out. The test follows are FTIR, SEM, absorbency test, antibacterial, phytochemical analysis and wound healing activity.
3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
FT-IR Test Result
The above FTIR spectra clearly shows that the leaves of mimosa pudica have the functional compounds like flavonoids, steroids, glycosides, saponins, proteins, carbohydrates, alkaloids and phenolic compounds. Among all the compounds the flavonoids found to have frequency range from 1600 to 3300, so it has wide range of frequency which has variety of biological activities, the leaf extract contains highest amount of flavonoids and phenolic compounds thus influencing the effect of wound care and antibacterial activity.
The other compounds which also influence the property of antibacterial effect which also ranges in the desired frequency. The table below shows the frequency range of mimosa functional compounds.
Table I: FTIR Frequency Range Values
SEM Test Result
It can be used to examine micro fabric and crystallographic orientation in many materials.
The above figures show the morphological structure of the herbal treated cotton gauze where the particles are settled depth into the fibre and the fibres are oriented and crystalline region. The herb particles are well deposited on the fabric surface. Such deposit of herbal extract on the surface of the fibre was found more in mimosa pudica extract treated fabric. The below figures shows the images of untreated and treated fabric. The differences can be clearly seen from the two images that the molecular orientation behaviour is good in treated fabric than the untreated one. The particles are well deposited on the surface of the fabric.
Absorbency Test Result (Wicking Height)
A well absorbent fabric behaves like a wick and water rises through it against gravity. If the water is tinted with dye, the height of the water level wicked through the fabric strip can be noted. Wicking height is higher for a good absorbent fabric. So the below table shows the wicking behaviour of both treated and untreated sample.
Table II: Absorbency Test Values
The above test is carried for 15 mints for each sample.
- For 1 mint the absorbency of treated sample is 8cm
- For 5 mints the absorbency of treated sample is 12cm
- For 10 mints the absorbency of treated sample is 14cm
The above results show that the treated sample has high absorbency than the untreated sample. Thus the wicking behaviour is high for treated sample. Tests were also carried out for 1 min, 5 min, 10 mints , the absorbency rate decreasing due to the gravity because at the higher wicking height the influence of gravity is higher, therefore lowering the absorption of water.
Phytochemical Test Result
Phytochemical screening of the plant extract was carried to find the presence of phyto compounds present in the extract. To identify the phytochemicals in plant extract chemical tests were carried out.
Test For Saponins
To 1 ml of extract 5 ml of distilled water was added and shaken vigorously. Observed for foam appearance indicates the presence of saponins.
Test for Flavonoids
To 1 ml of extract 5 ml of dilute ammonia solution was added, followed by addition of concentrated sulphuric acid along the sides of the tube. Appearance of yellow colouration.
Test for Alkaloids
1 ml of sample was taken to that few drops of Dragandoff reagent was added and observed for orange red colour.
Test for Steroids
1 ml of the filtrate was taken to that 10% concentration H2SO4 was added and observed for green colour.
Anti-Bacterial Test Result (Well Diffusion Method) AATCC 147
The sample of cotton gauze is inoculated in the culture plates containing bacteria of staphylococcus aureus and kiebsiella pneumonia. Based on the bacterial growth on nutrient agar plates after 24 hours of incubation with the test specimen, the sample cotton gauze is found to have antibacterial activity as there was a zone of inhibition against the test organisms. As per standard, the fabric material will be considered to have antibacterial activity only when there is no bacterial growth directly under the sample in the contact area.
|Bacteriostatic activity in mm
|Growth under fabric
Table III: Antibacterial Test Result- Zone of Inhibition
- Technique used : Direct inoculation, Well Diffusion Method
- Amount of sample taken: 5*2.5 cm for each bacterium
- Incubation Period : 37 degree Celsius for 24 – 48 hours
WOUND HEALING TEST REPORT
The Mimosa Pudica ethanol extract shows very good wound care activity. The ethanol herbal extract exhibited good wound healing activity probably due to the presence of phenols constituents.
Assessment of Wound Contraction
Wound contraction was monitored by metric measurement of the wound area. This was studied by tracing the raw wound area on a transparent polythene paper and the traced area was measured by using a graph paper. The wound contraction was measured as a percentage decrease of original wound size of 500mm2 for each animal of a group.
Results were expressed as mean ± SEM. The data were analysed by using one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Dunnet’s test. P values<0.05 were considered as significant.
|Control(Non Medicated Gauze)
Table IV: Effect of Medicated Herbal Bandage on Wound Contraction
Values are in Mean ± SEM; (n=6), *P<0.05, **P<0.01, ***P<0.001 Vs. Control.
Wound Healing Activity on Human
This research work has given a new idea in finishing of cotton gauze with herbs of mimosa pudica for antibacterial and wound care activity.
The above FT-IR and SEM analysis reveals that the herbal extract of mimosa pudica has high antibacterial and wound healing compounds when compared to untreated samples. So it promotes better good healing and reduces the risk of bacterial infection. Since mimosa pudica plant are rich in flavonoids and phenols and abundant availability in many of the countries the scope of implementation and commercialization of herbal extract to impart finishes in textile is will be high and raw material is 100% from natural resources, it is eco-friendly having economic, social and environmental benefits. The treated fabrics were found to be very hygienic with no bacterial infection when compared to conventionally finished fabrics. In the present study, Mimosa Pudica leaves extract possesses a strong wound care activity against acute and chronic wounds.
Also by testing on Rat (Invitro study) it was found that there was a significant increase in the wound healing activity by this medicated herbal bandage. Treatment of herbal bandage showing reduced days of epithelialization period and more contraction.
From the above findings, it could be concluded that the traditional plants may represent new sources of wound healing with stable, biologically active components that can establish a scientific base for the use of plants in modern medicine. This study has open doors for production of better eco-friendly medically treated Band-Aid.
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