Winding and Winding Machine: Types, Efficiency, Functions and Driving Methods
Dept. of Textile Technology
Sarvajanik College of Engineering & Technology, Surat, India
Winding is one of the most important operation, which is mainly occurred in spinning section. Besides, it is also important in fabric manufacturing. In fabric manufacturing, directly winding is not so much important, but rewinding is so important. The creation of large yarn packages that can be easily unwound, is called winding. This makes using the yarn on subsequent machines both easier and more economical.
After warping, some packages contain just a few grams of yarn which is unsuitable for the efficiency of further processing, such as warping, twisting, and quelling. This necessitates the preparation of a dense and uniform yarn package of sufficiently large size from unsuitable packages which can unwind in the subsequent operations without interruptions, is called rewinding. The yarn unwound from the package passes through yarn tensioned and control systems, and with the help of a grooved cylinder, is wound evenly around the package; the yarn enters the recess in the cylinder, thus the rotary movement of the cylinder corresponds to the translation of the yarn. Winding machines currently have independent heads with individually adjustable motors. A modern winding machine can process yarns ranging from a count of Ne 2 to finer ones, at a winding speed of 400 to 2000 m/min.
Winding is more than just transferring yarn from one package to another. Further functions of winding are to check the yarn and to eliminate any faults found.
Types of Winding:
By precision winding successive coils of yarn are laid close together in a parallel or near parallel manner. By this process it is possible to produce very dense package with maximum amount of yarn stored in a given volume.
- Package are wound with a reciprocating traverse
- Patterning and rubbing causes damage of packages
- Package contains more yarn
- Package is less stable
- The package is hard and compact
- The package is dense
- Rate of unwinding of package is low and the process of unwinding is hard
- The unwound coil is arranged in a parallel or near parallel manner
By this type of winding the package is formed by a single thread which is laid on the package at appreciable helix angle so that the layers cross one another and give stability to the package. The packages formed by this type of winding are less dense but is more stable.
- Only one coil is used to make this package
- Cross winding technique is used
- The package density is low
- Minimum number of yarns is wound
- The package formed is soft and less compact
- The stability is high
- Flanges are not required
- The rate of unwinding is high and the process is easy
- The packages formed have low density
Winding Efficiency: [Actual production / Calculated production] * 100%
Efficiency Loss: [(Calculated production – Actual production) / Calculated production] * 100%
Winding efficiency depends on the following factors:
- Spindle or drum speed: The higher the speed the more is the winding efficiency
- Yarn Count: Yarn count is proportional to winding efficiency
- Yarn quality: If yarn quality increases then winding efficiency increases
- Worker efficiency: The more efficient the work is the more efficient the winding will be.
- Humidity: Humidity is reciprocal or inversely proportional to winding efficiency.
- Work load per worker: If the work load on each worker is less then efficiency of winding will be more.
- Maintenance and over hauling: If the maintenance and over hauling of the machine is not correct then efficiency of winding will decrease.
- Power failure: If power failure rate increases the winding efficiency will decrease.
- Creeling time: The more the creeling time the less is the efficiency.
- Doffing time: The more the doffing time the less is the efficiency.
- Capacity utilization: When capacity utilization decreases then efficiency increases.
A basic diagram of winding machine:
Auxiliary functions of a winding machine:
- Creeling: Creeling is the removing of empty package and placement of the full package, in the feed region of the machine, ready to be unwound as part of the transfer process.
- Piecing: Piecing is the process of finding the ends of the packages and connecting them
- Doffing: Doffing is the process of removing the full package and placement of the empty package, in the delivery region of the machine, ready to receive yarn as part of the transfer process.
Methods of Driving in a Winding Machine:
- Surface contact driving
- Direct package driving at constant speed
- Direct package driving at variable speed
1. Surface contact driving
In this process the groove drum is rotated by the motor. The drum is in contact with the package so as the drum rotates the package also rotates. The grooves in the drum provide the traversing motion for the yarn. Here the winding rate stays constant as package diameter increases.
2. Direct package driving at constant speed
In this system the yarn package is placed in a spindle and the spindle is rotated with the motor. Therefore, the package gets motion directly from motor. The package gets angular motion and the yarn take up rate is directly proportional to package diameter.
3. Direct package driving at variable speed
In this system the yarn package is placed in a spindle and the spindle is rotated with the motor. Therefore, the package gets motion directly from motor. Here the rotational speed of package is varied inversely to package diameter to keep winding speed constant.
Reciprocating yarn guide:
Reciprocating yarn guide passage:
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Founder & Editor of Textile Learner. He is a Textile Consultant, Blogger & Entrepreneur. He is working as a textile consultant in several local and international companies. He is also a contributor of Wikipedia.