What is Garment Dyeing?
Garment dyeing is a process of dyeing fully fashioned garments (such as pants, pullovers, t-shirts, jeans, sweaters, dresses, bathrobes, casual jackets, shirts, skirts, hosieries) after they have been cut and sewn, as opposed to the conventional method of manufacturing garments from pre-dyed fabrics. Garment dyeing is a very fancy and critical task. Due to cost savings and fashion trends, garment dyeing has been gaining importance and popularity in the past years and will continue to do so in the future. Normally, garment dyeing technique is used for active wear, jeans item, panty-hose, shirt, slacks, terry items, leisurewear, pullover, skirt, lingerie, socks, sweater dyeing, etc.
To dye piece garments special types of garment dyeing machine is used. Garment dyeing machine controls the dyeing process and ensures that the appropriate amount of dye is used for each garment. In this article I will discuss features and types of various garments dyeing machine.
Features and Types of Garment Dyeing Machine:
During the last few decades, the market has been forcing textile companies to supply sports and leisurewear in extremely reduced times and in the trendiest colors of the moment. Obviously the standard textile production cycle, contemplating a dyeing process followed by make-up and distribution, which does not run with very short times, leads to a considerable loss of sales. The piece dyeing process ensures very short times from the customers’ demand to the fulfillment of market needs for cool colors and stylish finishing processes.
To meet large or small demands for a given color as fashion requires, dyeing machine manufacturers now offer many types of garment dyeing and finishing machines. These are generally rotating machines, similar to large-size industrial washing machines; the garments are loaded in special baskets for finishing operations. Various types of garments dyeing machine have been developed and all those garment dyeing machine can be classified into following:
- Pedal dyeing machine
- Rotary drum dyeing machine
- Tumbler dyeing Machines
- Toroid Dyeing machines
- MCS readymade garment dyeing machine
- The Gyrobox
- Modified Pegg Toroid Whiteley garment dyeing machines
The machine size and equipment allow the maximum flexibility to meet the most different needs. A brief discussion of these garment dyeing machine are done below.
1. Pedal dyeing machine:
A process of dyeing textiles in a machine that gently move the goods using paddles similar to a paddle wheel on a boat. This is a slow process, but there is extremely little abrasion on the goods.
Paddle dyeing machines are generally used to dye many forms of textiles but the method best suits to dye garments. Heat is generated through steam injection directly into the dyebath. The machine works like this, the paddle circulates both the bath and garments in a perforated central island. A pedal dyeing machine is designed for small-scale or artisanal dyeing processes.
Pedal type garment dyeing machine is the first and oldest type of garment dyeing machine still used in the European countries. Pedal type of garment dyeing machine is two types.
a) Overhead pedal type and
b) Side pedal type
Maximum working temperature is 98℃, and heating speed (according to steam pressure of 6 kg/cm2) is approximately 5℃/min.
The process steps are:
- Chemical mixing
- Load preparation
- Pre-dyeing treatments
- Dyeing cycle
- Post-dyeing treatments
- Liquor discharge
Advantages of paddle dyeing machine are:
- Steam heated
- Very efficient liquor flow
- No harm to garment structure
- An uniform patchless dyeing
- Low liquor ratio
- Rapid heating and cooling
- Quick drop and fill
Application of paddle dyeing machine:
Paddle dyeing machine offers itself as a suitable dyeing platform for all the types of piece goods. This typically includes rugs, socks, bed spreads and other types of garments and fabrics.
Rotary garment dyeing machine:
Rotary garment dyeing machine is the modified version of pedal type garment dyeing machine. Rotary drum machines are preferred for garments, which require gentle handling, such as sweaters. A high liquor ratio is required for paddle machines, which is less economical and may limit shade reproducibility. Many machinery companies have developed sophisticated rotary dyeing machines, which incorporate state-of-the-art technology.
TOLKAR-SMARTEX Garment Dyeing Machine is the best example of Rotary garment dyeing machine. They offer PolyRib ECO Drum with Spin Wash Jet Spray System, Smart Balancing System, In Built Smart Flow Nanobubble Technology, Ozone Application etc.
Rotary garment dyeing machine are two types:
a) Normal atmospheric pressure type (less than 100°C)
b) High temperature type (more than 100°C)
Following are the characteristics of rotary drum machines used for garment dyeing:
These machines work on the principle of ‘movement of textile material and a stationary liquor’. The rotary drum dyeing machine consists of rotating perforated cylindrical drum, which rotates slowly inside a vessel of slightly bigger in size. The internal drum is divided into compartments to ensure rotation of goods with the drum rotation, and the outer vessel holds the required quantity of dye liquor. High temperature drum machines are capable of processing the garments up to 140°C.
Features of modern rotary-dyeing equipment include the following:
- Lower liquor ratio
- Gentle movement of goods and liquor (minimizes surface abrasion)
- Rapid heating and cooling
- Centrifugal extraction
- Variable drum speed with reversal capability (adaptable to a wide variety of goods)
- Continuous circulation of goods (improves migration control)
- Easy of sampling
- Variable water levels with overflow rinsing capabilities
- Large diameter feed and discharge lines (minimizes filling and draining time)
- Microprocessor controls
- Lint filters
- Pressure dyeing
- Auto-balancing drums
3. Tumbler dyeing machines:
These machines are being used for small garments either in loose form or in open mesh bags. Design wise the tumbler dyeing machines are similar to the commercial laundering machines.
The principle of operation is to load the material into perforated inner SS tanks, which rotates round a horizontal shaft fixed at the back of the drum. The drum is divided into compartments for moving the goods with rotation of drum. A variety of tumbling machines have higher rotation speeds and can spin dry at the end of the cycle. These are similar to dry cleaning machines.
4. Toroid dyeing machines:
In these machines, the garments circulate in the liquor in a toroidal path with the aid of an impeller situated below the perforated false bottom of the vessel. Movement of the goods depends completely on the pumped action of the liquor. High-temperature versions of this machine operating at 120–130°C were developed in the 1970s for dyeing fully fashioned polyester or triacetate garments. The liquor ratio of such machines is about 30:1.
5. MCS readymade garment dyeing machine:
The rotodye machines are suitable for dyeing pure cotton, wool, polyester, cotton blends in the form of T shirts, sweaters, bath rugs and accessories, socks and stockings.
6. The gyrobox:
The machine has support in the form of a large wheel, which is divided into 12 independent non-radial compartments. The goods are placed in these compartments. The wheel runs at a moderate speed of 2–6 rpm.
The main advantages of this machine are:
- Reduced M:L
- Different types of garments can be dyed simultaneously
- Flexible loading
- Fully automatic operation
7. Modified Pegg Toroid Whiteley garment dyeing machines:
This is an improved version of Toroid machines. The additional features are-
- The machine is suitable for both atmospheric and pressure dyeing
- Full automation up to hydroextraction
- The design features, speed and performance are simplified to make the machine more versatile and free from operating problems
The diverse range of features and types in garment dyeing machines underscores the dynamic nature of the textile industry. These machines play a crucial role in achieving various aesthetic effects, from vibrant color variations to distressed or washed looks. The flexibility of garment dyeing machines allows for customization, enabling manufacturers to respond to evolving fashion trends and consumer preferences.
Founder & Editor of Textile Learner. He is a Textile Consultant, Blogger & Entrepreneur. He is working as a textile consultant in several local and international companies. He is also a contributor of Wikipedia.