Effect of Thermal Knitted Fabrics (Single Jersey) on Shrinkage Behavior

Effect of Thermal Knitted Fabrics (Single Jersey) on Shrinkage Behavior

Mirza Rasel1, Eiaz Mahamud Azad & Shakil Ahmmed
Department of Textile Engineering
Northern University Bangladesh
Email: mirzaraseltex@gmail.com1

 

Abstract
Fabric shrinkage is simply the extent to which a piece of fabric changes in length or width during the laundry process. It decides all the other garment’s manufacturing process in textile industry. All the manufacturers provide a care label to aware the customers about the garments. Without a fabric shrinkage test the information on these labels will not be accurate. Fabric shrinkage mainly depends on composition and properties of fabric, structure of the fabric and finishing applications and procedures. According those causes there are a lot of quality of fabric produced. But on this project, we are dealing with shrinkage of knit fabric specially on single jersey thermal fabrics. Here variety of samples have used to find out the shrinkage behavior of single jersey thermal knitted fabrics. By changing the properties of fabric, we have observed their behavior. We also show that shrinkage difference between natural fiber fabrics and synthetic fiber fabrics. Purpose of this project is to find out the behavior of shrinkage properties of thermal fabric according to variation of the properties of the fabric. Finally, this report shows that the effect of thermal knitted fabrics on single jersey’s shrinkage behavior.

CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

1.1 Introduction:
Shrinkage of the fabric is an important property that decides all the other process for garments. But though we all understand the importance of the shrinkage of the fabric in daily wear, a systematic approach is required to correlate various shrinkage properties with that of composition and properties of fabric, structure of the fabric and finishing applications and procedures. Fabric shrinkage (Dimensional stability) is simply the extent to which a piece of fabric changes in length or width during the laundry process [1]. The shrinkage rate (dimensional stability) of the fabric is just the degree of change in the length or width of a piece of fabric during the washing process. The major cause of shrinkages is the release of stresses and strains introduced in manufacturing processes [2]. Different fibers naturally absorb different levels of moisture and react differently when heated. This is a big factor in fabric shrinkage. Textile manufacturing is based on the conversion of fiber into yarn, yarn into fabric, includes spinning, weaving, or knitting, etc. The fabric passes through many inevitable changes and mechanical forces during this journey [3].

The moisture absorption of fiber is the direct factor of fabric shrinkage. The tightness of yarn and fabric structure is the indirect factor of shrinkage. The tighter the structure, the expansion of the fiber cause the yarn to swell, then the warp height of the yarn in the fabric increases and the length of the yarn in the buckling state becomes shorter, so the fabric shrinks. Therefore, the higher twist and volume fraction of the yarn, the greater shrinkage of the fabric.

The processing tension of the fabric also has an effect on fabric shrinkage. If the processing tension increases, the fiber deformation increases, the internal stress and the slow elastic deformation increase, then the relaxation and retraction degree of the fabric increases after soaking, which make the shrinkage rate of the fabric increases obviously. Besides, temperature also has a great effect on fabric shrinkage, because the high temperature has the effect of relaxation and expansion, and even heat shrinkage.

Different raw materials of fabrics will affect shrinkage rate and heat shrinkage rate. Under normal circumstance, fabrics with minimum shrinkage rate are synthetic fibers and blended fabrics; secondary is linen fabrics; middle is cotton fabrics; the maximum is viscose fabrics. In addition  to  this,  the shrinkage rate varies from fabrics density, the thickness of yarns, weaving, dyeing and finishing process. Different kinds of fabrics have been prescribed standard of shrinkage rate. In the process of dyeing and finishing, some processes like mercerization and preshrunk can reduce shrinkage rate. Synthetic fiber is easy to deform when heated, especially nylon fabrics, it shrinks more easily when heated, but it can improve its dimensional stability by hot setting [4].

The shrinkage of textile materials is an important quality parameter. Failing and unstable materials can cause deforming of the garments or products. Shrinkage is tested at various stages, but most importantly before cutting the fabric into further sewn products and after cutting and sewing prior to supplying the products to buyers and consumers. It is a required parameter of quality control to ensure the sizes of the products to avoid any complaints regarding deformation or change in dimensions after domestic laundry. The tests are conducted with provided specifications of buyers imitating the same conditions like washing cycle time, temperature and water ratio and fabric load and sometimes top loading and front-loading washing machines are chosen to authenticate the test and assurance of the results. This procedure provides standard and alternate home laundering conditions using an automatic washing machine. While the procedure includes several options, it is not possible to include every existing combination of laundering parameters [5]. The test is applicable to all fabrics and end products suitable for home laundering.

In this study thermal knitted fabrics are being used to observe their shrinkage behavior where fabrics GSM and yarn count are being considered.

1.2 Objectives:

  • To describe the effect of thermal knitted fabrics on shrinkage behavior.
  • To study about the thermal fabric.
  • To know how to calculate the shrinkage.
  • To identify the shrinkage of thermal knitted fabrics.
  • To observe the shrinkage behavior by the variation of fabric properties.
  • To compare the shrinkage behavior with the variation of fabric properties.
  • To know how to prevent the shrinkage.

CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 Background:
Manufacturing of knitted fabrics involves intermeshing of yarn loops where one loop is drawn through another loop to form a stitch. Since the last few years knitted fabrics are used in manufacturing of fashion garments and even it has the potential in the formal wear segments also. Weft knitted fabric became more popular than woven fabrics due to its good air permeability conductivity and insulation properties. Economic production cost with no need of ironing; high stretch and elasticity that conform body movement; excellent resistance to bursting, crease and wear with various patterning and design it draws the attention of the modern style. Thus, it replaces woven fabrics day by day. Though knit fabrics are popular than woven fabrics because of its production process, costing and comfort but knit fabrics has some drawback. Shrinkage is one of them. The dimensional stability of fabric refers to the change of fabric size when it is used or reprocessed due to the properties of a material and the potential thermal contraction force in the process of processing. The fabric with good dimensional stability is worn and washed for many times, the original pleating and shape are unchanged, and the dimensions don’t shrink or elongated, which don’t affect the user experience. The fabric with poor dimensional stability is usually shown as shrinkage, such as shrinkage in sewing, ironing, washing and so on. Among them, the wash shrink is the problem that consumer pays close attention to very much [6].

There are two types of fabric shrinkage:

  1. Relaxation Shrinkage.
  2. Progressive Shrinkage.

Relaxation Shrinkage:
This occurs because the fibers and yarns are under tension when the fabrics are made. Later when the fabric is wet in a tension less condition, relaxation occurs.

Progressive Shrinkage:
This occurs each time a fabric is laundered. Unlike relaxation shrinkage which occurs only once, Progressive shrinkage continues and the fabric shrinks a bit more with each laundering of the major fibers, only wool and viscose rayon are subject to progressive shrinkage [7].

2.2 Types of Shrinkage:
Shrinkage is a change in dimensions across the length and width of the fabric after washing, usage, and when exposed to the relaxing of fabrics. Mainly shrinkage is of two types. One is minus shrinkage and the other is plus shrinkage. Skew (twisting of the vertical grains) is also observed along with shrinkage. Abnormal twisting is also considered as a non-conformity.

  1. Contraction: Any noticeable decrease in dimensions is known as Contraction (minus) shrinkage.
  2. Expansion: Any noticeable increase or expansion in dimension is known as Expansion (plus) shrinkage [8].

Based on those two types there are 3 types of dimensional changes.

  1. Relaxation shrinkage
  2. Swelling shrinkage
  3. Felting shrinkage

2.2.1 Relaxation Shrinkage:
Relaxation shrinkage is the irreversible dimensional change accompanying the release of fiber strains imparted during manufacture which have been set by the combined effects of time, finishing treatments, and physical restraints within the structure.

2.2.2 Swelling Shrinkage:
Swelling
shrinkage results from the swelling and de-swelling of the constituent fibers of a fabric due to the absorption and desorption of water.

For example, Viscose fibers increase in length by about 5% and in diameter by 30% to 40% when wet. Because of the fiber swelling, the yarns made from them increase in diameter which means that, a warp thread has to take a longer path around the swollen weft threads i.e., an increase in the length of the path the yarn must take if the fiber centers remain the same. In swelling shrinkage, in a fabric the warp yarn must either increase in length or the weft threads must move closer together.

2.2.3 Felting Shrinkage:
Felting shrinkage results from the frictional properties of the component fibers and it causes them to migrate within the structure. This behavior is normally considered for fibers having scales on their surface such as wool.

Wool can be made shrink resistant by treatment to reduce the effect of the scales on friction. Chlorine treatments tend to remove the scales. Resin treatments are used to mask the scales [9].

2.3 Causes and Influencing Factors of Shrinkage:

Causes:
Shrinkage is mainly due to yarn swelling and the resulting crimp increase during washing of cotton fabrics. Yarn swelling percentage is more in polyester cotton blending yarn.

There are a number of factors affecting shrinkage in fabric:

2.3.1 The raw material:
Different fibers naturally absorb different levels of moisture and react differently under heat. This is a big factor in fabric shrinkage.

In normal use, fabrics with a low shrinkage rate include synthetic fibers and blended fabrics. In the middle, you get cotton fabrics, which shouldn’t be washed or dried at high temperature. And at the other end of the scale, the fiber most affected by shrinkage is viscose. A few other things to consider… Fabric that includes spandex has a higher shrinkage rate than fabrics that don’t include spandex. And dry cleaning is the best method for woolen garments as they are particularly prone to shrinkage.

2.3.2 The production method:
The way in which a fabric is produced can also affect its shrinkage rate. Knitting, dyeing and finishing processes all make a difference.

For example, woven fabric shrinks less than knitted fabric. And the tension of the fabric during production impacts how it reacts when washed and dried. The density of the fabric and the thickness of the yarns also play a part in shrinkage. And fabrics can undergo processes that help to prevent shrinkage [10].

2.3.3 Structure of the fabric:
The textile products which are loosely woven or knitted are prone to shrink more and tightly knitted and woven products are more stable. In knitted fabrics the structure is competitively loose and flexible. Knitting structures are constructed by interlocking the loops. Whereas in weaving yarns are interlaced at right angles to form a stable fabric [11].

2.3.4 Fabric shrinkage factors:

  • Yarn Twist – Twist↑ Shrinkage↑
  • Knitting Tension
  • Fabric GSM – GSM↑ Shrinkage↑

2.3.5 Influencing Factors:

  • Twist factor: If the Twist factor increases so the shrinkage will be increased.
  • Stitch Length: If the Stitch Length increases so the shrinkage will be increased.
  • GSM: If the GSM increases so the shrinkage will be increased elasticity of yarn [12].

2.4 Test methods:
The different test methods are used as per the final destination of the product (Europe, U.S.A.,  etc.)  and the expected washing or laundry methods in practice. Mainly I.S.O. and AATCC standards are used for shrinkage testing. There are few brands which are customizing the test method as per their quality norms.

Shrinkage measuring template, scale and marker.

  • AATCC Test Method 135
  • AATCC Test Method 150
  • ISO 6330
  • CAN/CGSB 58

AATCC Test Method 135, dimensional change of fabrics after home laundering Scope: determines the dimensional changes of garments when subjected to home laundering procedures used by consumers. The method is for fabric not yet made into a garment. A sample is marked with benchmarks before home laundering. Then it is laundered 3 times total, then the benchmarks are measured again. Before and after laundering benchmarks are compared.

AATCC Test Method 150, Dimensional Change of Fabrics After Home Laundering Scope: Determines the dimensional changes of garments when subjected to home laundering procedures used by consumers [13].

2.5 Measurement of fabric shrinkage (according British Std):

2.5.1 Marking out samples:

Marking measurement
Fig 2.1 – Marking measurement

2.5.2 Preparation of the specimen:
The general procedures for preparing and marking out of samples are given in the British Standard. For critical work the recommended sample size is 500mm X 500mm and for routine work a minimum sample size of 300mm X 300mm is considered sufficient. The samples are marked with three sets of marks in each direction, a minimum of 350mm apart and at least 50mm from all edges as shown in Figure. In the case of the smaller sample the marks are made 250 mm apart and at a distance of 25 mm from the edge.

For critical work it is recommended that the samples are preconditioned at a temperature not greater than 50℃ with a relative humidity of between 10% and 25%. All samples are then conditioned in the standard atmosphere.

Shrinkage template
Fig 2.2 – Shrinkage template

2.5.3 Washing:
After measurement the samples are washed in the suitable washing solution in a washing machine conforming to certain specification. After the specified time has passed away the sample is rinsed.

2.5.4 Drying:
After rinsing a tumble dryer is being used to dry the sample. Drying is completed by means of a flat handed press or a heated flat iron.

2.5.5 Conditioning and re-measuring:
After drying, the specimen is conditioned in a standard testing atmosphere and the distances between the markings re-measured.

Measuring scale
Fig 2.3 – Measuring scale

2.5.6 Formula of shrinkage:

Finally, shrinkage will be calculated with this.

…………………Original Measurement – Final measurement
Shrinkage = ———————————————————————- × 100%    [14].
…………………………………Original Measurement

2.6 Basic knitted structure:

2.6.1 Knitting: Knitting is a method by which yarn is manipulated to create a textile or fabric; it is used in many types of garments. Knitting may be done by hand or by machine.

Knitting creates stitches: loops of yarn in a row, either flat or in the round (tubular). There are usually many active stitches on the knitting needle at one time. Knitted fabric consists of a number of consecutive rows of connected loops that intermesh with the next and previous rows. As each row is formed, each newly created loop is pulled through one or more loops from the prior row and placed on the gaining needle so that the loops from the prior row can be pulled off the other needle without unraveling.

Differences in yarn (varying in fiber type, weight, uniformity and twist), needle size,   and stitch type allow for a variety of knitted fabrics with different properties, including color, texture, thickness, heat retention, water resistance, and integrity.

2.6.2 Knitted fabric: The knitted fabric can be defined as a two-dimensional continuum, produced by looping around (interloping and interloping) of individual yarns or sets of yarns. The building block of a knitted fabric is the loop. In a woven fabric, results yarns are held in place owing to inter yarn friction. In a knitted fabric the looping of yarns in positive binding loops are stitches hanging on to one another and held in shape on the upper and lower interlacing zones by other loops. The last row of knitted loops in a fabric is only bound at the lower zones and can be referred to as half-loop [15].

Structure:

  • Wales: Vertical column of loops known as wales.
  • Course: Horizontal row of loops known as course.
Basic knitted structure
Figure 2.4: Basic knitted structure

2.6.3 Types of knitting:

Types of knitting

2.6.4 Characteristics of Knitted Fabrics:

  1. Stitch length (or loop length) is the key factor to determine & maintain quality of the knitted fabrics.
  2. The stitch length, usually measured in millimeters (mm) or inches, is the length of the yarn in the knitted loop. Generally, the longer the stitch length, the more open and lighter the fabric.
  3. So by setting the loop length, it is possible to knit fabric as a particular gsm using different yarn count and machine gauges.
  4. Stitch density is the next important parameter to be set in knitting and represents the total number of needle loops in a given area. Stitch density is the product of courses per inch (or per cm) and wales per inch (or per cm) and is measured in units of loops per square inch or cm.
  5. Construction of knitted fabrics is the number of loops – or stitches – per inch.
  6. A wale corresponds to the warp of woven fabrics, while a course corresponds to the weft.
  7. In General, the fabric which has more wales will shrink less in width, and which has more courses will shrink less in length.
  8. The fabric that has both more wales and courses will have better recovery from stretching, while that with fewer wales and courses will be less rigid, stretch more easily, fit the body contour better but have poor recovery.
  9. A knit fabric is defined according to the number of courses per inch followed by the number of wales per inch. A 24×28 fabric would contain 24 courses per inch and 28 wales per inch.
  10. Each wale is formed by a different knitting needle which knits that wale throughout the length of the fabric.
  11. In each course, adjacent loops are formed by the same yarn but by  different  needles. Therefore most, but not all, horizontally oriented defects are yarn related while most, but not all, vertically oriented defects are needle related.
  12. Yarn variations in thickness, twist, blend, color or tension are seen as horizontal lines in the fabric.
  13. Needle damage such as a bent latch or a bent or broken hook are seen as vertical lines or streaks in the fabric [16].
loop formation
Figure 2.5: loop formation

2.7 Single jersey:
Single jersey fabric is a type of weft knitted fabric. The knitting machine used to manufacture single jersey fabric has just one row of needles. This creates just one layer of fabric (just like if you were knitting a basic scarf). And this is where single jersey fabric gets its name [17].

2.7.1 Structure of Single Jersey:
Like a plain weave for a woven fabric, Single Jersey is the simplest form of knitted fabric. It is a straightforward construction using only knit stitches on the face of the fabric. The crown of the loop will be towards the back of the fabric, and only the two legs will be visible in the form of a ‘V’ [18].

2.7.2 Single Jersey Fabric Properties:
When anyone handle single jersey fabric, then quickly find that one side of the fabric is smoother than the other. The material feels soft and light and it drapes very easily. Single jersey fabric is also very breathable [17].

2.7.3 Characteristics of Single Jersey Fabric:

  • Single jersey typically has approximately twice the stretch in the width direction compared to the length direction.
  • Cut fabrics will unravel from both ends very easily.
  • Fabric thickness is approximately two‐yarn diameters.
  • Jersey fabrics will curl at the edges. The sides will curl to the back, while the top and bottom edges will curl to the face.
  • If a yarn is broken in a plain jersey fabric, a run will form vertically as the broken loop drops the loops below and above it.
  • The plain jersey knit produces a relatively light-weight fabric and has a very high rate of production [18].

2.7.4 Single Jersey Fabric Uses:
Single jersey fabric is often used for sports t-shirts and leggings. This is because the material is very breathable so sweat doesn’t stay locked between the garment and the skin. It’s also a popular option for regular t-shirts too.

Bear in mind that these are just examples. Fabrics don’t have to be used for a specific application. As long as a material fits your design, it’s suitable for the job [17].

2.8 Thermal Knitted Fabric:
A fabric with a waffle or honeycomb texture that’s made to trap warm air between the yarns, making it the perfect fabric to wear during the cold winter months.

The term “Thermal fabric” is using in the trade for last few years. The term “Thermal” is used for different fabric. This means the fabric, which feels cool in worm weather and worm in cool weather when worn. The basic properties of those fabric depend on their thickness, air permeability and wicking properties.

Thermal knit fabric
Figure 2.6: Thermal knit fabric

2.8.1 Characteristics of thermal knit fabric:
Wool and wool mixed fabrics are of higher thickness, wool fibers have natural crimp and more air space in the fabric, hence feels worm when worn. Cotton and cotton mixed fabrics are thin; more over the cotton fibers remain in flat condition in the fabric hence surface area of contact with body is greater. So, cotton fabric feels cool when worn. Cloths made from PVC fiber is thin, more air space in the cloths and less surface area of contact. Hence feels worm when worn. PVC blended fabrics provide cools in warm weather because it has more air spaces. Through which vapor molecules can easily pass through those air spaces. Moreover, the PVC fibers does not absorb water molecules, hence it does not wet.

At present time, for underwear making, mainly polypropylene, polyester, and PVC fibers are used. All the mentioned three fibers, have very poor moisture absorption property. Due to higher cost, PVC is used less and cost of polypropylene and polyester fibers are lower, hence used more in those purposes. PVC fiber shrinks more due to effect of temperature but polypropylene and polyester does not shrink. Fabric structure also plays role in thermal resistance property. Loosely woven fabrics have more air spaces and allow worm air and moisture to pass through those air spaces, hence feels cool when worn in worm weather.

Fitting of the cloths has also role in feeling cool or warm. Closely fitted thermal fabrics helps to retain worm air on to the body surface, hence helps in retaining body warmth. But loosely fitted thermal fabrics allows worm air to pass through due to pumping action of body movement, hence feels cool. Extensibility property of thermal underwear should be higher to allow easy body movement.

At present time, thermal underwear made from 80% polyester and 20% viscose fiber is used extensively in the cold countries. Because its thermal property is satisfactory and price is lower. Property of fabrics is dependent on environment; change of environment can change the property of fabrics [19].

CHAPTER 3
MATERIALS & METHOD

3.1 Materials:
The experimental part of the present study of investigating the shrinkage behavior of thermal knitted fabrics. In the case 5 single jersey thermal knitted fabrics are being used which are made different composition of fibers. In this experiment we have measured two types of shrinkage relaxation and swelling. For this process, certain type, of a thermal fabric were chosen. The required fabrics type of Cotton, acrylic, viscose, polyester and lycra.

To apply the project, the whole sequence was being explored and some point of sequence was being analyzed.

3.2 Raw Material of the Experiment’s Fabric:

Raw Material of the experiment’s fabric

3.3 Method:
In this experiment for getting the result British standard were followed. According to British method whole sequences were being explored.

On relaxation method sample only just cut according to measurement and kept in a flat table for 24 hours. Between this measurement is being recorded by before and after relax. And another one describes below.

3.3.1 Measurement before relaxation & Laundering:

Sample no Length (cm) Width (cm)
Before test Before test
Sample -1 35 35
Sample -2 35 35
Sample -3 35 35
Sample -4 35 35
Sample -5 35 35

3.3.2 Marking the sample:

Marking the sample

3.3.3 Preparation of the specimen:
The general procedures for preparing and marking out of samples are given in the British Standard. For critical work the recommended sample size is 500mm X 500mm and for routine work a minimum sample size of 300mm X 300mm is considered sufficient. The samples are marked with three sets of marks in each direction, a minimum of 350mm apart and at least 50mm from all edges as shown in Figure. In the case of the smaller sample the marks are made 250 mm apart and at a distance of 25 mm from the edge.

For critical work it is recommended that the samples are preconditioned at a temperature not greater than 50℃ with a relative humidity of between 10% and 25%. All samples are then conditioned in the standard atmosphere.

Sample 1
Figure: 3.1 – Sample 1
Sample 2
Figure: 3.2 – Sample 2
Sample 3
Figure: 3.3 – Sample 3
Sample 4
Figure: 3.4 – Sample 4
Sample 5
Figure: 3.5 – Sample 5

3.3.4 Washing the samples:
After measurement the samples are washed in the suitable washing solution in a washing machine conforming to certain specification. After the specified time has passed away the sample is rinsed.

3.3.5 Drying the samples:
After rinsing a tumble dryer is being used to dry the samples. Drying is completed by means of a flat handed press or a heated flat iron.

3.3.6 Conditioning and re-measuring the samples:
After drying, all the samples are conditioned in a standard testing atmosphere and the distances between the markings re-measured.

CHAPTER 4
RESULT & DISCUSSION

4.1 Result:

4.1.1 Sample measurement after the experiment:

Sample no Length (cm) Width (cm)
Before After Before After
Sample -1 35 34.8 35 34.8
Sample -2 35 33.5 35 33.5
Sample -3 35 34.2 35 34.2
Sample -4 35 34.5 35 34.3
Sample -5 35 34.7 35 34.5

4.1.2 Difference:

Sample no Length (cm) Width (cm)
Sample -1 0.2 0.2
Sample -2 1.5 1.5
Sample -3 0.8 0.8
Sample -4 0.5 0.7
Sample -5 0.3 0.5

Length Difference:

Length Difference

Width Difference:

Width Difference

4.2 Shrinkage Percentage:

…………………Original Measurement – Final measurement
Shrinkage = ———————————————————————- × 100%    [14].
…………………………………Original Measurement

Sample – 1, Shrinkage = [(35−34.8)/35] × 100
So, for sample -1, Shrinkage = 2%

Sample – 2, Shrinkage = [(35−33.25)/35] × 100
So, for sample -2, Shrinkage = 4.2%

Sample – 3, Shrinkage = [(35−33.10)]/35 × 100
So, for sample -3, Shrinkage = 2.28%

Sample – 4, Shrinkage = [(35−34.40)/35] × 100
So, for sample -4, Shrinkage = 1.71%

Sample – 5, Shrinkage = [(35−34.60)/35] × 100
So, for sample -5, Shrinkage = 1.14%

4.3 Discussion:
By observing the result and shrinkage percentage it is cleared that when cotton and lycra blended fabric has a great shrinkage behavior rather than synthetic fiber’s thermal fabric. The thermal shrinkage behavior of polyester yarn and the plain knitted fabric made of the same yarns were analyses after subjecting them. The thermal effects on yarns, the yarns in the fabrics and on the wale and course densities were investigated. Thermal shrinkage in the course direction is highly related to the width-wise extension.

CHAPTER 5
CONCLUSION

5.1 Conclusion:
In recent years, the studies of thermal characteristics have gained importance since it is directly related to clothing comfort. One of the ways of achieving clothing comfort is through moisture management of textiles. Moisture management refers to the controlled movement of water vapor and perspiration from the surface of the skin to the atmosphere through the fabric. The aim of this research is to study the thermal comfort characteristics of selected knitted fabrics by analyzing the thermal behavior of shrinkage of thermal fabrics, in order to find the suitability of the product for different climatic conditions. The knitted fabrics made from yarns of micro-denier polyester filament, spun polyester, polyester/cotton, filament polyester, viscose, acrylic and lycra were used for the study. The test results indicated that the knitted fabrics produced from different nature of yarns have greater influence on thermal characteristics, when they were converted into fabrics. Among the five fabrics, it was observed that cotton and mixed with lycra fabrics has a great shrinkage behavior where polyester and viscose have low, quicker evaporation of sweat from the skin through the fabric.

References:

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[2] Dimensional stability (fabric). (2021, January 02). Retrieved March 26, 2021, from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dimensional_stability_(fabric).

[3] Testextextile. (2020, March 16). What is fabric dimensional stability? How to do shrinkage test? Retrieved March 26, 2021, from https://www.testextextile.com/fabric-dimensional-stability-shrinkage-test/

[4] Zahirul_islam_1. (2020, May 02). Fabric shrinkage test: Types of shrinkage: Causes and influencing factors of shrinkage. Retrieved March 26, 2021, from https://textilestudycenter.com/fabric-shrinkage-test-types-of-shrinkage-causes- and-influencing-factors-of-shrinkage/

[5] Esan Fabrics Esan is a knitted fabric expert. Since 1986, Fabrics, E., & Esan is a knitted fabric expert. Since 1986. (2020, April 28). What is fabric shrinkage?: Fabric guide: Esan fabrics. Retrieved March 26, 2021, from https://www.eysan.com.tw/what-is-fabric-shrinkage/

[6] “AATCC, ISO and CAN/CGSB 58 Dimensional Change/ Stability (Shrinkage) Test”. www.manufacturingsolutionscenter.org. Retrieved 21 January 2019.

[7] Knitting. (2021,  March  22). Retrieved March 26, 2021, from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Knitting

[8] Texhour. (2020, March 22). Characteristics of knitted fabrics. Retrieved March 26, 2021, from http://texhour.com/characteristics-of-knitted-fabrics

[9] Ray, S.C.. (2011). Fundamentals and advances in knitting technology. 10.1533/9780857095558.

[10] Texhour. (2020, March 22). Single Jersey structure and its characteristics. Retrieved March 27, 2021, from http://texhour.com/single-jersey-structure-and- its-characteristics

[11] Sayed, M. (1970, January 01). What is thermal fabric? Retrieved March 27, 2021, from https://textileapex.blogspot.com/2015/03/what-is-thermal-fabric.html

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