A knitted fabric can be defined as a two-dimensional continuum, produced by looping around (intralooping and interlooping) of individual yarns or sets of yarns. The building block of a knitted fabric is the loop. Commercially knitted fabrics can be produced in two ways; weft knitting and warp knitting. The overall direction of the yarn path in the weft-knitting process is along the fabric width. This is analogous to that of a pick of weft in the weaving process. In the warp-knitting process, the general direction of the yarn path is along the fabric length, similar to that of the warp in weaving. Moreover, weft knitting can be carried out from one single spool, analogous to a package of weft. For warp knitting, however, one needs a warp beam. A wale is a column of loops intermeshed with each other along the length direction of a knitted fabric. Principles for the production of knitted fabrics are shown in below figures.
Knitted fabrics have the advantage of stretchability, a property not possessed by woven fabrics. Stretching can be in any direction even if the yarn used has little elasticity.The production process of knitted fabrics can be represented by the flow diagram. Both warp- and weft-knitting processes are evidently much simpler than the weaving process.
Considerable Points to Produce Knitted Fabrics:
When a buyer orders for fabric then they mention some points related to production and quality. Before production of knitted fabrics, these factors are needed to consider. Those are as follows-
- Type of fabric or design of Fabric.
- Finished G.S.M.
- Yarn count
- Types of yarn (combed or carded)
- Diameter of the fabric.
- Stitch length
- Color depth.
Methods of Increasing the Production of Knitted Fabrics:
By the following methods the production of knitted fabrics can be increased:
a. By increasing machine (m/c) speed:
Higher the machine speed faster the movement of needle and ultimately production will be increased but it has to make sure that excess tension is not imposed on yarn because of this high speed.
b. By increasing the number of feeder:
If the number of feeder is increased in the circumference of cylinder, then the number of courses will be increased in one revolution at a time.
c. By using machine of higher gauge:
The more the machine gauge, the more the production is. So by using machine of higher gauge production can be increased.
d. By imposing other developments:
- Using creel-feeding system.
- Applying yarn supply through plastic tube that eliminates the possibilities of yarn damage.
- Using yarn feed control device.
- Using auto lint removal.
e. Imparting of automation in knitting machine:
By the imparting of the knitting machine, production can be increased. Following automation can be added for higher production.
- Quick starting and stopping for effective driving system.
- Photo electric fabric faults.
- Automatic machine lubrication system for smooth operation.
Modernization and digitalization of the knitting machine, applying industrial engineering strategies are also effective process for increasing knitted fabrics production.
- Principles of Fabric Formation by Prabir Kumar Banerjee
- The Substrates — Fibres, Yarn and Fabrics by Mathews Kolanjikombil
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Founder & Editor of Textile Learner. He is a Textile Consultant, Blogger & Entrepreneur. He is working as a textile consultant in several local and international companies. He is also a contributor of Wikipedia.