Working Process Flow Chart of Textile Printing Industry

Last Updated on 13/10/2021

Textile Printing:
The word “printing” is derived from the Latin word meaning “pressing” and implies the application of “pressure”. Textile printing is one branch of textile wet processing technology. The localised dyeing of textiles (e.g. to develop a colored pattern) is called printing. Unlike dyeing, printing designs or patterns are usually printed on only one side of the fabric. In a most simple approach, the dye containing paste is printed on the textile fabric and the dye is fixed at elevated temperature (e.g. through steaming, drying). Then the excess paste containing dye and thickener is removed by thorough washing.

flow chart of textile printing

A typical printing is carried out after pre-treatment of fabric or after dyeing of the fabric. It is the process of applying color to fabric in definite patterns or designs. In properly printed fabrics the color is bonded with the fiber, so as to resist washing and friction. Textile printing is related to dyeing but, whereas in dyeing proper the whole fabric is uniformly covered with one color, in printing one or more colors are applied to it in certain parts only, and in sharply defined patterns.

An enormous variety of printing techniques and machinery are technically available in textile printing industry. In this article I will discuss common styles and methods of textile printing and process flow chart of textile printing.

Common Styles of Textile Printing

Direct Printing: In direct printing, a color pattern is printed directly from a dye or pigment paste onto a textile substrate without any prior mordanting step or a follow-up step of dyeing, etc.

Transfer Printing: In transfer printing, a design is printed first on a flexible non-textile substrate (e. g. paper) and later transferred from the paper to a textile substrate.

Discharge Printing: In discharge printing, chemicals are applied, which locally destroy the dyestuff. Textile fabric is first dyed with a suitable dye n discharge printing, and then the dye is selectively destroyed from certain areas of the fabric to give the look of a printed pattern.

Resist Printing: In resist printing, a paste or material is printed on the fabric which prevents access of the dye to the fibers. On dyeing, the fabric attains color only on areas where resist agent is not present. After dyeing, the resist agent is removed and the fabric gives the look of a printed pattern.

Common Methods of Textile Printing

Block Printing: The block printing is an old method of printing which involves the use of wooden blocks with raised printing surface, which are inked and then pressed on to the fabric. The transferred dye was then fixed on the fabric through appropriate methods. This printing method is used only at small scale or in cottage industry and is not used at industrial scale because of less flexibility and productivity.

block printing
Fig: Block printing

Screen Printing: The screen printing is the most commonly used printing method at industrial scale. There are two main types of screen printing: flat-bed screen printing and rotary screen printing. Flat-bed screen printing can be manual or automatic. Rotary screen printing is usually automatic and gives the highest printing productivity. Screen printing involves passing the print paste onto a fabric through a mesh or screen which has some open and some blocked areas according to the desired print pattern. The print design obtained on the fabric depends on the pattern of the open areas of the screen.

Roller Printing: The roller printing is done by making use of heavy copper rollers engraved with a pattern. A separate roller is used for printing each colour in the pattern. Due to low productivity, roller printing method has been almost completely replaced by rotary screen printing.

Digital Printing: Digital ink-jet printing is one of the most modern ways of printing textile fabrics. This method can be used for most of the commercially available fabrics. In this method, a printing pattern can be directly printed from the computer onto the fabric with an ink-jet printer, without any need for making printing screens or engraved rollers. The design-to-print lead time is minimum in digital ink-jet printing and complex designs of photographic quality can be promptly printed. However, as compared to rotary screen printing, the productivity of ink-jet printing is very low. Hence, the method is mostly used for very short production runs or for printing smaller articles such as flags, banners, etc.

All Over Printing: All over printing is a special type of printing technology that allows a particular design to be repeated continuously throughout the entire surface of fabric or apparel. Any fabric can be printed by all over printing method (AOP). Rotary, flatbed screen machine, digital printing machine are used in all over print.

Process Flow Chart of Textile Printing Section
(A typical flow chart of printing in textile industry)

Artwork from merchandiser

Design input

Design development


Print taken

Requisition by merchandiser

Panel (cutting fabric parts)

Expose (frame adjusted)

Fila and frame adjusted

Water spray

Panel send to buyer

Buyer approval

Sale sample

Counter sample

P P production

Accessories booking

Requisition by merchandiser for fabric

Fabric received and store

Count the fabric

Inspection the fabric

Fabric adjusted

Bulk production start

Hydro extractor from dryer





  1. Textile Engineering-An Introduction Edited by Yasir Nawab
  2. Textile Chemistry by Thomas Bechtold, Tung Pham

You may also like:

  1. All Over Printing: Bright Prospects for Textile Sector of Bangladesh
  2. Digital Textile Printing Technology: Evolution, Progression and Techniques
  3. Typical Printing Process | Printing Dyes, Auxiliaries & Technology
  4. Burning Out Print Techniques
  5. What is Roller Printing | Common Defects of Roller Printing
  6. Leather Printing Techniques Step by Step

Share this Article!

Leave a Comment