Effect of Neutral Enzyme in Different Concentration and Parameters on Wet Processing

Last Updated on 10/06/2022

Effect of Neutral Enzyme in Different Concentration and Parameters on Wet Processing

Saidul Karim Riaz
B.Sc. in Textile Technology
Senior Merchandiser
Ha-meem Group
Email: skriaz@live.com

 

Abstract
With the higher concentration of neutral enzyme, significant amount of weight loss is occurred. With increment of cellulase concentration whiteness is increased. We found less color difference in lower concentration. With the increment of cellulase concentration displacement of hue goes to reddish from green and yellowish from blue. In lowering concentration, whiteness index decreased proportionally and vice-verse for yellowish.

Introduction

Literature Review:
In biotechnology we might use enzyme every day in our own home. With time, research and improved protein engineering methods, many enzymes have been genetically modified to be more effective at the desired temp, pH, or under other manufacturing condition, making them more suitable and efficient for industrial or home application.

Stickies Removal:
Enzymes are used by the pulp and paper industry for the removal of stickies, the glues, adhesives and coatings that are introduced to pulp during recycling of paper.

Detergents:
Enzymes have been used in many kinds of detergent for over 30 years, since they were first introduced by novo enzymes. Traditional use of enzymes in laundry detergent involved those that degrade proteins causing stains such as those found in grass stains, red wine and soil.

Textile:
Enzymes are now widely used to prepare the fabrics that your clothing, furniture and other household items are made of. Increasing demands to reduce pollution caused by the textile industry has fueled biotechnological advances that have replaced harsh chemicals with enzymes in nearly all textile manufacturing processes. Enzymes are used to enhance the preparation of cotton for weaving, reduce impurities, minimize “pulls” in fabric or as pretreatment before dyeing to reduce rinsing time and improved color quality. All of these spots not only make the process less toxic and eco-friendly, they reduce costs associated with the productions process and consumption of natural resources (water, electricity, fuels).

Foods and Beverages:
This is the domestic application for enzyme technology that most people are already familiar with this. Historically humans have been using enzymes for centuries, in early biotechnological practices produced foods without really knowing it. It was possible to make wine, beer, vinegar and cheeses. For example, because of the enzymes in the yeasts and bacteria that was utilized.

Biotechnology has made it possible to isolate and characterize the specific enzymes responsible for these processes.

Basic Concept of ENZYMES:

Definition:
Enzyme is not living cells. But they are made by living cells. In their inside some molecules joining together and others breaking apart. These activities keep the cell alive. That’s why every cell of every living creature on earth produces enzymes. So it’s called Bio-catalyst.

Bio-catalyst:
Bio-catalyst is the use of natural catalyst. First bio-catalyst is used by samurais about 6ooo years ago to prepare brew. For, example protein enzymes to perform chemical transformation on organic compound. Both enzymes that have been more or less isolated and enzymes still residing inside living cells are employed for this task.

Why they are catalyst:
Increase the rate of chemical reactions. Enzymes will be same as like as before reaction and after reaction. Like all other catalyst, enzymes work by lowering the activation energy (Ea++). Comparable to un-catalyzed reaction, the enzyme reaction is one millions time faster.

Special Characteristics of Enzymes:

Enzymes are specific:
Which enzyme breaks down the fact they would not able to dissolve in starch or protein. For every section it is specific.

Enzymes are catalyst:
It can perform its specific job for million times. They are best in mild pH and temperature condition.

Enzymes are efficient:
There is an enzyme in the liver that helps to break hydrogen per-oxide into water and oxygen. It can process 5 million hydrogen per-oxides in one minute.

Enzymes are natural:
Enzymes are protein. Like all protein they are organic.

Sources of enzyme:

  1. Fungus
  2. Panhilias
  3. Bacteria
  4. Sea-stone etc.

Enzyme and their attacking zone:

Name Attacking zone
Amylase Amylase splits into dextrin and sugar.
Cellulase Degrades cellulose to soluble  products
Pectinase Degrade pectin
Catalase Convert hydrogen per oxide to water and oxygen.
Lipase Splits fats into glycerol and fatty acid.

Enzyme Mechanism:
First suggested by Emil Fischer in 1890s. Enzymes—-particular shape substrate fit exact lu like ‘Lock and key’ Model. The active centers in the enzymes (Fissures, Holes, pockets, cavities or Hollows) form complex with the substrate the bio-reaction in this complex and its destruction release of original enzymes and the product.

Textile Enzyme (Cellulose):
Some of the Enzymes that we formulate are SIGMA ZYME AG, SIGMA ZYME AG–C, SIGMA ZYME CONC, SIGMA CLARE PK, SIGMA ZYME BP and others too. These Enzymes find usage in various areas like textiles, polishing of knits and others. These Enzymes are usable in fashion industry as well. Go through the table to find other details regarding our range of Enzymes.

SIGMA ZYME AG A powerful enzyme system to remove the starch from the sized textiles
SIGMA ZYME AG—C High temperature and high activity desizing enzyme
SIGMA ZYME CONC High activity α or α-amylase enzyme in concentrated form
SIGMA CLARE PK Enzyme based formulation to eliminate residual peroxide after bleaching
SIGMA ZYME BP Specialty enzyme formulation for effective bio polishing without color loss
SIGMA FED Liq High abrasion enzyme for denims
SIGMA ZYME ACX Concentrated acid Cellulase for bio-polishing of knits
SIGMA ZYME CONC Biopolishing and fading specialty with powerful activity for fashion industry.

Product Description:
Listed on the main board of Hong Kong Stock Exchange, We are one of the biggest manufactures and exporters that offer the textile auxiliaries with high quality. Our main products are softener flakes (cationic, anionic and nonionic), silicone emulsion, cellulose enzymes etc. We have set up far-flung distribution networks in mainland China, HK and throughout SE-Asia. The advanced product establishments, strong RandD capability, strict quality control, perfects after sale service; all lead us to be succeeded.

enzyme wash

Cellulase–Global LC:

  • Appearance: Amber liquid
  • Main Features: smooth and consistent appearance while minimizing dye release and fabric strength loss.

Technical conditions and applications:

  • pH value: 4.5-5.0;
  • Temperature: 50-55ºC,

Suitable for cotton, T/C and linen fabrics produce s a smooth and consistent appearance while minimizing dye release and fabric strength loss.

Neutral Bio-Wash Enzymes:
The small fibers or fibrils protruding from the fabric render a fuzzy surface and the gradual entanglement of fibrils results in the formation of pills when a garment is worn and washed. Removal of surface fibrils improves fabric quality, keeping the garment in good form for a longer time. The use of Cellulases, combined with the synergistic action of the processing machines, is effective in removing the fibrils, leading to permanent improvement of fabric quality, including cleaner and smoother surface, softer hand and improved fabric drape. This treatment, called bio-polishing, is widely used today in garment processing and in batch processing of woven and knitted fabrics.

Neutral Stone Wash Enzymes:
The popularity of denim garments increased as new garment wet processes changed denim’s look and feel from the hard, dark blue garments used as work wear into soft and smooth fashion items with an abraded look. Surprisingly, this look earlier achieved by using pumice stones. Nowadays, also can be attained using Cellulase enzymes. Cellulases loosen the surface fibers of the denim garment so that mechanical action in a washing machine breaks the surface to remove the indigo dye, revealing the white core of the ring-dyed yarns. The most denim garments are “stonewashed” using Cellulases, either alone or in combination with a reduced amount of stones.

You may also like: Stone Washing Process of Denim Fabric

The Cellulases resulted in increased washing capacity for the power laundries, and reduced damage to garments as well as to washing machines, in addition to diminish environmental effects from pumice stone mining and disposal of used pumice.

Objectives:

  1. To find out the wash fastness properties of enzyme treated fabric.
  2. To find out the perspiration fastness properties for enzyme treated fabric to represents the rubbing fastness for enzymes treated fabric.
  3. To make results about the characteristics of enzyme treated fabric on different concentration and pH
  4. Final objective is to find out the neutral cellulase’s characteristics on fabric in different concentration and Ph.
  5. To contribute our industrial sector through our research.
  6. To find out the shade variation of different fabric treated with different concentrated enzyme.

Materials and Methods

1. Scouring and bleaching:

  • Fabric type: S/J knitted fabric
  • GSM: 160
  • Sample wt.: 10g

Recipe:

  • NaOH—5g/L
  • H2O2—5g/l
  • Wetting agent—2g/l
  • Sequestering agent—2g/l
  • Stabilizer—2g/l
  • M: L—1:15
  • Temp-105˚C
  • Time—50 min

2. Enzyme:

  • Brand name: N-200/N-2000
  • pH:7
  • Type: Neutral enzyme
  • M:L-1:10
  • Temp: 40-60ºC
  • Time: 1hr

Wash:

  • Temp-70ºC
  • Time-10min

Data Representation of Enzyme:

Serial no. Original sample weight ( g) Weight after scouring(g) Weight after enzyme treat(g) Concentration of enzyme (%) Concentration grade
1 10 9.02 8.82 1% LOW(N-200)
2 10 9.16 9.08 1%
3 10 9.25 9.11 1.2%
4 10 9.24 9.14 1.2%
 5 10 9.14 8.98 1.4%
6 10 9.15 9.03 1.4%
7 10 9.06 8.94 0.5%
8 10 8.99 8.93 0.5%
9 10 9.45 9.35 0.6%
10 10 9.07 9.00 0.6%
11 10 9.17 8.99 0.8%
12 10 9.30 9.10 0.8%

Washing and Color fastness:

Recipe:

  • Anhydrous sodium carbonate….2g/L
  • ISO Standard soap………………….5g/L
  • M:L…….1:5
  • Temp…….60ºC

Perspiration test:

  • Di -sodium hydrogen orthophosphate di hydrate….2.5g/L
  • L -Histidine hydrochloride monohydrate………….0.5g/L
  • Sodium chloride…….5g/L
  • Time………….4 hrs.
  • Temp……..37ºC

Rubbing test:

  • MTL………. rubbing paper
  • 1-10 times rub
  • Process: wet and dry

Result and Discussions
1. Neutral cellulose

  • Low concentration
  • High concentration

CIE Lab data Observation:

Low conc. Acid Cellulose L* a* b* DL* Da* Db* DE Comments
0.8% 50.90 49.17 1.58
0.6% 51.92 48.36 0.69 1.10 -1.16 -0.85 1.81 0.8 vs 0.6
0.5% 51.50 48.90 1.34 0.62 -0.42 -0.23 0.78 0.8 vs 0.

Neutral Enzyme after washing with assessing change in color

Neutral enzyme

Neutral Enzyme Low Concentration:

Brighter Whiter Whiter Index Yellowish
Untreated 62.66 7.85
1.4 g/l 75.98 62.33 62.33 7.63
1.2 g/l 75.85 62.18 62.18 7.66
1.0 g/l 75.97 59.76 59.76 8.92
  ≈

Future Scope
We did not find any alkaline enzymes. So it’s a great place here to find out the alkaline enzyme. Alkaline enzyme hopefully would be revolution on wet processing.

If we can use enzyme not only for pretreatment but also for dyeing, it would be beneficial. Since they can react with weak point of cellulose, may be it would be possible for enzyme react with the basic structures of cellulose.

We did not research about the shade variation and dye take up% for different enzyme treated cellulose. What would be happened we don’t know, that can find out in future project?

Conclusion

  1. We have less time that’s why we could not narrate our research deeply
  2. More shortage of raw materials and chemicals.
  3. Industries are not helpful to us, so we could not implement our research in practically.
  4. Problem of economic bound us within great limitations.
  5. It can replace the harmful chemical as eco-friendly.

You may also like:

  1. Denim Enzyme Wash Process
  2. Application of Enzyme in Textile Wet Processing Technology
  3. Application of Enzymes in Textile Processing
  4. Effects of Various Enzymes on Denim Garment Washing
  5. Enzyme Stone Wash Process of Garments

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