3D Fabric: Features, Classification, Production Method & Uses

There will always be new innovations in the world. The textile sector does not shy away from this possibility. New innovations are constantly being made in the textile sector. Similarly 3D Fabric is a significant innovation in the textile sector.

The fabric is usually measured in three dimensions and the material of the fabric is arranged in such a way that it looks as if it has three intersecting pieces in a flat bed. In other words, a three dimensional fabric is a fabric that is basically made by combining three vertical yarns.

What is 3D fabric?

3D fabric is a fabric that is basically a combination of three orthogonal yarns. Two-dimensional fabrics are made by combining two orthogonal yarns, but three-dimensional fabrics are made by three orthogonal yarns. Although 1 shedding mechanism is used for 2D fabric weaving, 2 shedding mechanism is used for 3D fabric weaving. In the case of 3D fabrics, there are two separate layers of fabric that are joined together by microfilament.  This space in the middle is usually formed by a monofilament of polyester. 3D-Fabrics are basically solid with a hollow structure and thin multiple layers. Although we see more use of two-dimensional fabric in our daily life, in the current context, the use of three-dimensional fabric is noticeable.  Its use in current technical textiles is eye-catching. This 3D fabric is mainly used in the production of industrial fabrics.  This fabric is also used to provide high quality security in protective clothing. Spacer fabric used in various fields of textile is made with 3D fabric.

3d mesh fabric
Fig: 3D mesh fabric

Features of 3D fabrics:
Features of 3D fabrics are point out below:

  1. This fabric can reduce the pressure applied on it by about 50 percent and spread it all over the surface.
  2. The air permeability is 4700 L / S.M2 which means that 4800 litres of air can circulate through this fabric per square meter per second.
  3. This fabric is quite comfortable.
  4. This fabric can be easily washed and cleaned and dries quickly.
  5. Not harmful to the environment
  6. Easily portable.
3D-fabric bra
Fig: Bra of 3D fabric

Classification of 3D fabric:
3D fabric can be classify in different ways. They are given below.

Classification of 3D fabrics based on geometric structure:

  • 3D Solid which is about multilayer, orthogonal, angle interlock.
  • 3D Hollow that is flat surface, uneven surface.
  • 3D shell

Classification of 3D fabrics based on weave combination:

  • 3D Nodal

3D Solid Structure (Orthogonal):
It is based on straight yarns. Warp and weft yarn manage fabric thickness. This structure is more greater volume fraction than others.

3D Solid Structure (Warp Interlock):
It is a multilayer fabric. This fabric is used for reinforcing flat panels.

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3D Solid Structure (Angle Interlock):
It is based on individual layers. Each layer is difference between one another. It structures ranges from two to four layers.

3D Hollow Structure:

  • Flat surface where three or more layers of fabric are used, the upper and lower layers will be woven with a longer length than the upper and lower layers of the connecting layer.
  • Uneven layer-adjacent layers of fabric are combined and separated at system breaks also.

3D Shell Structure:

  • Combinations can be seen in weaving.
  • Take up difference, mould welding etc also perform there.

By Weave Combination:
In this process it is noticed that concentric rings were planned. Gradient change of weave was devoted in the areas between two adjacent rings.

By Moulding:
Double curved surface can mould most flat woven fabrics.

By Differential Take Up:
One piece take up roller was replaced by one made up. It is totally controlled by electronically method. It is performed individual take up movement.

3D Nodal Structure:
3D Nodal fabric supports a network of different cylindrical or rigid members joined together.

Production method of 3D fabrics:
Production method of 3D-fabrics are given bellow:

  1. First of all Stitching Operation system.
  2. Secondly Multi layer principle system.
  3. Thirdly Orthogonal principle system.
  4. Fourth Angle Interlock principle system.
  5. Five Dual Direction shedding method system.

Uses of 3D fabric:
The use of 3D fabric started from the limitations of 2D fabric in various works.  Both production cost and production time are less subject to 2D fabric. This fabric can circulate 4600 litres of air per second. It can spread the applied pressure on it by up to 50 percent on its four sided surface which plays a helpful role in the formation of many complex structures. This fabric is relatively easy to carry and very environmental friendly. 3D fabric provides better mechanical properties than 2D fabric.

3d-fabric dress
Fig: 3D-fabric dress

Important uses of 3D fabrics are given below:

  1. This use can be seen everywhere from technical textiles to motor engineering.
  2. It is also used very successfully in various industries and in various complex structures.
  3. Aeronautics: Missiles, rockets, satellites have significant use.
  4. Protective clothing: It is used in body armours, bulletproof shoes, etc.
  5. Houseware: 3D mattress, 3D pillow, 3D jag mats are widely used.
  6. Baby products: baby sleeping pads, pillows, mats etc.
  7. Medical mattress and car ventilation systems, seat covers, cushions and various construction work, including its use in various sectors of the textile.

It goes without saying that the use of 3D-fabric is increasing day by day in today’s world and it is also taking its place in a wide range of technical textiles. 3D fabrics are now being used in many textile fields to overcome the disadvantages of 2D fabrics. This fabric is not only beautiful to look at, but is also used in the construction of aircraft and other complex structures. Currently the use of 3D fabric in technical textiles is increasing day by day.


  1. Advances in 3D Textiles edited by Xiaogang Chen
  2. https://www.intechopen.com/books/non-woven-fabrics/3d-fabrics-for-technical-textile-applications
  3. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/3D_composites
  4. https://www.textiletoday.com.bd/prospect-3d-fabric-global-fashion-industry/
  5. https://textum.com/3d-fabric/

Author of this Article:
Nazifa Tabassum
B.Sc. in Clothing and Textile
College of Home Economics, Dhaka
Email: nazifa.099@gmail.com

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